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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11671 matches for " genetic determinism "
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Velázquez Jordana,José Luis;
Praxis Filosófica , 2009,
Abstract: the discoveries that are linked with the project of the human genome, do not either decrease our sense of freedom or do they confirm that our condition of free beings is that of a fiction. what they really demand is a notion of moral liberty located in a natural world. the content of the exhibition is divided into two parts. in the first one, what is true and what is false in the relations between phenotype and genotype is examined. in the second part, following the modern tradition opened by dr hume and with the support and contributions made by mr e. tugendhat, it is held that the choices made by human beings can be identified with distinct empirical criteria of those characterizing the behavior of other animals, alien of giving them for this reason any responsibility at all.
Epigenetics and genetic determinism
Burbano, Hernán A.;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702006000400004
Abstract: this paper posits that the gene-centered viewpoint of the organism (gene-centrism) is not enough to explain biological complexity. organisms are not completely determined by their genomes; rather, living beings can be seen as interpreters or intentional systems. epigenetics is the framework that allows the avoidance of gene-centrism and permits the emergence of a more holistic standpoint where determination and novelty can coexist, as shown with examples taken from developmental biology and macromolecules folding. in summary, as p. medawar and j. medawar wrote: "genetics proposes; epigenetics disposes."
A síndrome de Down e sua patogênese: considera??es sobre o determinismo genético
Moreira, Lília MA;El-Hani, Charbel N;Gusm?o, Fábio AF;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462000000200011
Abstract: the analysis of causal factors for down syndrome and its pathogenesis allows, beyond the analysis itself, a review of the natural history of the syndrome and the effects of the trisomy of 21q22 chromosome band which has been considered critical for the development of the disorder. although there is always a chromosome imbalance in down syndrome patients, the relevance of the genetic determinism can be questioned since ds subject's cognitive potential can be better developed through theearly intervention of neuro-motor and psycho-educational programs.
Aging and Longevity: Why Knowing the Difference Is Important to Nutrition Research
Roger B. McDonald,Rodney C. Ruhe
Nutrients , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/nu3030274
Abstract: Life expectancies after the age of 70 and the number of individuals living with age-related chronic conditions that affect daily activities continue to increase. Age-specific nutritional recommendations may help to decrease the incidence or severity of age-related debilitating chronic disorders. However, research in this area has seen limited success in identifying nutrition-related mechanisms that underlie the functional loss and chronic conditions that occur as a function of time. We believe that the limited success in establishing age-specific nutrition recommendations for the older population reflects, at least in part, research designs that fail to consider the evolutionary and biological bases of aging and longevity. Longevity has evolved as a by-product of genes selected for their contribution in helping the organism survive to the age of reproduction. As such, the principle of genetic determinism provides an appropriate underlying theory for research designs evaluating nutritional factors involved with life span. Aging is not a product of evolution and reflects stochastic and/or random events that most likely begin during the early, reproductively-active years. The genetic determinism model by which young (normal, control) are compared to old (abnormal, experimental) groups will not be effective in identifying underlying mechanisms and nutritional factors that impact aging. The purpose of this commentary is to briefly discuss the difference between aging and longevity and why knowing the difference is important to nutrition research and to establishing the most precise nutritional recommendations possible for the older?population.
A revolu??o da biotecnologia: quest?es da sociabilidade
Victorino, Valério Igor P;
Tempo Social , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-20702000000200010
Abstract: the author discusses a series of questions related to the speedy development of biotechnology and the paradigms on which they are based, such as genetic determinism. in this article, it is argued that the biological sciences feel so comfortable with regard to their latest developments, that they presuppose a large array of interpretative schemes for all fields of life, mainly the behavioural sciences and culture. the ambivalence of the question of genetics in the relationship between the social sciences and biology is discussed.
Determinism and free will in the age of genetics: Theoretical-legal concerns about predictive genetic tests
Salardi Silvia
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/fid1204057s
Abstract: The paper deals with the use of predictive genetic tests in medical research. I limit my discussion to those advances in genetics which try to overcome the limits represented by our genetic make-up, in particular by gene mutations that lead, or could lead, to the development of genetic diseases. Besides the ethical issues concerning the topic of the current discussion, the reader will also find an evaluation of the legal provisions elaborated at the different levels of the legal order (international, European, and national). The aim of this evaluation is to find out which model of Law is being adopted in bioethical issues like the one discussed in this paper. The paper underlines and argues how Law can contribute (and has already contributed at the different levels: International, European, and national) to value and to spread an ethics of responsibility.
