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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3633 matches for " goat milk "
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Composition of Triacylglycerols in Fats of Cow and Goat Milk Produced in Four Zones of Mexico  [PDF]
Rey Gutiérrez Tolentino, Salvador Vega y León, Mario Noa Pérez, Marta Coronado Herrera, Acacia Ramírez Ayala, José Jesús Pérez González, Beatriz Schettino Bermúdez, Rutilio Ortiz Salinas, Marcela Vazquez Francisca, Juan Gabriel Rivera Martínez
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.66058
Abstract: The study of the triacylglycerols (TAG) by gas chromatography (GC) using capillary columns is an efficient technique for the determination of some characteristics of quality of fats and oils. The objective of the present study was to determine by GC the content of TAG present in fat of cow and goat milk produced in four zones of Mexico. According to criteria established in Mexican Standardization, 25 samples were obtained of 1 L of ultra-pasteurized cow milk (UHT) and 27 and 48 of raw cow and goat milk, respectively. The fat was extracted from all of the milk samples by detergent solution, and was stored at 20 until its analysis. The chromatographic conditions made it possible to identify and quantify TAG of 28 to 54 numbers of carbons, which were analyzed under descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. For the cow milk fat, the statistical analyses indicated significant difference (p < 0.05) in the TAG C34, C50 and C52, and for the goat milk fat in the TAG of C36 to C52. No equality of means was found among the TAG of the cow and goat milk fat. This study offers an advance in the characterization of the TAG present in the cow and goat milk fat produced in Mexico.
The Effects of a Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp on Milk Fat Synthesis and the Expression of Fat Synthesis-Related Genes in the Mammary Gland Tissues of Lactating Goats  [PDF]
Xueyan Lin, Guimei Liu, Yabin Zhang, Zhengui Yan, Qiuling Hou, Kerong Shi, Yun Wang, Zhonghua Wang
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2016.74020
Abstract: To determine whether insulin exerts an effect on milk fat yield through the direct regulation of milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland, the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure was performed in lactating goats in the present study. The effects of the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp on milk yield, milk composition, milk fatty acid yield and the expression levels of mRNAs of milk fat synthesis-related genes were examined. The results revealed that the hyperinsulinemiceuglycemic clamp had no significant effect on the milk yield, the milk protein yield, the yield and content of lactose or the yield and content of solids-not-fat (SNF) (P > 0.05). In contrast, the milk fat percentage and milk fat yield were decreased by 35.3% and 33.6%, respectively (P < 0.01). Among the 19 fatty acids examined, the yields of 9 fatty acids were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) following the clamp procedure, including C16:0 (hexadecanoic acid), 3 fatty acids derived from blood (>C16) and 5 fatty acids synthesized de novo in the mammary gland ( 0.05), including acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acidbinding protein (FABP), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). However, the expression level of the SCD gene was significantly reduced during the post-procedure period (P < 0.05) but returned to a normal level at 48 h after termination of the clamp procedure. It was concluded that the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp exerted a direct effect on milk fatty acid desaturation.
Control of Ewe and Goat Cheeses Labelling on the Croatian Market  [PDF]
Jasminka ?poljari?, Dijana Plavljani?, Biljana Radeljevi?, Iva Horvat Kesi?, Neven Antunac, Jasmina Havranek, Nata?a Mikulec
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.84026
Abstract: The aim of the research was to examine ewe and goat cheese labelling on the market of the Republic of Croatia. During the four years (2012-2016) of the research, 133 cheeses from retail supermarket chains were selected by the random-choice method by the responsible inspection of the Republic of Croatia and analysed at the Reference Laboratory for Milk and Dairy Products of the Department of Dairy Science at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. To check the correct labelling of cheeses, the chemical composition of cheese was examined: the fat content, the dry matter content, the fat in dry matter content, and the water content in the fat-free cheese compound were calculated according to the Ordinance on Cheeses and Cheese Products, which refers to cheeses manufactured in the Republic of Croatia, and Regulation EU (2011) of the European Parliament and the Council on providing information to consumers about food products, which covers foreign cheeses. The presence of cow milk in cheeses labelled as products manufactured exclusively from ewe or goat milk was tested by the reference method using iso-electric focusing to determine any adulteration according to Commission Regulation (2008). The results of analysis in this research show the condition of the quality and correct labelling of ewe and goat cheeses on the market of the Republic of Croatia. Of the 133 cheeses analysed, 67 cheeses (50%) did not correspond to the values stated on the declaration or to legal regulations, while the presence of cow milk was found in 30% of the cheeses analysed. The research results indicate the need to carry out continuous systematic control in the interest of protecting consumers and those manufacturers who are following good manufacturing practices.
Evaluation of 20 Macro and Trace Mineral Concentrations in Commercial Goat Milk Yogurt and Its Cow Milk Counterpart  [PDF]
Karen Hernandez, Young W. Park
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.510098

