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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 520 matches for " fear "
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Does Antenatal Fear of Childbirth Predict Postnatal Fear of Childbirth? A Study of Japanese Women  [PDF]
Mizuki Takegata, Megumi Haruna, Masayo Matsuzaki, Mie Shiraishi, Tadaharu Okano, Elisabeth Severinsson
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.52017
Abstract: The study aimed to determine whether antenatal fear of childbirth (expectation) could predict postnatal fear of childbirth (experience) by taking account of other antenatal psychological variables (anxiety and depression) as well as birth outcomes in Japanese women. A longitudinal observational study was conducted at a clinic in Tokyo, Japan, in 2011. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to 240 Japanese women at 37 gestational weeks (Time 1) and on the second day after delivery (Time 2). Regression analyses by means of structural equation modelling were conducted in both the primiparous and the multiparous group. The models exhibited good fit (chisquare value/degree of freedom = 1.10 - 1.62, comparative fit index = 0.92 - 0.99 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.03 - 0.07). Antenatal fear of childbirth was the most predictive variable of postnatal fear of childbirth in both the primiparous (β = 0.58, p = 0.002) and the multiparous group (β = 0.62, p < 0.001). In conclusion, antenatal fear of childbirth was a significant predictor of postnatal fear of childbirth when other antenatal psychological variables and birth outcomes were taken into account. Pregnant women who are strongly afraid of childbirth need special attention before and after delivery.
Polish adaptation and validation of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire
Micha?owski, Jaros?aw M.,Holas, Pawe?
Psychiatria Polska , 2013,
Abstract: Aim. The present study aimed at the adaptation and validation of two questionnaires assessing fear of bodily sensations (BSQ; suggested Polish name: Kwestionariusz Doznań Cielesnych [KDC]) and concerns specific to agoraphobics (ACQ; suggested Polish name: Kwestionariusz My li Towarzysz cych Agorafobii [KMTA]).Method. The study included a total of 82 patients diagnosed with agoraphobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV as well as 100 control subjects who did not show the presence of mental disorders.Results. The results showed that both adapted questionnaires meet basic psychometric criteria. The Polish-language versions of the ACQ and BSQ are characterized by a high content validity, internal consistency and showed to be stable over a period of 28 days. Moreover, the factor structure of the Polish version of the ACQ showed to be highly similar to the original version.Conclusions Polish-language versions of the ACQ and BSQ have been found to be reliable and valid research and diagnostic instruments for the assessment of fear for bodily sensations and agoraphobic cognitions. Due to their high efficiency and adequate psychometric characteristics these measures might be very useful in research as well as in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effects.
Micha?owski, Jaros?aw,Holas, Pawe?,Wojdy?o, Kamila,Gorlewski, Bart?omiej
Psychiatria i Psychoterapia , 2012,
Abstract: Aim: The present study aimed at the adaptation and validation of the Mobility Inventory (MI; suggested Polish name: Skala Zachowan Unikowych Towarzyszacych Agorafobii [SZUTA]) used to assess the frequency ofagoraphobic avoidance behavior under circumstances of being in company (subscale Avoidance When Accompanied) or alone (subscale Avoidance When Alone).Method: The study included a total of 80 patients diagnosed with agoraphobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV as well as 100 control subjects who did not show the presence of mental disorders.Results: The present study showed that the Polish-language version of the MI meets basic psychometric criteria.Both of its subscales are characterized by a high content validity and reliability.Conclusions: The Polish-language version of the MI has been found to be a highly efficient and economic research and diagnostic instrument for the measurement of the agoraphobic avoidance behavior. Both of itssubscales (i.e. Avoidance When Accompanied and Avoidance When Alone) might be very useful in research or in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effects.
