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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4749 matches for " gross domestic product "
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Problems to Be Faced Measuring Real Income per Capita: The Case of Mexico  [PDF]
Carlos Encinas-Ferrer
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.63020
Abstract: The last 35 years have been characterized, worldwide, for lack of economic growth and increasing inequality in income distribution and its concentration. This has resulted in increased poverty and falling purchasing power of the middle classes, which has become the most serious problem with which we enter the twenty-first century. Mexico has been no exception. This article covers the first part of the research I’m doing in the 9th. Researchers call for 2015-2016 of the De La Salle University Bajio in Leon, Mexico. In the second part I will discuss inequality in income deciles in which is statistically divided our population and the way in which the concentration of income in fewer hands is affecting the market performance. This research has required having historical series covering the last 57 years of economic and population growth in Mexico. Measure the evolution of gross domestic product (GDP) from the beginning of the presidential terms from 1959 to 2015. It has been problematic since in Mexico there are not series covering the entire period. I had to go to the World Bank data (WB) which provides them from 1960. We found discrepancies in GDP series between those of WB, International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Organization (UNO) and the National Institute of Geography and Statistics (INEGI) from Mexico. The second difficulty appeared in the series of the population of our country. There are also discrepancies between census data and estimates of the same INEGI. Moreover, the series of WB and Penn World Table (PWT) also show differences between them. Converting the results of real GDP per capita to dollars had no difficulty due to information from the Mexican Central Bank (BM). The conversionto interccnational dollars as estimated by the purchasing power parity (PPP) was obtained from PWT 8.1.
A Modified Consumer Price Index  [PDF]
Gonglin Yuan, Xiangrong Li
Modern Economy (ME) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/me.2010.12011
Abstract: It is well known that the Consumer Price Index (CPI), as a Laspeyrestype index, attempts to measure the average change in the prices paid by urban consumers for a fixed market of goods and services, and new samples for most item categories are routinely introduced over time to keep the CPI sample representative of consumer spending patterns. The CPI normally overstates the true rate of increase of the cost of living. In this paper, our main objective is to propose a new measurement in the CPI which combines with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This new method will make the bias effectively decreased.
Relationship between the Environment and Economic Growth in China via Exports: A Perspective of Ecological Impact (2000-2014)  [PDF]
Guillermo Velázquez Valadez, Jiaqi Hu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.711136
China’s swift and substantial economic growth over the past 20 years has made the country one of the top industrial powers in the world, second only the United States. From the perspective of ecology and the impact on the environment produced by economic and industrial growth, the exports that have driven rapid growth have also resulted in an alarming level of environmental pollution in major Chinese cities. Research has shown that the Chinese government’s investment in bringing down pollution levels has been insufficient and ineffective. The monetary amount allocated for pollution reduction has barely reached 0.15% of the country’s GDP and has failed to meaningfully reverse the effects of industrialization, including increased exports and economic growth rates affecting China’s ecology. The present study investigated China’s ecological situation in terms of the industrial production that has generated its level of exports, with special focus on problems related to water, air, and solid waste. An econometric analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between the main variables. The exports and GDP (dependent variable), air pollution, water pollution, and industrial solid waste (independent variables) were provided by the Institute of Statistics and the Environment Institute of China for this study. The data was managed in Econometric Eviews 7.0 software and yielded an adjusted R2 of 96.09% (high correlation) with an interesting correlation between the exports and three independent variables; after subsequent variable analysis, we found that investments in water and industrial solid waste were not significant (i.e., that said investments have failed to solve the pollution problem). It is necessary to review the Chinese investment policy with special attention to these variables to appropriately respond to China’s ecological crisis.
Do Macroeconomic Indicators Stimulate FDI Inflows in India?  [PDF]
M. C. Minimol
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.77144
Abstract: The current study mainly attempts to find out whether macroeconomic indicators actually stimulate the inflow of FDI into India. The study also attempted to check whether there is any long run or short run relationship between the macroeconomic indicators and FDI inflows into the country using regression analysis, Cointegration test, Granger causality and Vector error correction model. The results show that the explanatory variables captured in the model well explained the variations in FDI Inflows. However, not all the explanatory variables considered in the model are statistically significant in explaining the behavior of FDI. Unrestricted Cointegration Trace statistic and Max-Eigen statistics supports the existence of cointegrating relationship among the variables. The study also shows that SENSEX and NIFTY do granger cause FDI in the long run while, FDI does not granger cause neither of the two. S Vector Error Correction Model supports the absence of short-run relationship among the macroeconomic indicators and FDI inflows in India.
Temperature Based Spatiotemporal Growth Monitoring of Rice Plant from Germination-Ripening Stage Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques  [PDF]
S. M. H. Raza, S. A. Mahmood, H. Batool, T. J. Shad, S. Alvi, F. Waseems, M. Atif Butt, S. Shehzad Hassan, Ali Imam Mirza
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2018.71001
Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa) is the second staple food largely grown and widely consumed in Pakistan. About 10% of the total crop area of Pakistan is cultivated by rice that takes a part in value addition of almost 1.3% - 1.6% in the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Due to global warming, temperature has a profound impact on rice crop phenology. Low temperature is the main factor of delay in rice plant growth and very high temperature results in stressed and short heighted plant so the crop sown in a region at the same time is not ready to harvest at same hours but a delay is observed. The study area under investigation was district Sheikhupura, Nankana, Lahore, Gujranawala and Hafizabad, which are famous for rice productivity. Landsat 7, 8 freely available thermal dataset are used to calculated pixel based temperature values to evaluate growth using agricultural growth indicators. The total covered area was 13,480 km2 in which 484 km2 area was marked as less growth rate area with low temperature values due to water body and excess of vegetation over there. About 7960 km2 area is marked as good for growth experiencing optimum temperature for rice plant. Approximately 4944 km2 area is marked as stressed rice plant area experiencing high temperature values adjacent to urban population. An attempt is made here to map this effect of temperature-based growth variability of the rice plant across the study area.
