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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2605 matches for " for the Gene Modifier Study Group "
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Histo-Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms as Potential Genetic Modifiers of Infection and Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Severity
Jennifer L. Taylor-Cousar, Maimoona A. Zariwala, Lauranell H. Burch, Rhonda G. Pace, Mitchell L. Drumm, Hollin Calloway, Haiying Fan, Brent W. Weston, Fred A. Wright, Michael R. Knowles, for the Gene Modifier Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004270
Abstract: Background The pulmonary phenotype in cystic fibrosis (CF) is variable; thus, environmental and genetic factors likely contribute to clinical heterogeneity. We hypothesized that genetically determined ABO histo-blood group antigen (ABH) differences in glycosylation may lead to differences in microbial binding by airway mucus, and thus predispose to early lung infection and more severe lung disease in a subset of patients with CF. Methods and Principal Findings Clinical information and DNA was collected on >800 patients with the ΔF508/ΔF508 genotype. Patients in the most severe and mildest quartiles for lung phenotype were enrolled. Blood samples underwent lymphocyte transformation and DNA extraction using standard methods. PCR and sequencing were performed using standard techniques to identify the 9 SNPs required to determine ABO blood type, and to identify the four SNPs that account for 90–95% of Lewis status in Caucasians. Allele identification of the one nonsynonymous SNP in FUT2 that accounts for >95% of the incidence of nonsecretor phenotype in Caucasians was completed using an ABI Taqman assay. The overall prevalence of ABO types, and of FUT2 (secretor) and FUT 3 (Lewis) alleles was consistent with that found in the Caucasian population. There was no difference in distribution of ABH type in the severe versus mild patients, or the age of onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the severe or mild groups. Multivariate analyses of other clinical phenotypes, including gender, asthma, and meconium ileus demonstrated no differences between groups based on ABH type. Conclusions and Significance Polymorphisms in the genes encoding ABO blood type, secretor or Lewis genotypes were not shown to associate with severity of CF lung disease, or age of onset of P. aeruginosa infection, nor was there any association with other clinical phenotypes in a group of 808 patients homozygous for the ΔF508 mutation.
The INIS Study. International Neonatal Immunotherapy Study: non-specific intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for suspected or proven neonatal sepsis: an international, placebo controlled, multicentre randomised trial
The INIS Study Collaborative Group
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-52
Abstract: This study will assess reliably whether treatment of neonatal sepsis with intravenous immunoglobulin reduces mortality and adverse neuro-developmental outcome.A randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trial. Babies with suspected or proven neonatal sepsis will be randomised to receive intravenous immunoglobulin therapy or placebo.Eligibility criteriaBabies must be receiving antibiotics and have proven or suspected serious infection AND have at least one of the following: birthweight less than 1500 g OR evidence of infection in blood culture, cerebrospinal fluid or usually sterile body fluid OR be receiving respiratory support via an endotracheal tube AND there is substantial uncertainty that intravenous immunoglobulin is indicated.Exclusion criteriaBabies are excluded if intravenous immunoglobulin has already been given OR intravenous immunoglobulin is thought to be needed OR contra-indicated.Trial treatmentBabies will be given either 10 ml/kg of intravenous immunoglobulin or identical placebo solution over 4–6 hours, repeated 48 hours later.Primary outcomeMortality or major disability at two years, corrected for gestational age.Data collectionData will be collected at discharge from hospital and at 2 years of age (corrected for gestation) using a parental questionnaire and a health status questionnaire completed during a face-to-face follow-up appointment with the child's paediatrician.Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN94984750.This protocol is for a large, simple-in-design, double blind, placebo controlled, pragmatic, multicentre randomised trial.That, in infants receiving antibiotics for clinical sepsis, the addition of non-specific, polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin IgG (IVIG) therapy reduces mortality and major morbidity compared with antibiotics alone.Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity and has been implicated in the causation of perinatal brain damage and cerebral palsy, both in term and preterm infants [1,2]. Although antibioti
African Journal of Urology , 2001,