Concentrations of 20 different minerals in commercial goat milk yogurt (CGY) and its cow milk yogurt (CCY) counterpart were evaluated in reference to goat milk yogurt manufactured from Fort Valley State University (FVGY), Fort Valley, GA, USA. Three different lots of CGY and CCY each were purchased from local retail stores at Warner Robins, GA, and 3 batches of FVGY were made using goat milk from the University milking herd. All 3 types of experimental yogurts were stored at 4°C refrigerator for 4 weeks. Twenty major and trace minerals were analyzed by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer (Thermo Jarrel Ash Enviro 36, Worchester, MA), using argon as the carrier gas and the EPA method 6010. Total solids (TS) content (%) of FVGY, CGY and CCY products were 11.03, 13.1 and 11.3, respectively, indicating CGY had higher TS than the CCY and FVGY yogurt. Respective mean mineral concentrations (ppm, wet basis) of FVGY, CGY and CCY were: Ca 1057, 1162, 1160; P 838, 974, 929; K 1327, 1717, 1208; Mg 102, 133, 113; Na 545, 449, 475; Fe 4.28, 3.33, 2.11; Mn 0.24, 0.19, 0.13; Cu 10.5, 9.85, 7.22; Zn 17.5, 11.7, 11.8. Levels of all macro minerals except potassium were higher in commercial goat and cow yogurts than FVGY, which may be due to the higher TS contents. FVGY had higher Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn than both commercial products. The heavy metal (Pb, Cd and Ni) contents (ppm) appeared to be normal range, while Al contents of FVGY, CGY and CCY were 11.9, 8.66 and 7.65, respectively, which were higher than those of Pb, Cd and Ni. Both commercial products contained higher major mineral contents than the university yogurt, which might be attributable to the differences in diet, breed, and stage of lactation of milking animals, as well as the tapioca additive used in the commercial products.

Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) na alimenta??o de cabras em lacta??o: consumo e produ??o de leite
Silva, Herymá Giovane de Oliveira;Pires, Aureliano José Vieira;Silva, Fabiano Ferreira da;Veloso, Cristina Mattos;Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de;Cezário, Andréia Santos;Santos, Cibele Costa;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982005000500040
Abstract: the effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (cf) or palm kernel cake (pkc) in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. five saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 latin square experimental design. the experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample collection. diets contained: 36% of roughage (corns silage) and 64% of concentrate, dry matter basis, formulated toyield 13.2% of crude protein. the treatments were as follows: 0, 15 and 30% cf or pkc, all with concentrate (corn and soybean meal). dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total digestible nutrients, total carbohydrates and nonfiber carbohydrates intakes decreased as affected by the highest replacement level (30% cf). no significant differences on neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake were observed. acid detergent fiber intake differed only between 30% pkc and 30% cf-based diets, with 0.94 and 0.59% body weight, respectively. the 30% cf-based diet showed lower milk production value, as kg/dia (1.208 kg), but similar to 30% pkc-based diet, when corrected for 3.5% fat. replacing corn and soybean with cf and pkc in the diet of lactating goats is viable up to 9.13 and 18.81% dry matter, respectively.
Efeito de medicamentos indicados para a preven??o da mastite bovina no período seco sobre a fun??o fagocítica in vitro de leucócitos do leite de caprinos
Benesi, Alexandre Q.;Hartman, Melissa;Azedo, Milton R.;Batista, Camila F.;Blagitz, Maiara G.;Benesi, Fernando José;Libera, Alice Maria M.P. Della;
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-736X2010000500002
Abstract: the use of specific anti-mastitis drugs is indicated in dry cow therapy to prevent infections in the following lactation. nonetheless, cells active in the dry period are of fundamental importance for the involution of the mammary gland and its recovery for the following lactation. since there are no specific drugs for dry goat therapy, the dry cow therapy drugs tend to be misused in goats despite of the anatomical and physiological differences apart from the particularities of the two species. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of five drugs specific for dry cow therapy on the function of goat milk phagocytes. somatic cells were isolated from 20 milk samples of 10 lactating goats that had not been treated for mastitis during the previous 30 days. milk samples were collected properly and microbiological culture yielded negative results. cells adherent to glass coverslips were treated with commercially available dry cow therapy drugs containing active principles such as gentamicin (m1), cephalonium anhydrous (m2), ampicillin (m3), cloxacillin benzathine (m4) and cephapirin benzathine (m5). phagocytosis of zymosan particles was evaluated. mean phagocytosis indexes of cells treated with m2 (15.12% ± 16.22), m3 (6.02% ± 7.96), m4 (4.54% ± 5.45) and m5 (2.47% ± 4.64) were lower (p<0.001) than mean phagocytosis index of the control group (40.67% ± 19.68). mean phagocytosis index of cells treated with m2 was greater (p<0.05) than those treated with m3, m4 and m5, whereas means of the latter three treatments were statistically similar. m1-treated cells did not adhere adequately to the cover slips, making it impossible to evaluate phagocytosis in this group. the results obtained enable the conclusion that drugs used affected milk phagocytes negatively. however, interference on somatic cell function is not the sole factor determining an unsuccessful dry period therapy, since the efficacy of the active principle on pathogens responsible for infecti
The quality influence of goat milk and technology of production on the characteristic of the goat milk cheese of the Camembert type
Popovi?-Vranje? Anka,Jovanovi? S.,Savi? Mila,Krajinovi? M.
Acta Veterinaria , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/avb0806521p
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to provide high quality goat milk production of a goat cheese of Camembert type. The results of the work are showing us that in row milk, the total number of bacteria was in a range from 4x103 to 20x103/mL, and the number of somatic cells is from 230x103 to 390x103/mL. Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus were not found. Milk did not contain antibiotic residues, mycotoxins, pesticides, hard metals or radionucleoides. From the hygienic view, the milk was healthy and safe. Milk from German does i.e. the race of the studied goat had 3.2 ± 0.10% of fat and a mild taste and smell. The part of the middlechain fatty acids (C6-C12) was 15.31% and capric acid was 6.29%. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were 26.69% and linolic-acid 3.1%. According to protein content, as well as other indicators of the contents and physical-chemical characteristics, the milk was technologically suitable for cheese production. The selection of the cultures MM100 and TA052, as well as the mold Geotrichum condidum and Penicillium camemberti and the tehnologyc process with the HACCP system implemented, enabled the production of a healthy and safe cheese with the well known characteristics.
Mutations in Caprine DGAT1 and STAT5A Genes were Associated with Milk Production Traits  [PDF]
Xiaopeng An, Jinxing Hou, Haibo Zhao, Chunmei Zhu, Quanmei Yan, Yuxuan Song, Jiangang Wang, Binyun Cao
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410B008