An Econometric Analysis of the Determinants of Private Consumption in Cote d’Ivoire  [PDF]
Yaya Keho
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94061
Abstract: This study investigates the determinants of private consumption expenditure in Cote d’Ivoire using time series data from 1970 to 2016. The Autoregressive Distributed Lags bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to depict the presence of a long run relationship between private consumption and its determinants and an error correction model is estimated to derive short run dynamics. The results show the presence of a long run relationship among the selected variables. In the long run, current income, wealth and government consumption expenditure play a positive role in determining private consumption, with the effect of current income being higher. Furthermore, consumption expenditure is negatively affected by inflation rate and real interest rate on deposits. In the short run, only income and wealth appear to have positive effects on private consumption while the effects of government consumption, inflation and interest rate were found to be insignificant. This study provides evidence for government to improve the level of private consumption.
El capitalismo rentístico Elementos cuantitativos de la economía venezolana
Cuadernos del Cendes , 2005,
Abstract: abstract from 1920 on, venezuelan economy has rested on a structure based on the oil rent as its main determinant. it seems proper, then, to put it a name and talk about ?rental capital?. with an operative definition of oil rent that allows for a new accounting concept as its core support-the nonrental gross domestic product-this article strives to characterize it quantitatively in terms of some particularly relevant indicators such as: national income-gross domestic product ratio, relative size of public employment, real exchange rate development, and consumption-income ratio, among others. particularly significant is the degree of imbalance in the crucial capital-output ratio, which points out the rental capitalism collapse
Medical Publications (2002-2009) of Islamic Countries; A Medline-Based Study Compared To Non-Islamic Countries
Esmaeil Habibi,Zohreh Mirhosseini,Mousa Majidi
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Background: The number of scientific publication by a countryis an important indication of its science generation and development.The aim of this study was to compare the publicationsin medical sciences of Islamic countries from 2002-2009with those of a number of developed countries.Methods: The PubMed and CIA World Fact Book were used toextract the number of publications and socioeconomic status oftarget countries, respectively. The number of publications, publicationsper million population, gross domestic product (GDP)per capita, population below poverty line (PBP) and type ofpublications of the countries were compared.Results: The publications of Islamic countries increased from6906 in 2002 to 21656 in 2009. There was a positive correlationbetween GDP per capita and publication per million. However,publication productivity did not decrease significantly with theincrease of PBP. Turkey and Iran were top two among Islamiccountries in terms of the number of publications and growth ofthe rate of scientific publication, respectively. Islamic countriesdo lag behind developed countries in terms of the number ofpublication and the rate of growth.Conclusion: There is a wide gap between developed and Islamiccountries and among Islamic countries themselves interms of the number and the rate of growth of publication inmedical sciences.
Mary Modupe Fasoranti
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues , 2012,
Abstract: The paper examined the effects of government expenditures on infrastructure on the growth of the Nigerian economy. The data sourced majorly from the various issues of Central Bank statistical bulletin was analyzed with the aid of econometric methods. Data collected included government expenditures on education, environment and housing, health services, transport and communication, agriculture, security, inflation rate and gross domestic product. Data treatment methods used was the unit root test, co-integration and vector error correction estimation. Simple multiple regression model was used to obtain the results used for the analysis. Results showed a long run relationship between the growth of the economy and government expenditures in education, environment and housing, health services, water resources, inflation rate, agriculture, security, transport and communication. The paper observed that government expenditures on health services, transport and communication imparted negatively on growth while expenditures in agriculture and security were not significant in the growth of the economy. To increase the growth rate of the economy, the government must adopt stringent controls on its expenditures on infrastructure so as to reduce fraud, fund diversion and mismanagement. Moreover, monitoring and evaluation of government spending must be given top priority. This will help to ensure that the targets of government spending are reached.
Determinants of Bank Deposits in Ghana: Does Interest Rate Liberalization Matters?  [PDF]
Eric Kofi Boadi, Yao Li, Victor Curtis Lartey
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.69094
Abstract: This research paper examines the effect of interest rate liberalization on bank deposits in a developing country Ghana. A deposit function model was specified with long term deposit as the main dependent variable with real savings rate, real treasury bill rate, exchange rate movement and gross domestic product as independent variables while controlling for inflation. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method was used to estimate the specified model which covered seasonally adjusted quarterly data drawn from Bank of Ghana and Ghana Statistical Service. The data were input into a spreadsheet and exported into Econometric View 7 which was used for processing the data. The results of the study revealed that the interest rate liberalization and gross domestic product jointly accounted for about 78% of the variation in the level of bank savings deposits in Ghana. The study has also shown that the liberalization of the interest rates has made it attractive for people with idle funds to save with financial institutions especially the banks. It also revealed a negative relationship between real savings rate and the real treasury bill rate expected in a high inflationary environment. All the independent variables were significant. It is therefore recommended that the Bank of Ghana remains resilience on interest rate liberalization so that surplus funds can be made available for investors and also to reduce the level of inflation in Ghana.
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