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Importance of a Proper Planning of Surgical Procedures in Pediatric Laparoscopy. Theater Checklist  [PDF]
Antonio Marte, Lucia Pintozzi, Micaela Borrelli, Pio Parmeggiani
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.312113
Abstract: Aims: Ergonomics and proper planning of surgical procedures are the basis of success for laparoscopy in children. The successful execution of a laparoscopic procedure requires a great familiarity with the equipment and the positioning of the operators. This is to avoid unnecessary surgical team fatigue that affects the duration and effectiveness of the intervention. We conducted a study on our laparoscopic procedures to determine the effectiveness and usefulness of the application of ergonomics and a regular use of a preoperative checklist. Materials and Methods: We studied the laparoscopic operations performed by a single operator between January 2008 and July 2011. These factors were considered: the position and orientation of equipment, crew and patient discomfort, and the problems encountered by the operators. We used as evaluation criteria the diagrams proposed by Lenoir and Steinbrecher and an appropriate preoperative checklist. Results: Of the 49 measures considered, only 22 procedures were useful and met the evaluation criteria. No correlation, referring to the physical measures, were detected in operations lasting <60 minutes. The fatigue of the operating team grew, even if non-exponentially, after the first hour of operation. In the 22 procedures considered, there were 71 “adverse” episodes that delayed or complicated the procedure; most of these were related to inadequate preparation of the operating room, instruments, or operators (malfunction of synthesis equipment, unavailability of instruments, insufficient number of principals, malposition of trocars, or unavailability of image intensifier). After the adoption of checklist, verified in the subsequent 18 procedures, only 10 adverse episodes occurred. Conclusions: Our study seems to confirm that simple steps related to proper planning of laparoscopic procedures were directly linked to the effectiveness of surgical performance and duration of the intervention. The preoperative checklist we set, in our experience, resulted as very useful in preventing intra-operative problems.
The Impacts of Ergonomic Aspects on the Quality  [PDF]
Reza Khani Jazani, Sajad Mousavi
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2014.41003
Abstract: In recent times, the relationship between quality and ergonomics discipline is a challenging topic. Although there are similarities and differences between these two areas, it is not so easy to describe the connection between these two issues. In this study by surveying several articles, different areas of ergonomics are divided into five categories including hardware ergonomics, environmental ergonomics, software ergonomics, work design ergonomics and macro ergonomics, then the impact on the quality of each of these areas will be discussed. Finally, the article concludes that, to reach an acceptable quality considering the ergonomic principles is an integral component of the organization policy.
Benefits of laptop computer ergonomics education to graduate students  [PDF]
Peter J. Bowman, Katharine D. Braswell, Jessica R. Cohen, Jenna L. Funke, Hannah L. Landon, Paloma I. Martinez, Julie N. Mossbarger
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2014.21006
Abstract: Laptop computers are used more often than desktop computers, especially among graduate students. Many common laptop habits can have severe physiological effects on the user ranging from eye strain, poor posture, upper extremity pain, and overuse injuries. Thus, it is important to educate students on the best ergonomic position to use laptops. This study investigates the efficacy of a laptop ergonomic education session and its effects on graduate students’ knowledge and behaviors regarding proper laptop use. A convenience sample of control and experimental groups was used and consisted of 83 occupational therapy (OT), 63 physical therapy (PT), and 26 nurse anesthesia (NA) graduate students. The sample size was 172, with 94 graduate students in the control group and 78 graduate students in the experimental. All study participants completed an initial ergonomics questionnaire. The experimental group was given an ergonomics education session following the questionnaire. Approximately 4 weeks after both groups completed the initial questionnaire; a follow up questionnaire was administered. Results showed that subjects demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in ergonomics knowledge after they completed the ergonomic educational session. Some participants reported making adaptations to laptop positioning and equipment use following the educational session. Thus, participating in ergonomic education can positively influence awareness of body mechanics relative to laptop workstation design.
