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Peculiarities of CO2 exchange in soybean genotypes contrasting in grain yield  [PDF]
Jalal A. Aliyev
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.23039
Abstract: The peculiarities of leaf carbon dioxide gas exchange in soybean genotypes grown in field over a large area and contrasting in duration of vegetation, photosynthetic traits and productivity were studied. Varietal differences in the daily and ontogenetic changes in photosynthesis and photorespiration were identified. It was established that the period of the high activity of photosynthetic apparatus in high productive soybean genotypes lasts for a longer time. The photosynthetic rate and the rate of CO2 release in light due to photorespiration are higher in high productive genotypes. A value of photorespiration in contrasting soybean genotypes constitutes about 28% - 35% of photosynthetic rate. The ratio of gross photosynthesis to photorespiration in genotypes with different productivity is constant enough during ontogenesis, indicating a direct positive correlation between gross photosynthesis and photorespiration. Therefore, contrary to conception arisen during many years on the waste-fulness of photorespiration, taking into account the versatile investigations on different aspects of photo-respiration, it was proved that photorespiration is one of the evolutionarily developed vital metabolic processes in plants and the attempts to reduce this process with the purpose of increasing the crop productivity are inconsistent.
Evidence for Placental HPV Infection in Both HIV Positive and Negative Women  [PDF]
Chrispin Chisanga, Dawn Eggert, Charles D. Mitchell, Charles Wood, Peter C. Angeletti
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.615140
Abstract: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have previously been reported to infect epithelial trophoblast cells of the placenta. To investigate this possibility, 200 placental samples from Zambian women were separated into HIV+ and HIV- groups and tested for HPV by redundant primer PCR, using GP5+/GP6+ and CPI/CPII primer sets. Three HPV genotypes (HPV6, 16 and 90) were detected in placental samples. Whereas, 20 different HPV genotypes were detected in vaginal sampling of the same patients, suggesting that compartment specific sub-populations of HPV may exist. The incidence of HPV16 in placental samples was almost 2-fold greater in HIV+ women compared to HIV- (p = 0.0241). HPV16 L1 expression, detected by immunochemistry, was significantly higher in HIV+ than HIV- samples (p = 0.0231). HPV16 DNA was detected in the nuclei of trophoblast cells by in situ hybridization. Overall, these results suggest that HPVs infect the placenta and that HIV significantly influences these infections.
Performance of tetraploid alfalfa genotypes as exposed to aluminum toxicity  [PDF]
Le?nidas P. Passos, Maurício Marini K?pp, Francisco J. Silva Lédo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32027
Abstract: A study was carried out to evaluate the development of 12 tetraploid alfalfa cultivars exposed to Al toxicity in nutrient solution. Newly germinated seedlings of cultivars Alfa 200, Alto, Araucana, Costera, Crioula, Esmeralda, Falcon, F-708, Rio, Romagnola, Valley Plus, and Victoria, were exposed to either 0, 4, 8 or 12 mg·L-1 Al3+. Plants were analyzed regarding root length (RL) and dry matter (RDM), aerial part length (APL), and dry matter (APDM), hypocotyl length (HypL) and dry matter (HypDM), epicotyl length (EpiL) and dry matter (EpiDM), and petiole length (PetL), and dry matter (PetDM). Results indicated that, although all genotypes exhibited detectable sensitivity to such a stress, cvs. Crioula, Victoria and Alpha-200 were tolerant to 4 mg·L-1 Al3+ toxicity. It was also concluded that Al3+ levels up to the 4 mg·L-1 will be effective for screening tetraploid alfalfa genotypes regarding this type of stress, when evaluations are made in nutrient solution. Finally, RL is the most suitable variable for conducting such evaluations, but all variables related to dry matter in the aerial part are also recommended.
Comparative Study on Quantitative and Qualitative Characters of Different Oat (Avena sativa L.) Genotypes under Agro-Climatic Conditions of Sargodha, Pakistan  [PDF]
Adeel Khan, Maqbool Hussain Anjum, Muhammad Khashi U. Rehman, Qamar uz Zaman, Raza Ullah
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520326

An experiment was conducted to compare the forage yield and qualify of oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes (F-413, SGD-46, F-408, F-301, SGD-2011, SGD-3, SGD-37, SGD-40, SGD-5 and S-2000) at Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha, Pakistan during the year 2011 to 2012. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replications and a net plot of size 1.6 × 5 m. The varieties were differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in yield, growth and quality parameters. The variety SGD-40 produced significantly higher green forage yield (80.00 t·ha-1) and dry matter yield (10.95 t·ha-1) than other varieties due to taller plants (145.73 cm), more number of tillers (7.78 m-2) and leaf area per plant (95.08 cm2). It also had the highest crude protein percentage (13.84%). Correlation analysis of quantitative and qualitative characters indicated the strongly positive association of green forage yield with dry matter, crude protein and ash content. While green forage yield was negatively correlated with the number of tillers per plant, keeping in view both forage yield and crude protein contents the genotype SGD-40 grown under the condition of Sargodha (Pakistan).

