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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3340 matches for " financial derivate "
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Ochoa,Iván Darío; González,Cristina;
Revista EIA , 2007,
Abstract: colombia has to have a financial market that fits the needs of its increasingly internationalized economy. that means that a financial derivate market has to be developed. this includes a very deep options market in which forex options be widely dealt with in order to take advantage of the multiple benefits of this instrument specially for hedging purposes since the currency exchange risk is more and more threatening in a globalized world. options are not very well known in colombia and there is little information about them. they are only treaded in the over the counter (otc) market since there not exists an organized one. of course, it is possible to contract tailor made options in the otc market, which would not be the case in an organized market, but at the same time this implies more counterpart risk. since the colombian economy is getting more and more globalize and after adopting a floating exchange rate, the cop has experienced some appreciation that has risen up to 25%. this means considerable losses to the export sector. and also it should drive towards a culture more active in risk managing to hedge against foreign exchange volatility, which could avoid significant losses to the import/export sectors in the future. however, it has been identified that, in spite of the recent volatility of the peso/dollar exchange rate, there is little advance in developing such a culture. so this article focuses on the investigation done about the reasons why the mayor colombian import/export companies had not progressed in forex hedging even though there is an increasing risk because of the mentioned volatility. investigations carried out on those topics above said were complemented with the study of the variables that determine the market price of options allowed to conclude about the principal reason against developing a strong culture for hedging against forex risk although this risk has been growing day by day. conclusions are also drawn about why the colombian optio
Iván Darío Ochoa,Cristina González
Revista EIA , 2007,
Abstract: Colombia debe contar con un mercado financiero acorde con las necesidades de la internacionaliza-ción de su economía. Para esto requiere desarrollar un mercado de derivados, y entre ellos el de opciones sobre la tasa de cambio peso/dólar, de modo que se aprovechen las ventajas de este instrumento, entre otros fines, para la cobertura del riesgo cambiario, cada vez más latente en un mundo globalizado. Las opciones financieras son poco conocidas en Colombia y sobre ellas se tiene muy poca información. Puesto que no hay un mercado organizado, se transan sólo en el mercado extrabursátil (OTC), el cual, si bien es cierto que implica mayor riesgo de contraparte, también permite el dise o de coberturas a la medida de las necesidades del cliente. Con la globalización de la economía y el paso a un régimen de tasa de cambio flotante, se han presentado apreciaciones del peso frente al dólar en los últimos a os que alcanzan el 25%, lo que ha implicado grandes pérdidas para el sector exportador colombiano. Estos hechos deberían impulsar a quienes participan en el mercado externo, en cualquier modalidad, a desarrollar una cultura de gestión del riesgo cambiario para prevenir pérdidas futuras por exposición a la volatilidad de la tasa de cambio. No obstante, se evidencia que, por diversos motivos, no se ha dado un amplio desarrollo de esa cultura, y son precisamente esos motivos los que se investigaron con las mayores empresas exportadoras/importadoras del país y se analizan en este artículo. Las investigaciones sobre los aspectos mencionados complementadas con el estudio de las variables que afectan la valoración de las opciones en el mercado financiero permiten formular algunas conclusiones sobre las principales razones para que no exista una fuerte cultura de cobertura del riesgo cambiario, a pesar de que la amenaza de este riesgo es creciente, de por qué el mercado de las opciones sobre tasa de cambio es de tan poca profundidad hoy en día en Colombia y cuáles son las perspectivas para una mejor utilización de este instrumento financiero que algunos autores consideran como un símbolo de los mercados financieros modernos. Colombia has to have a financial market that fits the needs of its increasingly internationalized economy. That means that a financial derivate market has to be developed. This includes a very deep options market in which forex options be widely dealt with in order to take advantage of the multiple benefits of this instrument specially for hedging purposes since the currency exchange risk is more and more threatening in a globalized world. Options a
Algunos Apartes Históricos Del Cálculo
Abel Alvarez
Revista Sigma , 2009,
Abstract: This article is informative and the aim is to talk about some historical aspects of the development of calculus. The calculation baseline is in four problems that arose in the seventeenth century, solved largely by Fermat and Descartes. However, this work servedas motivation for Newton and Leibniz in the development of calculus with nuances of each author. These techniques can identify new and diverse applications to science, but it also showed inconsistency in their mathematical foundation, which led to mathematicians asEuler, Bernoulli, Lagrange, among others, to try to overcome the diculties concerning the development of the denition of derivative.
Enriquecimento de macarr?o tipo tubo (massa curta) com derivados de levedura (Saccharomyces sp.): impacto nutricional e sensorial
Santucci, Marjorie Carelli Costa;Alvim, Izabela Dutra;Schmit, Flávio;Faria, Eliete Vaz de;Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612003000200032
Abstract: the objective of this work was to investigate the technical possibility and best levels of addition to noodles of yeast autolysate (at) and extract (ex) aiming at improving nutritive value without a decrease in consumer acceptance. addition of 5 or 7.5% yeast derivative improved essential aminoacid score (eas) of 9 and 19%, respectively, for the at and the ex. the growth promoting index (npr) increased 25 and 40% for the 7.5% addition of at or ex, respectively. in the white noodles, 5% addition of extract did not alter the acceptance of the product, however 5% addition of autolysate produced a negative impact on the consumer acceptance. addition to the mass of spinach extract (green noodle) and 7.5% of yeast derivative affected only the appearance of the noodle added of yeast ex and also the appearance and color of the noodle added of at, compared with the noodle added of spinach extract only. addition to the mass of spinach extract improved the sensorial properties of the noodle added of 7.5% at. the manufacturing technological characteristics of the noodles were not altered by the addition to the mass of yeast derivatives.
The inflammatory response of the pulp after direct capping with platelet-rich plasma and enamel matrix derivative: A controlled animal study  [PDF]
Murat Maden, Ekim Onur Orhan, ?hsan Furkan Ertu?rul, Burcu Sengüven
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.41004

