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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17137 matches for " growth form "
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On the Closed-Form Solution to the Endogenous Growth Model with Habit Formation  [PDF]
Ryoji Hiraguchi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.24064
Abstract: We study the AK growth model with external habit formation. We show that there exists a unique solution path expressed in terms of the Gauss hypergeometric function. Using the closed-form solution, we also show that the optimal path converges to a balanced growth path.
Effects of environmental factors on Sparganium emersum and Sparganium erectum colonization in two drainage ditches with different maintenance  [PDF]
Korehisa Kaneko, Hiroshi Jinguji
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.34064
Abstract: In the Niheishimizu and Ooshimizu sections of the town of Misato in the Akita Prefecture, Northern Japan, there are many abundant spring water areas. Sparganium (Sparganium emersum and Sparganium erectum) species are widely distributed in the irrigation water that fed by spring water. The irrigation waters were divided the natural type ditch and the maintained ditch that connect with nearby natural ditch to promote environmentally friendly agriculture. This study was conducted in both sections to support the maintenance of the irrigation water fed by the abundant spring water. A vegetation survey was conducted in September of 2005. The survey collected data on the amount of vegetation cover and the stem lengths of the plant species found in selected locations of the study area. The water depths and the flow velocities were also measured in these locations. As for the growth situation of S. emersum and S. erectum, the submerged form of S. emersum was found in water approximately 15 cm deep with a surface flow velocity of approximately 7 cm/s. This species was characterised by a relatively fast flow and relatively shallow water. The emergent and submerged growth forms of S. emersum were found in waters having flow velocities faster than those associated with S. erectum. The emergent form of S. emersum grew in relatively deep water. S. emersum is more capable of adjusting to the conditions of stream habitats than S. erectum.
FORMA DE CRECIMIENTO Y CARACTERES ADAPTATIVOS DE DOLICHANDRA CYNANCHOIDES CHAM. (BIGNONIACEAE)
Grosso,M.; Kraus,T.;
Gayana. Botánica , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-66432001000200007
Abstract: the objective of this work is to study the growth form of dolichandra cynanchoides, species characteristic of the hilly forest (province of córdoba - argentina) in order to analize adaptive characters. the studies were carried out in the field during three consecutive years, and in greenhouse the first two years of development. the growth form of this species is determined by the presence and combination of the following characters: perennial liana, cryptohypogeous germination, predominantly orthotropic aerial shoots and slightly plagiotropic subterranean stems, thyrse synflorescences with partial dichasial florescences, tap root and adventitious roots.the stem shows unusual structure that makes it flexible and allows it to climb. one of the limiting factors is the water supply due to pronounced slopes and incipient soils. therefore, this species developed subterranean structures to accumulate water and to regulate its hydric balance. the leaves have xeromorphic features which limit their transpiration
Riqueza e estratifica??o vertical de epífitas vasculares na Esta??o Ecológica de Jataí: área de Cerrado no Sudeste do Brasil
Bataghin, Fernando Antonio;Muller, Adelcio;Pires, José Salatiel Rodrigues;Barros, Fábio de;Fushita, Angela Terumi;Scariot, Eliziane Carla;
Hoehnea , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2236-89062012000400008
Abstract: the richness and vertical stratification of vascular epiphytes was studied in jataí ecological station (eej), s?o paulo state, brazil. a total of 1,574 epiphytes were recorded, corresponding to 29 species, 20 genera, and seven families. angiosperms were represented by 23 species and pteridophytes by six species. the characteristic form, holoepiphytes, was dominant in the area (93.1%). epiphytes specialists were most common in the area, contributing with about 55% of species (17% trunk epiphytes and 38% canopy epiphytes); generalist species contributed 42%, and hemiepiphytes, with 3%. the intermediate zones had the highest number of species and more number of records. there was a significant difference among species that comprise the lower zones and the upper zones in the host trees. the richness and distribution of epiphytes are determined by some climatic factors, but the moisture and light intensity are the most important regulatory factors in the cerrado area researched.