Reinstatement of extinguished fear by an unextinguished conditional stimulus
Lindsay R. Halladay,Moriel Zelikowsky,Hugh T. Blair,Michael S. Fanselow
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00018
Abstract: Anxiety disorders are often treated using extinction-based exposure therapy, but relapse is common and can occur as a result of reinstatement, whereby an aversive “trigger” can reinstate extinguished fear. Animal models of reinstatement commonly utilize a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which subjects are first trained to fear a conditional stimulus (CS) by pairing it with an aversive unconditional stimulus (US), and then extinguished by repeated presentations of the CS alone. Reinstatement is typically induced by exposing subjects to an aversive US after extinction, but here we show that exposure to a non-extinguished CS can reinstate conditional fear responding to an extinguished CS, a phenomenon we refer to as “conditional reinstatement” (CRI). Rats were trained to fear two CSs (light and tone) and subsequently underwent extinction training to only one CS (counterbalanced). Presenting the unextinguished CS (but not a novel cue) immediately after extinction reinstated conditional fear responding to the extinguished CS in a test session given 24 h later. These findings indicate that reinstatement of extinguished fear can be triggered by exposure to conditional as well as unconditional aversive stimuli, and this may help to explain why relapse is common following clinical extinction therapy in humans. Further study of CRI using animal models may prove useful for developing refined extinction therapies that are more resistant to reinstatement.
Brain Interactions between Extinction and Reconsolidation in the Treatment of Fear Memories  [PDF]
Dagieli Sartor, Natália Gindri Fiorenza, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw, Iván Izquierdo
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.23032
Abstract: Memory traces become labile at the time of retrieval, and this initiates two protein synthesis-dependent processes in the brain: extinction, which inhibits their further retrieval, and reconsolidation, which may enhance retrieval or change the memory’s content. Extinction may itself suffer reconsolidation. Interactions between these processes may be applied to the treatment of fear memories, such as those underlying the post-traumatic stress disorder.
Psychological risk factors associated with falls among elderly people in Baghdad city, Iraq  [PDF]
Mohammed A. Abdal Qader, Rahmah Mohd. Amin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Zaleha Md. Isa, Khalib Abdul Latif, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.37059
Abstract: Background: Ageing of the population is one of the most important demographic facts that come to the foreground in the 21st century. Objective: To assess the relationship between psychological factors (depression, loneliness, using anti anxiety medication, fear from falls and internal displacement of the population) and falls among elderly people in Baghdad city, Iraq. Methods: A matched 1:1 community based case-control study involving 716 elderly respondents, recruited randomly from six Non Governmental Organization (NGO) in different areas of Baghdad. Interviews to each respondent were done accordingly. Geriatric depression scale (GDS) was used to assess the depression among the elderly people. Results: The minimum age for cases and controls was 60 years old while the maximum age for cases was 87 and for controls was 85 years old. The female was predominant than male, 53.6% to 46.4% respectively. The relation between depression, fear from fall, using anti anxiety medication, internal displacement and falls was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Psychological factor especially depression among elderly people is one of the important risk factors contributing to falls accident. Fear from falls, displacement and taking anti anxiety medication were also in significant relation.


Contextual Fear Extinction and Re-Extinction in Carioca High- and Low-Conditioned Freezing Rats  [PDF]
Vitor de Castro Gomes, Laura Andrea León, Daniel Mograbi, Fernando Cardenas, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2014.43028

We recently reported two novel breeding lines of rats known as Carioca High- and Low-conditioned Freezing (CHF and CLF), based on defensive freezing responses to contextual cues previously associated with electric footshock. The present study used animals of the 8th generation of our selective breeding program to investigate both contextual fear extinction and re-extinction. The results consistently showed that CHF animals froze more than CLF animals. Long extinction training was able to extinguish phenotypic differences between lines, but the divergence was restored after just one fear reacquisition training session. These differences disappeared again during re-extinction training. The possible neural mechanisms involved in these two types of learning are discussed.