Office Work Innovation: What about Wellbeing?  [PDF]
Veerle Hermans
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.77083
Abstract: Offices nowadays are looking very attractive: design furniture, trendy colours, fancy lighting, art objects and even an ecological touch. These offices are often linked to new ways of working, further explained by concepts such as flex work, telework, shared office work, cloud work etc. But what are the effects of these changing environments on the wellbeing of the workers? And do these trendy offices really increase ergonomics at work? In this paper, first a brief history on the development and evolution of office environments is given. Furthermore, an analysis of some pitfalls in today’s offices is presented. For each pitfall, some advice is given on how to reduce the problems.
Total Ergonomics and Its Impact in Musculoskeletal Disorders and Quality of Work Life and Productivity  [PDF]
N. S. Abarqhouei, H. Hosseini Nasab
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2011.13008
Abstract: Studies have indicated the application of ergonomics in improving the quality of work life, reducing musculoskeletal disorders and increasing productivity. On the other hand, there are large differences between developing and developed countries in applying ergonomics knowledge, the need of applying the science of culture, especially in developing countries and the third world is vital, but the culture implementation and pay evaluation of total ergonomics (micro and macro) is low. Therefore, this study has tried using the studies of society and culture dominated by manufacturing service, a comprehensive and integrated model for ergonomics interventions to be developed and used in an educational establishment and the effects of ergonomic interventions in a field study in comparison with conditions before the intervention using questionnaire “body mapping” and “quality of work life” to evaluate. Study results showed increased productivity, improved work life quality and reduced musculoskeletal disorders. So a comparison of performance than the base year indicated lower costs and increased revenue and expanded with less manpower in data analysis questionnaire “quality of work life” and “body mapping” which showed that significant difference in confidence interval between the sample and control population is ninety-nine percent and there is reduction of musculoskeletal disorders and increase in quality of work life. Those indices indicated the positive effect of interventions ergonomics.
Ergonomics: case study in a university library Ergonomía: estudio de caso en biblioteca universitaria Ergonomia: estudo de caso em biblioteca universitária
Daniela Capri,Eliana Maria dos Santos Bahia,Adilson Luiz Pinto
Biblios , 2013, DOI: 10.5195/biblios.2012.59
Abstract: This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics were contextualized and linked to the library and the university library. Referring to the methodology, the Ergonomical Assessment of the Built Environment was used as a reference. The study subjects comprised a sample of 15, among students and library staff. In the results obtained, when related to the physical-environmental analysis of the library, it was found that there are some aspects that differ from the regulatory standards and that also fall short in relation to feedback from users. Aspects such as lighting and noise were cited as unsatisfactory, but the temperature factor was analyzed as satisfactory. Se recogió en esta investigación analizar la ergonomía real de una Biblioteca Universitaria de Florianópolis/SC y confrontarla con la ergonomía percibida por el usuario, para realización de un diagnóstico ergonómico. Los sujetos investigados llenaron una muestra de quince personas, entre alumnos de la Biblioteca y operarios del local. Con el objetivo de atender este puntos, fueron establecidos dos objetivos específicos: describir los aspectos físico-ambientales de la Biblioteca, vinculados a la Ergonomía real y verificar la percepción de los usuarios en relación a la Biblioteca. Aspectos sobre Ergonomía y su aplicación vinculados a la Biblioteca Universitaria. Se analizaron las condiciones de iluminación, ruido y temperatura. Amparado por una bibliografía, el presente estudio presenta mercado de trabajo para el profesional de Arquivologia y Biblioteconomía. Buscou-se nesta pesquisa analisar a ergonomia real de uma Biblioteca Universitária de Florianópolis/SC e confrontá-la com a ergonomia percebida pelo usuário, para realiza o de um diagnóstico ergon mico. Os sujeitos pesquisados preencheram uma amostra de quinze pessoas, entre alunos da Biblioteca e funcionários do local. Com o intuito de atender este pontos, foram estabelecidos dois objetivos específicos: descrever os aspectos físico-ambientais da Biblioteca, vinculados à Ergonomia real e verificar a percep o dos usuários em rela o à Biblioteca. Aspectos sobre Ergonomia e sua aplica o vinculados à Bibliot
Gynecological Surgery and the Robot  [PDF]
O. E. O’Sullivan, B. A. O’Reilly
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.62009

As the only robotic device with FDA approval for gynecological surgery, the da Vinci? Surgical System dominates robot-assisted surgery in the field. Benefits to the Surgeon include decreased risk of neck and back injury secondary to improved ergonomics. However, patients benefit greatly due to decreased length of stay, decreased blood loss and analgesic requirements. Unfortunately the initial economic impact of purchasing and maintaining a robot is great but must be balanced with the potential savings from reduced length of stay and earlier return to normal activity. This article looks at the indications for robot-assisted surgery in gynecology. Assessing the efficacy of this modality compared to both straight stick (Laparoscopy) and open procedures. We discuss the impact and implications for surgical training imposed by robotic surgery. Furthermore, we assess the safety of robotic surgery from both the surgeons prospective and as a surgical modality.