Plant community variation across a puna landscape in the Chilean Andes
LAMBRINOS,JOHN G; KLEIER,CATHERINE C; RUNDEL,PHILIP W;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2006000200009
Abstract: we describe patterns of plant species and growth form abundance in the puna vegetation of parque nacional lauca, chile. at more than 4,300 m, the extreme habitat of the study site supported relatively few species. these few species, however, represented a diverse array of growth forms that were organized with respect to distinct environmental gradients. both species richness and growth form diversity increased with the degree of habitat rockiness and on more xeric north and east facing slopes. these xeric, rocky sites supported the greatest overall abundance of cushion forms. less rocky sites with more soil development supported a greater abundance of tussock grass and shrub forms. congeneric species occupied distinct microhabitats and were often markedly divergent in growth form. these patterns suggest that water and thermal stress are critical forces shaping functional form as well as community organization in the high andean puna
Linear growth of Balkhash perch Perca schrenki Kessler in the waters of the Balkhash-Ili basin
Tsoy Vyacheslav Nickolaevich,Asylbekova Saule Zhangirovna
Vestnik of Astrakhan State Technical University. Series: Fishing Industry , 2012,
Abstract: Balkhash perch (Perca schrenki Kessler), being endemic to the Balkhash-Ili basin in the late 60 s of the last century, has lost its commercial value in Lake Balkhash. Currently, the population of this species, entered into the Red Book of the International Committee on Nature Protection and the Red Book of Kazakhstan, is gradually restored. This fact conditioned the resumption of monitoring studies in the course of which it was confirmed that at present time the Balkhash-Ili perch population is characterized by a definite growth delineation of the fast growing lake (pelagic) and slow growing reed (coastal) ecological forms.
Effect of phytase with or without multienzyme supplementation on performance and nutrient digestibility of young broiler chicks fed mash or crumble diets
Youssef Attia,Walid El-Tahawy,Abd El-Hamid E. Abd El-Hamid,Saber Hassan
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2012.e56
Abstract: A total of 210 unsexed 1-day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were wing banded and randomly distributed among 30 cages of 7 birds per cage keeping equal initial BW during days 1-20 of age. A factorial design (2×3) was used in which there were two feed forms (mash vs crumble diet) and three enzyme treatments (unsupplemented, phytase, phytase plus multienzyme). Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 7 chicks per replicate. Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fed chicks were significantly improved when the crumble diet was administered. However, feed intake of chicks fed on the crumble feeds was significantly lower than those fed the mash diet. Digestibility of ether extract and crude fiber was significantly greater in groups fed the crumble diet than those fed the mash diet. Enzyme supplementation significantly and similarly increased growth and production index, and improved FCR. Also greater digestibility of crude protein and crude ash was observed but growth during days 8-14 days of age and crude fibre digestibility were significantly greater in those chicks receiving the multienzyme plus phytase supplement than those receiving phytase alone. Crumble feed supplemented with multienzyme resulted in the highest performance and nutrient digestibility of broilers during days 1-20 of age.
Exigência de metionina+cistina para aves de reposi??o leves e semipesadas de 1 a 4 semanas de idade alimentadas com ra??es farelada e triturada
Silva, Edson Lindolfo da;Silva, José Humberto Vilar da;Bertechini, Ant?nio Gilberto;Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Jord?o Filho, José;Pucci, Luiz Eduardo Avelar;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000300015
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the total methionine+cystine requirements in function of crushed and ground diets and pullet strain (light and semi-heavy) from 1 to 4 weeks of age. one thousand and sixty 1-day-old pullets were used as follows: 800 dekalb white pullets and 800 bovans goldline pullets, weighting 34.52 ± 0.26 g and 36.41 ± 0.22 g, respectively. the experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 × 2 × 2 factorial scheme (0.65; 0.70; 0.75; 0.80 and 0.85% total met+cys × pullet strain × two physical forms), with twenty treatments, four repetitions of twenty birds. the basal diet was supplemented with dl-met (99%) to provide five total met+cys levels. the experimental rations presented the same contents for me (2.900 kcal/kg), cp (21%), ca (0.94%) and available p (0.44%). the total feed consumption (tfc), daily feed consumption (dfc), total weight gain (twg), daily weight gain (dwg) and feed conversion (fc) were measured up to 28 days of age. the averages were analyzed through the f test and regression model. sh strain presented better tfc, dfc, twg, dwg and fc. the crushed ration provided better twg, dwg and fc for both strains. the met+cys levels affected twg, dwg and fc in a linear way. semi-heavy pullets presented better performance than light pullets. the ground diet improved twg, dwg and fc of light and sh pullets from 1 to 4 weeks of age. supplementation with 0.85% of met+cys is recommended for light and semi-heavy pullets from 1 to 4 weeks of age or average met+cys consumption of 159 and 174 mg, respectively.