Aims: To evaluate the inflammatory response of the exposed pulp of incisor teeth in rats after direct pulp capping, using platelet rich plasma (PRP), enamel matrix derivate (EMD), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Methods: The study was conducted on 36 Wistar albino rats with a total of 144 incisor teeth. The pulps of 96 teeth of the rats were perforated and capped with different agents. Serving as the positive control group, the pulps of 24 teeth were only perforated and capped without capping agents, whereas the pulps of 24 teeth were used as the negative control group without being perforated (without any process). The research was ended with the extracting of the teeth on the 7th day-28th day. The teeth were taken to the routine and histological follows; cross sections were prepared and painted with hematoxylen & eosin. All of the sections were evaluated in terms of inflammatory reaction by histologic analysis taken by light microscope. Statistical analysis was used. The normal distribution of all data was tested with the Mann Whitney U and the differences between the groups were analyze dusing Kruskal Wallis test at 0.05 level. Results: There are no statistically significant differences in terms of inflammation type and necrosis among the treatment groups on 7 days’ post capping. However, improved inflammatory cell accumulation, hyperemia and lowest necrosis were observed from the samples treated with PRP (p < 0.05). Conversely, the EMD group indicated that the criteria of inflammation scores and hyper-

emia were higher in the 28th day (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of cells accumulating in the PRP group and most necrosis were seen in the EMD group. These new PRP materials might serve as pulp capping biomaterials to induce initial healing response in the