In this study, polymorphisms of the DGAT1 andSTAT5A genes were detected in 528 individuals from Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong goat breeds by PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. Three allelic variants were identified: DQ380250: g.407_408insC, AJ237937: g.6798C>T and g.6852C>T in both breeds. At g.407_408insC locus, the frequencies of C1 allele were 0.79–0.85, and frequencies of C2 allele were 0.21–0.15. At g.6852C>T locus, frequencies of C3 allele were 0.70–0.72, and frequencies of T3 allele were 0.30–0.28. Compared with goats with C1C1 and C3C3, those with C1C2 and C3T3 genotypes had significant effects on milk yield and fat percentage (P<0.05), respectively. The result showed that does with C1C1C3T3 and C1C2C3T3 had higher milk yield than those with C1C2C3C3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the combined effect of C1C2C3C3 on milk fat percentage was the highest in comparison with other combination genotypes (P<0.05).

Determination of Fatty-Acid Composition in Oils of Animal Origin by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Diyas Myrzakozha, Darkhan Turgaliev, Hide Sato
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.514153

The authentication of milk requires the use of sophisticated and expensive analytical techniques. There is a huge need for reliable and cheap analytical technologies for use as fast and effective screening methods. This paper proposes the use of myristic acid in the authentication of cow, mare, camel and goat milk, using near infrared spectrometry. Comparison has been made with traditional gas chromatography methods, so that both methods can be used in the authentication of different types of dairy products.

Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Applied to Partition Proteins from Goat Milk Whey In-Nature  [PDF]
Luziany A. C. Freire, Camila G. Pereira
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2016.79034
Abstract: The proteins coming from the milk whey have numerous functional properties. Among the proteins with high bioactivity, α-lactoalbumin (α-La) and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) are present in large quantities in the milk whey. In the separation process of proteins, it is important to choose techniques which besides ensuring purity and high yield will not affect the molecule biological activity. The aqueous two-phase systems (ATS) have been utilized with success in the partition of these proteins, however, the studies were performed using protein in its pure form. Studies using milk whey in-nature and goat milk whey have not been found yet. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the liquid liquid equilibrium of aqueous two-phase systems (ATS) in the partition of α-La and β-Lg from goat milk whey in-nature. Equilibrium data were performed considering ATS comprised of polyethylene glycol, potassium phosphate and water at 25°C and pH 7.0. The influence of the polymer molecular weight and amount of goat milk whey in-nature on the partition coefficient of these proteins were assessed. The partition coefficient, selectivity, process yield and purity of α-lactoalbumin and β-lactoglobulin proteins were determined. The results showed that the separation technique by aqueous biphasic systems is applicable indicating high efficiency in the whey proteins separation process.
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