Growth and Physiological Attributes of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Genotypes as Affected by NaCl Stress  [PDF]
M. Nasir Khan
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.73039
Abstract: High level of salinity adversely affects growth, productivity as well as quality of vegetable crops by reducing photosynthetic capacity, enzyme activities, and by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS cause peroxidation of membrane lipids leading to disintegration of cell membrane with the leakage of electrolytes. All these detrimental effects ultimately contribute to the crop with reduced yield and low nutritive value. The present investigation was carried out to test salt tolerance capacity of ten genotypes of tomato on the basis of growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The results show that all the ten tested genotypes of tomato responded differently to 200 mM NaCl stress. Regarding growth parameters, BL-1076 gave higher values, while Queen gave the lowest values for most of the parameters (plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, shoot and root fresh weight and dry weight). Regarding physiological and biochemical parameters, BL-1076 gave higher values for the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase, leaf chlorophyll content, relative water content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase). However, genotype Queen gave the lowest values for these parameters. On contrary, the least membrane damage (TBARS content) was registered in BL-1076, while the highest in Queen. Overall assessment of results leads to the conclusion that the genotype BL-1076 was found salt tolerant while Queen salt sensitive. The ten genotypes may be arranged on the basis of their salt tolerance capacity in decreasing order as: BL-1076 > Trust > Imperial > Tanshet star > PakmoreVF > L 26 > Plitz > Bonus F1 > Grace > Queen.
Evaluation of Different Radish (Raphanus sativus) Genotypes under Different Saline Regimes  [PDF]
C. M. Ayyub, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Samad Raza, Muhammad Sarwar Yaqoob, Rashad Waseem Khan Qadri, Muhammad Azam, M. Awais Ghani, Imran Khan, Naheed Akhtar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.76084
Abstract: An effective and simple screening technique for identification of salt tolerant and salt sensitive radish genotypes was observed. Sand is used as potting media. Six genotypes of radish were used for screening against four salinity levels (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 dS/m-1). Twenty days old seedlings of radish were salinized with salt solution (NaCl). Morphological, physiological and ionic parameters were studied. Radish genotypes Laal-Pari and 40 Days executed the best performance in all the measured attributes and categorized as salt tolerant genotype while Green Neck was the poorest in retaining normal functioning at higher salinity levels thus grouped under salt sensitive cultivar.
Heterogeneity of Pestivirus Species in Asia  [PDF]
Massimo Giangaspero, Shu-Qin Zhang, Claudio Apicella
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.93019
Abstract: Pestivirus are responsible for cosmopolitan diseases affecting cattle, pigs and other ruminants, presenting a wide range of clinical manifestations, with relevant impact on zootechnic production. Understanding genomic characteristic and virus taxonomy is fundamental in order to sustain control and prophylactic programs. Given the recent various studies reporting a relatively high number of new strains, in particular from Asian countries, in the present study, six hundred-fifty-one genomic sequences have been considered applying the palindromic nucleotide substitutions method for genotyping. Based on the secondary structure analysis of the 5’ untranslated region of RNA, sequence characteristics among Asian genomic clusters within the different Pestivirus species suggested geographic segregation and occurrence of micro-evolutive steps in the genus evolutionary history. This aspect was particularly evident in atypical sequences originated from China or Turkey, indicating risk of diffusion by animals and products trade or contamination of biological products as bovine calf serum, with potential diagnostic and control difficulties.
Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Pakistan: a systemic review
Sobia Attaullah, Sanaullah Khan, Ijaz Ali
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-433
Abstract: HCV genotype/s distribution from all 34 studies was observed in 28,400 HCV infected individuals in the following pattern: 1,999 (7.03%) cases of genotype 1; 1,085 (3.81%) cases of genotype 2; 22,429 (78.96%) cases of genotype 3; 453 (1.59%) cases of genotype 4; 29 (0.10%) cases of genotype 5; 37 (0.13%) cases of genotype 6; 1,429 (5.03%) cases of mixed genotypes, and 939 (3.30%) cases of untypeable genotypes. Overall, genotype 3a was the predominant genotype with a rate of 55.10%, followed by genotype 1a, 3b and mixed genotype with a rate of 10.25%, 8.20%, and 5.08%, respectively; and genotypes 4, 5 and 6 were rare. Genotype 3 occurred predominately in all the provinces of Pakistan. Second more frequently genotype was genotype 1 in Punjab province and untypeable genotypes in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan provinces.Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the sole member of the genus Hepacivirus, in the family Flaviviridae [1], is a global public health problem [1-3] and is accountable for the second most common cause of viral hepatitis [4]. Pakistani HCV serofrequency figures are significantly higher (4.7%, varying from 0.4%-33.7%) when compared to the corresponding populations in surrounding countries like India (0.66%), Nepal (1.0), Myanmar (2.5%), Iran (0.87%) [5], China (1%) [6] and Afghanistan (1.1%) [7].HCV has been recognized to be both hepatotropic and lymphotropic virus [8]. The complete HCV genome was determined by Choo et al in 1991 and the consensual international classification was made in 1994 [6]. HCV genome is comprised of linear single stranded RNA molecule of positive polarity of ~9.6 kb [1]. The RNA encodes a large polyprotein of about 3,000 amino acids in a single continuous open reading frame (ORF) which is flanked at the 5' and 3' ends by nontranslated regions (5' UTR) [1,2,9]. The ORF comprised of 3 structural genes (C, E1, E2) and 4 nonstructural genes (NS2, NS3, NS4 and NS5) [2,9]. Mutation rate are different in different region of HCV
G and P genotypes of rotavirus circulating among children with diarrhea in the Colombian northern coast
Urbina,Delfina; Rodríguez,Juan G.; Arzuza,Octavio; Parra,Edgar; Young,Gregorio; Castro,Raimundo; del Portillo,Patricia;
International Microbiology , 2004,
Abstract: a study on the prevalence of rotavirus g and p genotypes was carried out based on 253 stool specimens obtained from children living in the colombia northern coast region who were less than 3-years-old and who suffered from acute diarrhea. a previous study had detected the presence of rotavirus a in 90 (36.5%) of the 246 samples tested by enzyme immunoassay (eia), and these strains were investigated in the present study. of these, 50 strains yielded an rna electropherotype, most of which (80.0%) had long profiles and 20.0% of which had short profiles. genotyping of 84 positive samples indicated that 67.9% of the strains could be typed. g1 (57.9%), was the most predominant vp7 genotype, followed by g3 (21.1%), g9 (15.8%) and g2 (5.3%). among the vp4 genotypes, p[4] (49.1%) was the most prevalent, followed by p[6] 36.4% and p[8] (14.5%). neither g4 nor g8 nor p[9] types were detected. the most common g-p combinations were g3 p[4] (8.8%) and g9 p[6] (7.0%), followed by g1 p[4] and g1 p[8] (5.3% each). all g1 p[8] strains showed long rna profiles, whereas g3 p[4] and g9 p[6] displayed both long and short patterns. mixed infections involved 21.0% of strains. there was a marked diversity among strains collected, and novel strains, including g9, as well as other atypical combinations of g and p genotypes, such as g9 p[6] and g3 p[4], were found.
Genetic diversity of noroviruses in Brazil
Fioretti, Julia Monassa;Ferreira, M?nica Sim?es Rocha;Victoria, Matias;Vieira, Carmen Baur;Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro;Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi;Miagostovich, Marize Pereira;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762011000800008
Abstract: norovirus (nov) infections are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks around the world. in brazil, the surveillance system for acute diarrhoea does not include the diagnosis of nov, precluding the ability to assess its impact on public health. the present study assessed the circulation of nov genotypes in different brazilian states by partial nucleotide sequencing analysis of the genomic region coding for the major capsid viral protein. nov genogroup ii genotype 4 (gii.4) was the prevalent (78%) followed by gii.6, gii.7, gii.12, gii.16 and gii.17, demonstrating the great diversity of nov genotypes circulating in brazil. thus, this paper highlights the importance of a virological surveillance system to detect and characterize emerging strains of nov and their spreading potential.
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