Fear of Crime among Women in the Old City Center of Istanbul  [PDF]
Funda Yirmibesoglu, Nilgun Ergun
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.32014
Abstract: Istanbul, the biggest city of Turkey with a population of 17 million people, is a city where both the negative and positive effects of urban life standards are intensely experienced. Along with problems such as migration from rural areas to urban areas, rapid population growth, unemployment and squatting, crime rates have recently been observed to go higher (Yirmibesoglu & Ergun, 2013). The old city center, Beyoglu was infamously known for its high crime rates and fear of crime, but today it seems that this image has changed and the fear of crime has decreased. Among the reasons for this decrease, we can mention the fact that Beyoglu has been through a gentrification process that some buildings have been restored, and that urban design implementations have been done in some streets. This study aimed to find out how fear of crime according to gender differed before and after the renovation process. With this aim in mind, field research and surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2010. The research problem, fear of crime and environmental safety in Beyoglu, was investigated based on certain variables such as the participants’ gender, occupation, duration of residence in Istanbul, the place of residence, age group, place of birth, and educational level; the participants were also asked about the frequency of their visits to Beyoglu and the reasons why they go to Beyoglu. The results of the study revealed the differences in fear of crime between men and women. It was found that Beyoglu district became safer after the renovations; yet, the rate of fear of walking alone, and therefore the fear of crime, was found to be higher among women than among men.
Behavioral and Neurobiological Assessments of Predator-Based Fear Conditioning and Extinction  [PDF]
Joshua D. Halonen, Phillip R. Zoladz, Collin R. Park, David M. Diamond
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.68033
Abstract: Shock, immobilization, and exposure to predator-related stimuli have all been used to study fear conditioning in rodents, but they have never been used in conjunction in a single study. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these three reinforcers, alone and in various combinations, on the expression of long-term conditioned fear memory and extinction in adult male rats. Whereas foot shock conditioning, alone, was rapidly extinguished; the combination of immobilization and cat exposure, or all 3 stimuli together, produced a significant increase in the magnitude of fear conditioning and greater resistance to extinction, which persisted for at least 5 weeks post-training (p < 0.05). Experiment 2 assessed the role of the hippocampus in predator-based context and cued fear conditioning. Pharmacological suppression of hippocampal activity during fear conditioning produced a selective impairment of contextual, but not cued, fear memory. Experiment 3 investigated the effects of sleep deprivation prior to fear conditioning on the expression of fear memory. This experiment demonstrated that pre-training sleep deprivation blocked the expression of contextual (hippocampal-dependent), but not cued (hippocampal-independent), fear memory. Overall, this series of experiments has extended the use of predator exposure in conjunction with conventional reinforcers, such as foot shock and immobilization, to advance our understanding of the neurobiology of traumatic memory.
Anger and Contested Place in the Social World  [PDF]
Warren D. TenHouten
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.83018
Abstract: The root term angr includes in its meaning anger-rage and sadness-grief, which today are recognized as two primary or basic emotions. Anger involves the brain’s “rage system”, an architecture widely represented in the animal kingdom. Anger and its opposite, fear, are the positive and negative adaptive reactions to the existential problem of social hierarchy and associated competition for resources and opportunities. Anger’s valence can be negative insofar as it is unpleasant for all involved but is primarily positive because anger is goal-seeking and approach-oriented. Anger functions to assert social dominance, and detection of anger in others reveals possible challenge intentions. The management and control of anger is linked to impulsivity, patience, and tolerance. While the Russell-Fehr model views emotions such as aggressiveness, sullenness, and resentment as subcategories of anger, we rather contend that anger is an embedded subcategory of secondary- and tertiary-level emotions. We model one such emotion, resentment, as a tertiary emotion. Resentment has anger as its key emotion, and includes the primary emotions disgust and surprise, which can combine in pairs to form outrage, contempt, and shock. A classification of 7 secondary and 21 tertiary emotions in which anger is embedded is presented. We argue that the classification of complex emotions is a potential, and necessary, project for the sociology-anthropology of emotions.
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