Abstract: *A. Abdel Aziz, M.D.; I. Abdel-Hafeez, M.D.;A. Abdel-Hakim, M.D.; M. Abdel-Malek, M.D.; A. Abdel-Meguid, M.D.; M. Abo-Elhassan, M.D.; U. Abo-Farha, M.D.; M. Abo-Guindy, M.D.; A. Arafa, M.D.; A. Ashamallah, M.D.; A. Baghat, M.D.; M. Elakkad, M.D.; H. El-Bialy, M.D.; H. El-Damanhoury, M.D.; M.Eldomairy, M.D.; A.Elkasaby, M.D.; A. Gaafar, M.D.; M. Gaballah, M.D.; B. Hathut, M.D.; A. Ibrahim, M.D.; I. Khalaf, M.D.; M. Moaatamed, M.D.; Sh. Morad, M.D.; R. Moustafa, M.D.; M. Rafik, M.D.; M. Abdel-Azeem, M.D.; H. Rashwan, M.D.;S. Mohamed, M.D.; A. Salama, M.D.; M. Shalaby, M.D.; I. Shoukry, M.D.; H. Torky, M.D. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of doxazosin, a selective 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patients and Methods A total of 333 patients, 50 years or older, were included in this 12-week, multicenter (30 investigational sites), baseline placebo-controlled study. The diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations, digital rectal examination and uroflowmetry. The treatment duration included a 2-week placebo washout phase and a 12-week active treatment phase (6 visits). Twenty-one patients were lost to follow-up during the placebo run-in phase and 312 patients completed the study. During the active treatment phase, the starting dose was 1 mg/day for 2 weeks that was titrated to 2 mg/day for 5 weeks. Titration was further increased to 4 mg/day when there was no increase in the peak flow rate (Qmax) 3 3 ml/sec and/or no reduction in the mean International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) 3 30%. The blood pressure was assessed at baseline and at each subsequent visit. Results At the end of the treatment phase, doxazosin showed a remarkable effect on the efficacy parameters with IPSS improving from 19.55 ± 5.27 to 9.25 ± 3.77 (p < 0.0001). The peak flow rate (Qmax) increased from 8.92 ± 3.51 to 13.27 ± 7.41 (p < 0.0001) and the average mean flow (Qmean) rate increased from 4.56 ± 2.53 to 6.65 ± 5.85 (p < 0.0001). Doxazosin caused a mean reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive patients (n=131) of 13.5 / 7.5 mmHg (p < 0.0001), while clinically insignificant changes were observed in the blood pressure of normotensive patients (n=181). In those patients the mean reduction in blood pressure was 4.2 / 2.5 mmHg (p<0.0001). Adverse events were experienced by 24 patients (7.69%) in the form of heachache, dizziness, fatigue and somnolence, which were generally mild to moderate in intensity. Only 4 patients (1.28%) were withdrawn due to side effects (dizziness, somnolence or fatigue). Conclusion Doxazosin is an effective agent for the treatment of BPH and is well tolerated by the majority of patients. African Journal of Urology Vol. 7 No. 3 (Sept 2001): pp 94-102
Current trends in trachoma in a previously Hyperendemic area
Study Group The Trachoma
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1998,
Abstract: In response to reports of an excessive number of cases of trachoma at the end of 1995 from the western parts of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, 837 children in the age-group 1-10 years were examined in three villages from where the maximum number of cases hailed. Clinically, the prevalence of trachoma was found to be 8.5% (71). The prevalence was significantly higher in males as compared to females (p < 0.05); and was observed to increase with age. 85.9% (61) of the clinically diagnosed children were active infective cases. 54.9% (39) of the clinically diagnosed cases showed the presence of antigen in the upper tarsal conjunctival scraping from the affected eye, using the Chlamydia trachomatis direct specimen kit (Syva MicroTrak, UK). It was concluded that ophthalmologists must be reoriented to the clinical diagnosis of trachoma to prevent overdiagnosis.
Data Preservation in High Energy Physics
Dphep Study Group
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group.
GLD Detector Outline Document
GLD Concept Study Group
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: The GLD is a detector for the experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). It consists of a large calorimeter and a gaseous central tracker placed in a moderate magnetic field, both electro-magnetic and hadron calorimeters being placed inside the magnetic coil to have enough hermeticity and good jet energy resolution. The outline of the GLD is presented.
Impact of Increasing Capacity for Generating and Using Research on Maternal and Perinatal Health Practices in South East Asia (SEA-ORCHID Project)
The SEA-ORCHID Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023994
Abstract: Background Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity remain unacceptably high in many low and middle income countries. SEA-ORCHID was a five year international collaborative project in South East Asia which aimed to determine whether health care and health outcomes for mothers and babies could be improved by developing capacity for research generation, synthesis and use. Methods Nine hospitals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand participated in SEA-ORCHID. These hospitals were supported by researchers from three Australian centres. Health care practices and outcomes were assessed for 1000 women at each hospital both before and after the intervention. The capacity development intervention was tailored to the needs and context of each hospital and delivered over an 18 month period. Main outcomes included adherence to forms of care likely to be beneficial and avoidance of forms of care likely to be ineffective or harmful. Results We observed substantial variation in clinical practice change between sites. The capacity development intervention had a positive impact on some care practices across all countries, including increased family support during labour and decreased perineal shaving before birth, but in some areas there was no significant change in practice and a few beneficial practices were followed less often. Conclusion The results of SEA-ORCHID demonstrate that investing in developing capacity for research use, synthesis and generation can lead to improvements in maternal and neonatal health practice and highlight the difficulty of implementing evidence-based practice change.
Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Pregnancy and Childbirth: South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing Countries Project
The SEA-ORCHID Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002646
Abstract: Background The burden of mortality and morbidity related to pregnancy and childbirth remains concentrated in developing countries. SEA-ORCHID (South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health In Developing countries) is evaluating whether a multifaceted intervention to strengthen capacity for research synthesis, evidence-based care and knowledge implementation improves adoption of best clinical practice recommendations leading to better health for mothers and babies. In this study we assessed current practices in perinatal health care in four South East Asian countries and determined whether they were aligned with best practice recommendations. Methodology/Principal Findings We completed an audit of 9550 medical records of women and their 9665 infants at nine hospitals; two in each of Indonesia, Malaysia and The Philippines, and three in Thailand between January-December 2005. We compared actual clinical practices with best practice recommendations selected from the Cochrane Library and the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library. Evidence-based components of the active management of the third stage of labour and appropriately treating eclampsia with magnesium sulphate were universally practiced in all hospitals. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section, a beneficial form of care, was practiced in less than 5% of cases in most hospitals. Use of the unnecessary practices of enema in labour ranged from 1% to 61% and rates of episiotomy for vaginal birth ranged from 31% to 95%. Other appropriate practices were commonly performed to varying degrees between countries and also between hospitals within the same country. Conclusions/Significance Whilst some perinatal health care practices audited were consistent with best available evidence, several were not. We conclude that recording of clinical practices should be an essential step to improve quality of care. Based on these findings, the SEA-ORCHID project team has been developing and implementing interventions aimed at increasing compliance with evidence-based clinical practice recommendations to improve perinatal practice in South East Asia.
The Million Women Study: design and characteristics of the study population
The Million Women Study Collaborative Group
Breast Cancer Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1186/bcr16
Abstract: Population-based cohort study of women aged 50-64 in the UK.Women are asked to join the Million Women Study when they are invited to routine screening for breast cancer at 61 of the screening centres of the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP). An estimated 71% of women screened by the NHSBSP return a completed questionnaire.800 000 women were recruited between May 1996 and June 1999, and it is planned that an additional 200 000 will be recruited by the year 2000.The characteristics of the first 121 000 women recruited into the Million Women Study are described here. At recruitment 33% of the study population were currently using hormone replacement therapy and 47% had used it at some time. Over half (54%) had used oral contraceptives, and 18% were current smokers at the time of recruitment. Before they were screened 1.4% of the women had been diagnosed with breast cancer in the past, 6% had a mother with a history of breast cancer and 3.7% had a sister with a history of breast cancer. It is estimated that 1 million women will have been recruited by early in the year 2000, and that by the end of the year 2002 there will be 5000 screen-detected breast cancers and 23 000 deaths in the cohort, the majority of which will be attributed to cancer (12 600 deaths) and circulatory disease (8000 deaths).By the end of the year 2002, the Million Women Study will have sufficient statistical power to detect relative risks of 0.8 or less, or of 1.2 or more in current users compared with never users of hormone replacement therapy for mortality from breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung and ovarian cancer, ischaemic heart disease and stroke.The Million Women Study is a nationwide collaborative research project in the UK, the chief aim of which is to describe the relationship between use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and the risk of various conditions, particularly breast cancer. The study began in May 1996 and the plan is to recruit and follow-up a
Strategies for the introduction and implementation of a guideline for the treatment of type 2 diabetics by general practitioners (GPs) of the Lazio region of Italy (IMPLEMEG study): Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN80116232]
Carla Perria, the IMPLEMEG Study Group
BMC Health Services Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-4-13
Abstract: Three-arm cluster-randomised trial (C-RCT). 252 GPs were randomised either to arm 1 (comprising a training module and administration of the guideline), or to arm 2 (administration of guideline without training), or to arm 3 (control arm), continuing current practice. Arm 1 participants attended a two-day course with CME credits. Data collection will be performed using current information systems. Patients' health data was also collected to describe diabetic populations cared for by GP participants. Process outcomes will be measured at the patient level and at the cluster level one year after the intervention. We will assess GPs' adherence to guideline recommendations for diabetes management relative to: 1) pharmacological management of diabetes; 2) pharmacological management of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and dislypidaemia); 3) measurement of glycosilated haemoglobin as the principal indicator of glycaemic control; 4) micro- and macrovascular complications assessment tests. Outcomes will be expressed as proportions of patients cared for by GPs who will have prescriptions of drugs, requests for tests and for outpatient appointment visits. To estimate the efficiency of resource use associated with the intervention a cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out. The design of the study is based on three Cochrane and one Health Technology Assessment systematic reviews of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies.In Italy diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem with a prevalence of 3–4% [1,2]. Considerable resources are committed to addressing important clinical problems connected with the treatment of micro- and macrovascular complications [3].In Italy, patients with type 2 non-complicated DM are mainly treated in generale practice, whereas patients with type 1 DM usually receive care from specialists.Although clinical guidelines are available from traditional means, data from an unpublished survey, conducted in a local health distr
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