The Mystery of Freedom and Neurolaw  [PDF]
Adrian Sgarbi
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.62014
Abstract: In the case of Steward Mach. Co. v. Davis, Judge Benjamin Nathan Cardozo said that “Till now the law has been guided by a robust common sense which assumes the freedom of the will as a working hypothesis in the solution of its problems”. This hypothesis, which has previously been defended almost wholly within the confines of philosophical reflections on human responsibility, now seems to be undergoing a new wave of considerations. This is because neuroscience has been brought to bear in court proceedings in order to challenge the existence of human free will, in cases of both civil and criminal law. In the media, to a greater or lesser degree, various specialists have published the results of all kinds of experiments along with diagrams and graphs, technical advice and new machines to back up their claims. Currently, the use of some of these techniques in court and their lack of sustainability in many situations has, in turn, been emphasized, especially in the context of judicial proof (and reasonable doubt). In this sense, we can say that the issue of free will has been considered, but not always clearly, on three different levels: as a problem of description, of substance or of prescription. At the descriptive level is the question of what exactly we mean when we talk about free will. On the substantive level is the question of whether or not human beings actually possess this quality called free will. And finally, on the prescriptive level is the question of what we do with this knowledge. In this article, we offer an analysis of the problematic relationships between these three levels, beginning with a critical look at certain descriptive positions. In the end, it is suggested that these isolated descriptions, whether in the field of neuroscience, or philosophy, have led to an impasse whose effect is that the assertion that freedom in human behaviour is an illusion, and free will, a great mystery. As a possible way out, we present three modifications to the debate in order to extend its intelligibility beyond the boundaries of the legal profession.
Interpretación del mecanismo fisiopatogénico de la psoriasis
Revista argentina de dermatolog?-a , 2009,
Abstract: the physiopathogenic mechanism of psoriasis continues representing a challenge for dermatologists, immunologists and molecular biologists; trying to discover the biochemical primary alteration and the set of immunological events on that they put in march for her clinical expression. up to the present it is of unknown reason. it is defines as an inflammatory chronic disease that compromises dominant the skin, being characterized by papules and erythematic-scaly plates. the genetic factor is indispensable in order that the individual falls ill with psoriasis, but not sufficiently. a fault must exist in his immune system, without which the disease would not express either. an intrinsic aberration exists in the skin of the vulnerable patients. the genetic determinism, the deregulation and activation of the immune system with the subsequent waterfall of inflammatory half-full events for cytokines would be the base to interpret and to understand the development of the psoriasis.
Revisions of the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics Suggested by Properties of Random Walk  [PDF]
Raoul Charreton
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2011.12009
Abstract: A new theorem on random walks suggest some possible revisions of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics. This is presented below in the simplified framework of the description of the evolution of a material point in space. Grossly speaking, it is shown that the probabilities generated by normalizing the square modulus of a sum of probability amplitudes, in the setup of Quantum Mechanics, becomes asymptotically close (under the appropriate limiting conditions) to the probabilities generated by the usual causal processes of Classical Mechanics. This limiting coincidence has a series of interesting potential applications. In particular it allows us to reintroduce the concept of causality within the core of Quantum Mechanics. Moreover, it suggests, among other consequences, that gravitational interaction may not even exist. Even though the interpretations of Quantum Mechanics which follow from this mathematical result may seem to bring some unexpected innovations in the context of theoretical physics, there is an obvious necessity to study its theoretical impact on Quantum Mechanics. The first steps toward this aim are taken in the present article.
Theoretical Thinking about The Limitations of Evolutionary Psychology

Ye Haosheng,

心理学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Evolutionary psychology(EP) is a relatively new perspective in psychology.Not only does it attract a number of followers,but also it has engendered considerable debates.The purpose of this paper is to discuss its weaknesses and limitations by focusing on its core hypothesis,methodology and epistemology:(1).A core hypothesis of EP claims that the mind contains hundreds or thousands of modules,each with a specialized design that performs one function when interacting with the external world.Evolutionary psychologist maintain that,although human mind contains a degree of modularity,it functions integratively.It is difficult to imagine the complexity and size of the brain that would make this possible.Moreover,the operation of modules is not specified by our genetic program and the mind/brain do not have lots of "genetically specified," domain specific,informationally encapsulated modules.The assumption of massive modularity lacks experience validation.(2).The hallmark of scientific theory is its falsifiability and refutability,the cornerstone of modern sciences.Although the majority of scientists have adopted this criterion,most evolutionary psychologists do not accept this approach.In EP,historical narrative and speculation has often been used as main methodology.Such narrative and speculation are not subject to falsifiability.While historical narrative may played important role in evolutionary biology due to its lack of direct data,it is a different issue as far as psychology is concerned.Psychology is,by and large,an experimental science.Its conceptions and hypotheses must be tested by empirical evidence.No narration and speculation are allowed in psychological science.(3).EP claims that contemporary human behaviors are governed directly by genes that reflect adaptation of an ancestral environment.However,recent evidences from biological sciences showed that although genes can control some general patterns of human behaviors and must be involved in the construction of our brains,genes cannot control our individual behavioral choices.They indeed influence our behaviors,but they are not an exclusive factor that can determine the development of our behaviors.Findings available from biology over the past several decades demonstrated that non-genetic factors and conditions such as gravity,temperature,population density and cultural experience could make powerful influences on the way organisms develop.Social and environmental factors,particularly cultural environment,exert the strongest influences on human behavior.Although evolutionary psychologists claim that they are interactionists,rather than genetic determinists,they are in fact hereditism,because they place more weight on genetic factors and environmental influences are considered secondary.
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