Financial Inclusion: Opportunities, Issues and Challenges  [PDF]
George Varghese, Lakshmi Viswanathan
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811126
Abstract: An all-inclusive financial system is essential for a nation as it augments efficiency and welfare by providing scope for secure and safe saving practices and by facilitating a wide range of improved financial services. The focus of the present study is on identifying the opportunities, issues, and challenges of financial inclusion in India.
Sutura primaria e ileostomía transcecal en urgencias quirúrgicas del colon izquierdo
Valdés Ferro,Joselín; Díaz Díaz,José Daniel; López Hernández,Juan Carlos; Bonet Espinosa,José Francisco; Salazar Morejón,Liván;
Revista de Ciencias M??dicas de Pinar del R?-o , 2011,
Abstract: introduction: a controversy about surgical alternative to the solution of surgical emergencies of left colon gives rise. objective: to compare primary suture and transcecal ileostomy with a conventional colostomy probe in patients operated on left colon. methods: an analytical, observational, prospective and longitudinal study. target group: 70 patients having the diagnosis of surgical emergencies due to left colon conditions. sample: 34 patients who underwent left colon surgeries from january 2006 and 2010 at "abel santamaria cuadrado" and "leon cuervo rubio" provincial general university hospitals. two groups chosen at random were included: group-a (sample), 34 patients with suture or intestinal resection plus primary anastomosis and transcecal ileostomy with probe; group-b (control) 36 patients with intestinal resection and conventional colostomy. chi square test with a significance level of 0,05 and percentages were applied. results: traumatic sigmoid perforations prevailed (37,1%) and sigmoid volvulus with vascular compromise (31,4%) in both groups, male sex and ages from 51 to 60 predominated. in group-a the 11,7% of patients presented complications that were not related to dehiscence of anastomosis; in group-b the complications reached 55,5% prevailing the infection of surgical wound and the general ones. global mortality of the primary suture with transcecal ileostomy was 2,9% and 11,1% with conventional colostomy. the probe of the ileostomy was removed at 7 days on average; currently the quality of life of these patients is satisfactory. conclusion: primary suture and transcecal ileostomy present much less complications as well as mortality, it minimizes psychological damage, and this is the most physiologic surgical alternative.
To Update Ideas, to Explore New Model of Financial Managemen  [PDF]
Pengfei Zhao
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.53B040

With the reform and opening up of china, and the globalization of economy, Chinese enterprises are facing more and more complex financial environment, especially since 2008 financial crisis, the government's macro-control, the relative appreciation of RMB, rising labor costs and other non-financial constraints factors, have greatly changed the financial management content, objectives, theory, methods, and ways of working etc, enterprises financial management are suffering from a huge challenge. This paper analyzes the main problems of Chinese enterprises in financial management, and gives some suggestions to work out these problems.

Disequilibrium Pricing—Greek Euro Crisis  [PDF]
Frederick Betz
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49113
Abstract: Financial instability in Greece began in 2009 when the interest rates on Greek sovereign bonds surged; and this can be graphed in a “price disequilibrium” model. To explain how this came about, we create a systems-dynamics model of the Greek fiscal system. Government fiscal systems are not a kind of a “causal” system, but a “structural-functional” system instead. This approach is in the spirit of the Keynes-Minsky model of a financial market as a “dynamic” of the value of capital assets. Financial bubbles occur from “perceptions”—cognitive “reflexivity” in Soros’ term—as expectations of the future values in a financial market. The Greek government fiscal crisis is a “Minsky moment”, which occurs at a time when traders in a financial market have moved from speculative finance to the unstable reflexivity in Ponzi finance. The governments in Greece had indulged in the dynamics of a budget policy of “Ponzi finance”. Unsound fiscal policy over many years had accumulated a very large and increasing government debt—until bond market “reflexive cognition” triggered the Greek fiscal crisis in 2010. The “reflexive perception” of bond traders was that either the Greek government must “default” or be “bailed out”.
An Econophysics Model of Financial Bubbles  [PDF]
Bodo Herzog
Natural Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.71006
Abstract: Usually financial crises go along with bubbles in asset prices, such as the housing bubble in the US in 2007. This paper attempts to build a mathematical model of financial bubbles from an econophysics, and thus a new perspective. I find that agents identify bubbles only with a time delay. Furthermore, I demonstrate that the detection of bubbles is different on either the individual or collective point of view. Second, I utilize the findings for a new definition of asset bubbles in finance. Finally, I extend the model to the study of asset price dynamics with news. In conclusion, the model provides unique insights into the properties and developments of financial bubbles.
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