Reproduction of Leishmania (Leishmania ) infantum chagasi in conditioned cell culture growth medium
Nogueira, Yeda L.;Galati, Eunice A.B.;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652006000300006
Abstract: leishmanias can be produced by inoculation in conditioned mccoy cell culture growth medium (cgm). leishmania (leishmania) infantum chagasi (100 parasites) grown in nnn medium was inoculated in 2.5 ml cgm, kept in plates (24 wells) and its multiplication was observed for five days (120 hours). after day 5, the medium was saturated with the flagellate forms of the parasite (promastigotes). the reproduction of the leishmanias was observed every 24 hours and the number of parasites was calculated by counting the parasites in a drop of 10 μ l and photomicrographied. so the number of leishmanias was adjusted to 1 ml volume. the advantage of the technique by isolation of leishmania in cgm demonstrated in this study is its low cost and high efficacy even with a small quantity of parasites (102 promastigotes) used as inoculum. additionally, isolation of the leishmania can be obtained together with an increase in their density (180 times) as observed by growth kinetics, within a shorter time. these results justify the use of this low-cost technique for the isolation and investigation of the behavior and multiplication of leishmania both in vertebrates and invertebrates, besides offering means of obtaining antigens, whether whole antigens (leishmanias) or the soluble antigens produced by the parasites which may be useful for the production of new diagnostic kits.
Ecological and Biological Properties of Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) on the Island of Rab
Milan Or?ani?,Damir Drvodeli?,Damir Ugarkovi?
Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: This paper deals with ecological and biological properties of Holm Oak trees (Quercus ilex L.) on the Island of Rab. Forest ecosystems are influenced by numerous local meteorological and climatic conditions. In spring 2006 four experimental plots (2x2 m), one in the middle forest (both seed and coppiced trees) and three in coppices of different age and structure, were established on the Island of Rab.Rotronic hygromers for measuring air temperature (°C), relative air humidity (%), wet bulb temperature (°C) and dewpoint/frostpoint (oC) were placed on two sites (middle forest and coppice). The values were measured from May 2006 to May 2007. Lux-meter was used for measuring relative light intensity. In 2006 soil humidity (%) was measured five times with Theta Probes model ML2x at the average depth of Holm Oak seedling rooting. On three occasions 30 Holm Oak seedlings were samples for root analysis. The scanner Epson Expression 10000XL and software WinRHIZO ProLA2400 for the analysis of washed roots were used to determine the total root length (cm), average root diameter (mm), volume (cm3), number of tips (pcs), forks (pcs) and crossings (pcs). In order to determine the natural mortality, the seedlings and young plants of Holm Oak were counted on ten occasions during the three years of research (in 2006, 2007 and 2008). The seedling heights were measured at the end of the germination phase and at the end of the first growing season.Minimum air temperature in coppice was lower compared to the middle forest. Microclimatic conditions in coppice are less favorable for the growth and development of vegetation than those in the middle forest. Coppice has higher air temperature and lower relative air humidity compared to the microclimate in the middle forest. Large numbers of natural Holm Oak seedlings and young plants were recorded on all the four experimental plots, which can be attributed to favorable climatic factors influencing the yield on the Island of Rab. A large number of seedlings was obtained in coppice (480,000 – 1,190,000 pcs/ha) compared to the middle forest (465,000 pcs), which can be attributed to the age of the stand, i.e. the size of the fructifying trees and the shrub cover. There is a great variability between the four experimental plots with respect to the end of germination (4/7 – 3/10). The germination of Holm Oak seedlings in the middle forest reached its peak earlier (4 July 2006) than in the coppice (31 July 3 October), which implies the presence of better microclimatic site conditions. On some experimental plots Holm Oak acorns were germ
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