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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 16738 matches for " genetic diversity "
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Genetic Diversity of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) Cultivars and Its Wild Relatives Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers  [PDF]
Kusum Yadav, Sanjay Kumar Yadav, Anurag Yadav, Veda Prakash Pandey, Upendra Nath Dwivedi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.33038
Abstract: Genetic diversity among and between 16 cultivars of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.) and its wild relatives (C. albicans and C. lineatus) analysed using RAPD. Twenty two random primers with an average of 71.2% polymorphism produced 151 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis based on these 151 RAPD markers revealed relatively low level (0.434 - 0.714) of genetic diversity among cultivars and high level of diversity between cultivars and wild relatives. C. albicans and C. lineatus showed only 0.231 similarity with each other and C. albicans showed relatively higher similarity with C. cajan cultivars than that showed by C. lineatus. In dendrogram the 16 cultivars grouped into two distinct clusters comprising of seven and nine genotypes each while the wild species form out groups. Bootstrap analysis of the dendrogram was performed and resulted in significant bootstrap values. Principal components analysis (PCA) also revealed the similar results that of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The first, second and third PCs contributed 55.9%, 5.9%, and 5.6% of the variation, respectively, with cumulative variation of the first three PCs was 67.4%.
A Review of Microsatellite Markers and their Application on Genetic Diversity Studies in Parrots  [PDF]
Flavia T. Presti, Adriane P. Wasko
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.42010

The ability of a population to adapt to a changing environment depends on its genetic variation. Thus, the study of genetic diversity within and among species or populations is especially important on conservation biology scopes. One way to assess the genetic diversity is through the use of microsatellite molecular markers. Microsatellites have been widely used to answer population genetics issues as gene flow, parentage, and population structure, mostly resulting in data on the distribution of genetic variability within and among natural populations, which are essential for ex situ and in situ conservation procedures. As the Psittacidae family comprehends one of the birds group with the largest number of endangered species, studies that aim to investigate the genetic diversity of these animals may support their conservation. This article is a review of genetic data on parrots, through the use of microsatellite markers, that have been published since 2004.

Genetic Diversity in Selected Indian Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] Cultivars Using RAPD Markers  [PDF]
Subhojit Datta, Sarika Gangwar, Shiv Kumar, Sanjeev Gupta, Rita Rai, Mayank Kaashyap, Pallavi Singh, Sushil Kumar Chaturvedi, Brij Bhuvan Singh, Nagaswamy Nadarajan
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.38130
Abstract: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to study the DNA polymorphism in Indian mungbean cultivars. A total of 60 random primers were used in the study and 33 of them generated reproducible RAPD patterns. Amplification of genomic DNA of most popular 24 Indian mungbean cultivars with these RAPD primers yielded 249 fragments that could be scored, of which 224 were polymorphic, with an average of 7.0 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments with random primers ranged from 2 (OPI 9) to 17 (OPD 7). Percentage polymorphism ranged from 33% (OPX 5) to a maximum of 100% (OPX 4, OPX 6, OPX 13, OPX 15, OPX 19, OPD 5, OPD 7, OPD 20, OPI 4, OPI 6, OPI 13, OPI 14, OPI 18 and OPF 1), with an average of 90%. The Jaccard’s similarity indices based on RAPD profiles were subjected to UPGMA cluster analysis. And genotypes grouped in two major groups. Sixteen out of 24 released cultivars grouped to cluster I. This indicated the narrow genetic base in the Indian mungbean cultivars used in the study. The details of diversity analysis and possible reasons for narrow genetic base in mungbean cultivars are discussed in the present study.
Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity among Cultivated Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.) and Its Wild Relatives (C. albicans and C. lineatus) Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Fingerprinting  [PDF]
Kusum Yadav, Sanjay Kumar Yadav, Anurag Yadav, Veda Prakash Pandey, Upendra Nath Dwivedi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511181

Genetic relationships of 16 cultivars of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.) and its two wild relatives (C. albicans and C. lineatus) from different parts of the India were analysed using 22 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) primers and 10 inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) primers. Twenty two RAPD primers yielded 151 polymorphic markers (71.2%) with an average of 6.8 polymorphic band/primer. Cluster analysis based on these 151 RAPD markers revealed relatively low level (0.434 - 0.714) of genetic diversity among cultivars and high level of diversity between cultivars and wild relatives. Ten ISSR primers produced 100 bands across 16 cultivars and its wild relatives out of which 93 (93%) were polymorphic with an average of 9.3 polymorphic band/primer. Cluster analysis based on these 93 ISSR markers also revealed relatively higher level (0.328 - 0.827) of genetic diversity among cultivars as compared to RAPD markers. The polymorphic markers obtained by both RAPD and ISSR primers were pooled and the genetic diversity analysis based on these 244 markers was analysed. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient obtained by pooled data revealed very narrow range (0.477 - 0.720) among cultivated and high range between cultivated and wild species C. albicans (0.240 - 0.331) and C. lineatus (0.163 - 0.193). In the UPGMA based dendrogram the 16 cultivars were grouped into three distinct clusters. Cluster I contained two genotypes, cluster II had six and cluster III had eight genotypes. Principal components analysis (PCA) also resulted in similar pattern as that of UPGMA based analysis. The first three PCs contributed 56.26%, 5.71% and 4.97% of variation, respectively, with cumulative variation of the first three PCs was 66.96%. Both the markers and the combined data revealed similar pattern with narrow diversity among cultivars and higher diversity between cultivars and wild one, but

Microsatellite-Based Genetic Structure and Differentiation of Goldfish (Carassius auratus) with Sarcoma  [PDF]
Zaizhong Chen, Caixia Hu, Lei Wang, Guiqin Chen, Jun Wang, Hance Huang, Anyuan He, Chenghui Wang, Weihua Zhao
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.51005
Abstract: Ten microsatellite loci were used for analyzing six populations of goldfish (Carassius auratus) with sarcoma. It showed that there was the highest genetic diversity among the white oranda with red cap (RC) population, and the lowest among the white tigerhead (WT) population. However, the outcross existed among every population. There was huge genetic differentiation between WT and the other four populations. The average observed heterozygosity (HO) among populations ranged from 0.3571 to 0.7381. And significant genetic difference (FCT = 0.1891, P = 0.0186) appeared among goldfish varieties which can be classified into three groups (RT, WT; RL, BL, YC; RC). The software Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCA) and STRUCTURE showed that significant genetic differences were revealed between RC population of goldfish and other five populations.
Pedigree and SSR Data Analysis Reveal Dominant Prevalence of Few Parents in Pedigrees of Pakistani Wheat Varieties  [PDF]
Muhammad Sajjad, Sultan Habibullah Khan, Rizwana Maqbool
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2015.51001
Abstract: The international recognition of the importance of genetic diversity demands continuous estimation of genetic diversity of in hand population as test of its buffering capacity against all putative threats. Randomly selected Pakistani wheat varieties developed during 1965-1999 and 2000-2011 were evaluated on the basis of pedigree and SSR data. At 2nd and 3rd levels of pedigree, average occurrence of a parent per variety was 2.1 times. The dominating parents included BLUEBIRD, KALYANSONA and SIETE-CERROS-66, which were present in the pedigrees of 71.42%, 64.28%, and 58.57% varieties, respectively. The varieties INQLAB-91 and KIRAN-95 had the same pedigree and were genetically identical as revealed by SSR data. Similarly, varieties PAVON-76 and SOGHAT-90 also had the same parents in their pedigrees. This genetic similarity was also confirmed by SSR based cluster. The SSR based PC1 and PC2 showed narrow genetic diversity confirming the presence of few dominating parents. The results emphasize the inclusion of novel and genetically diverse parents in Pakistani wheat breeding programs to maintain broader genetic base of varieties/cultivars for buffering the effects of ever changing virulent pathogens and crop growth environments.