Evaluation and Design of Alphabetic Communication Boards  [PDF]
David John Williams
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.72011
Abstract: Communication boards provide a low-cost means of facilitating communication with patients who are unable to speak; however the process is slow and frustrating. A computer model was used to calculate the cumulative frequency-weighted path length for letter selection (“chart index”) for three conventional communication boards using different search strategies; and exhaustively generate and evaluate designs for a novel communication board based on a frequency-ordered arrangement of letters. For all arrangements, a 46% to 53% reduction in chart indices was achieved when “2 Dimensional” (2D) rather than “1 Dimensional” (1D) search strategies were employed. A further 23% to 30% reduction in chart indices was achieved through use of frequency-ordered sequences with optimal row groupings. Conventional communication boards can be used more efficiently by employing a 2D search strategy. Novel communication boards based on optimised arrangements of frequency-ordered letter sequences potentially provide a faster means of communication than conventional communication boards.
Anthropometry Survey of Nigerian Occupational Bus Drivers to Facilitate Sustainable Design of Driver’s Workplace  [PDF]
Onawumi Ayodele Samuel, Dunmade Israel, Fajobi Moses
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.42016
Abstract: Driving is a highly demanding and responsible job in which both the driver and passengers are exposed to several occupational risks. However, poor design of driver’s workplace is a major risk factor responsible for the uncomfortable conditions which operators of this highly technological system are exposed to especially when engaged in long distance driving. This study aimed at developing anthropometric model for business bus drivers in Nigerian which would facilitate sustainable design of driver’s workplace. A sample size of 161 drivers was randomly selected among strata of operators of buses in selected motor parks in the study area for the ergonomic study. Twelve anthropometric data were collected and analysed to obtain their 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles with which the anthropometric model were developed. Anthropometric model developed from 1932 data points was presented in forms of table showing measurement of sitting driver’s body parts in his workspace indicating design for average as well as extremities of 5th and 95th percentiles. The model represents a database from which designers, manufacturers of equipment, machine, automobiles and household goods can obtain relevant body measurement of the population under study in relation relevant to specific product feature and for development of sustainable workspace design.
TEM-SOFT: Academic Software for the Ergo-Mechanic Investigation of Tailgate Operation  [PDF]
Besim Türker ?zalp
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2018.118024
Abstract: Because of their technical advantages over ordinary metal springs, gas springs find usage in wide range of applications from furniture to aerospace industry as lifting, lowering or damping assists. Their integration to the tailgate operations in automotive industry is a challenging area, where not only the fundamental gas spring characteristics but also the mounting settings, working environment and tailgate body structure should be considered. The design and integration of these components will determine manual force exertion of operators thus the consideration of ergonomic characteristics of different populations is crucial. This paper introduces a recent visual academic software package, entitled TEM-SOFT, which is developed as a part of this research to perform ergo-mechanic simulations of tailgate operations with a fast, reliable and contemporary engineering approach and it is suitable for engineers and under-post graduate level students of mechanical and industrial engineering programs in the universities. The software developed and presented in this paper features all aspects of tailgate-gas spring operations considering the assembly scheme, tailgate mass center, gas spring type and working temperature in order to compute the required manual forces and the individual and combined impacts of acting parameters. Sufficient amount of scenarios were considered and the results were evaluated and discussed extensively. In addition to the other key findings, conducted research has shown that stronger gas springs, more effectively tend to move the critical tailgate position angle—where no operator force is needed to keep the tailgate opening—to the initial phases of the opening operation. A trade-off of this benefit is a superior initial manual force during closing.
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