Molecular markers and their applications in fisheries and aquaculture  [PDF]
Tanya Chauhan, Kumar Rajiv
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2010.14037
Abstract: Genetic variation in a species enhances the capability of organism to adapt to changing environment and is necessary for survival of the species. Genetic variation arises between individuals leading to differentiation at the level of population, species and higher order taxonomic groups. The genetic diversity data has varied application in research on evolution, conservation and management of natural resources and genetic improvement programmes, etc. Development of Molecular genetic markers has powerful ability to detect genetic studies of individuals, populations or species. These molecular markers combined with new statistical developments have revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Molecular markers and their statistical analysis revolutionized the analytical power, necessary to explore the genetic diversity. Various molecular markers, protein or DNA (mt-DNA or nuclear DNA such as microsatellites, SNP or RAPD) are now being used in fisheries and aquaculture. These markers provide various scientific observations which have importance in aquaculture practice recently such as: 1) Species Identification 2) Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations 3) Comparison between wild and hatchery populations 4) Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population 5) Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes. In this review article, we have concentrated on the basics of molecular genetics, overview of commonly used markers and their application along with their limitations (major classes of markers) in fisheries and aquaculture studies.
Genetic diversity among Indian phytopathogenic isolates of Fusarium semitectum Berkeley and Ravenel  [PDF]
Avinash Ingle, Mahendra Rai
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.23023
Abstract: We report total ten isolates of F. semitectum recovered from different hosts. Identity of these isolates was determined by morphological and cultural characteristics and confirmed by RAPD-PCR analysis using forty random primers. Morphologically all the ten isolates showed similarity, but based on RAPD-PCR analysis, these isolates can be categorized in three groups depending upon similarity co-efficient. Genetic similarity coefficients between pair wise isolates varied from 0.00 to 1.95 based on an unweighted paired group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. RAPD-PCR technique can be used as an important tool for the genetic differentiation among isolates of F. semitectum.
DNA Finger Printing of Prosopis cineraria and Prosopis juliflora Using ISSR and RAPD Techniques  [PDF]
Khaled Elmeer, Ameena Almalki
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.24062
Abstract: Diversity within and among the populations of Prosopis cineraria and Prosopis juliflora collected from different loca-tion of Qatar were explored using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of one hundred and nine bands were generated from twenty nine ISSR and nineteen bands from seven RAPD primers with an average polymorphism of more than ninety nine percent across all the genotypes. ISSR techniques were capable of distinguishing between P. cineraria and P. juliflora, through twenty one bands. How-ever, of the seven RAPD markers, only three bands were able to distinguish between Prosopis species. The dendro-grams for the analysis of genetic similarity show that the individuals from both species can be separated in two highly related groups. Our observations suggest that genetic variations among different accessions of Prosopis are identified using ISSR and RAPD analysis.
Genetic Diversity Assessment of Acid Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) Landraces in Nepal, Using SSR Markers  [PDF]
Ram Lal Shrestha, Durga Datta Dhakal, Durga Mani Gautum, Krishna Prasad Paudyal, Sangita Shrestha
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.312204
Abstract: Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) is an important commercial fruits crop, cultivated in terai to high hills of Nepal. High variation of acid lime fruits are observed in existing landraces due to crossing within the other citrus species. Determination of genetic variation is important to the plant breeders for development of high yielding variety and hybrids. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the genetic diversity of 62 acid lime landraces, collected from different altitudinal range in the eastern part of Nepal, using SSR markers. Twelve Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) primer pairs were used to assess the genetic diversity of acid lime. The average genetic similarity level among the 62 accessions was 0.77, ranging from 0.54 to 1.0 and separated five major cluster groups. Total of 33 alleles were detected by eleven primer pairs and size of alleles ranged from 50 to 225. Average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.50, whereas highest 0.75 and lowest 0.18 was observed in CAT01 and GT03 loci respectively. The results of the study clearly indicated that, SSR markers are highly polymorphic and more informative for the assessment of genetic diversity of acid lime landraces.
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