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Enzyme from Banana (Musa sp.) Extraction Procedures for Sensitive Adrenaline Biosensor Construction  [PDF]
Solange Carvalho da Silva, Célio Wisniewski, Pedro Orival Luccas, Cristiana Schmidt de Magalh?es
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.46037

For building a biosensor, at least two enzyme sources can be employed. The pure enzyme has features with better selectivity and low stability. Crude extract presents better stability and wrong selectivity. Thus, one intermediate condition can be feasible joining both benefits of crude extract and pure enzymes. For that result, several procedures of extraction and semi purification of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme from banana (Musa sp.) were studied. The results showed that cleaned enzymatic extracts presented higher specific activities than crude extracts (2.8 up to 5.3 fold), despite the total protein concentration diminishing from 27% up to 72%, indicating that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was preserved in them. The biosensors with 125 AU mL-1 containing cleaned enzymatic extracts performed better by grinding or grinding plus sonication for 30 s. They were linear over the ranges of 5.9 × 10-6 mol·L-1 to 1.4 × 10-3 mol·L-1 and 7.9 × 10-8 mol·L-1 to 4.0 × 10-3 mol·L-1

Laparoscopic-assisted instillation of epinephrine and levobupivacaine enables cornual excision and anatomical reconstruction in unruptured cornual pregnancy  [PDF]
Juan Gilabert-Estelles, Juan Gilabert-Aguilar
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.42012

The objective of this report is to describe the possible use of intramiometrial vasoconstrictive agents for laparoscopic management of interstitial pregnancy and the consequences in anatomical results and reproductive outcomes. Cornual resection can be performed by laparoscopy, but the high vascularization of this area may result in profuse bleeding and laparoscopic suturing under these conditions might be impossible for the majority of the surgeons. We present a case that describes the possible use of intramiometrial instillation of a solution of diluted epinephrine and levobupivacaine under laparoscopic guidance that permitted a bloodless cornual excision with complete reconstruction. Vasoactive agents might have potentially serious cardiovascular side effects and the correct election of the active principle and the dosage is essential to reduce the risk of the surgery and obtain good anatomical results and reproductive outcomes. In conclusion, unruptured interstitial pregnancies can be managed successfully with intramyometrial instillation of epinephrine and bupivacaine. This simple technique is particularly attractive as it facilitates anatomical reconstruction of the cornual area, gives enough time to perform a complete suture of the defect and reduces the risk of laparotomic conversion.

A Retrospective Comparative Study between Levosimendan and Adrenaline as a Pharmacological Protocol for the Management of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients with Low Ejection Fraction: A Friend or Foe  [PDF]
Mohammed Nabil Abd Al Jawad, Mohammed S. Shorbagy
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2018.811022
Abstract: Background: Left ventricular ejection fraction is an independent determinant of the outcome of coronary artery bypass surgery. Low preoperative ejection fraction requires special care in terms of pharmacological and mechanical inotropic support. Adrenaline is the most widely used inotropic drug, while levosimendan is a relatively new inotropic drug in the field of cardiac surgery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relative efficacy of levosimendan in low ejection fraction patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: A retrospective comparative study was performed with 63 patients who underwent isolated on-pump elective CABG with a preoperative ejection fraction below 40%. Patients were allocated to the adrenaline group (n = 35) and levosimendan group (n = 28). Patients were further stratified according to ejection fraction above 30% and below or equal to 30%. The primary outcome was cardiac-related mortality, while other parameters were considered secondary endpoints. Results: EuroSCORE of the adrenaline group was 3.34 ± 1.26 and for the levosimendan group 3.15 ± 1.42 (p value 0.576). Nine patients of the adrenaline group had new postoperative atrial fibrillation compared to seven patients in the levosimendan group (p value 0.948). Two patients of the adrenaline group had postoperative ventricular arrhythmia compared to only one patient in the other group (p value 0.691). The adrenaline group had higher doses of inotropic support compared to the levosimendan group 210.84 ± 23.74 and 157.4 ± 22.69 ng/kg/min respectively (p value < 0.001). Longer ventilation hours and overall duration of ICU stay were also noticed in the adrenaline group 32.57 ± 7.23 hours, 8.84 ± 3.28 days in comparison to the levosimendan group 24.37 ± 5.09 hours, 6.23 ± 2.37 days (p values < 0.001 and 0.002 respectively). However, the primary endpoint was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: The levosimendan-based protocol failed to improve overall mortality in low ejection fraction patients undergoing CABG. However, this protocol significantly reduced the dose of inotropic and vasoconstrictor support needed, ventilation hours and duration of ICU stay.
Navigating the Updated Anaphylaxis Parameters
Stephen F Kemp
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-3-2-40
Abstract: With the clear objective of improving the quality of patient care through the provision of evidencebased and consensus guidelines for anaphylaxis, "The Diagnosis and Management of Anaphylaxis: An Updated Practice Parameter" was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters [1], which represents the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. This document updates and expands on its 1998 predecessor [2]. Because this effort involved many contributors, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. The diagnosis and management of anaphylactic reactions must be individualized on the basis of unique features in particular patients.In keeping with this spirit, the following discussion focuses on material deemed to be substantively updated or changed from the 1998 parameters. Any discussion that may depart from consensus or reflect personal opinion is clearly designated.Anaphylaxis is not a reportable disease, and both its morbidity and mortality are probably underestimated. A variety of statistics on the epidemiology of anaphylaxis have been published, but the lifetime risk per person in the United States and Canada is presumed to be 1 to 3%, with a mortality rate of 1% [3-7].There is no universally accepted definition of anaphylaxis. Three proposed consensus definitions are presented. The World Allergy Organization, composed of 39 countries, proposed that older, traditional terminology, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid, be discarded in favour of immunologic and nonimmunologic anaphylaxis [8]. The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters states, "Anaphylaxis is an acute lifethreatening reaction that results from the sudden systemic release of mast cells and basophil mediators. It has varied clinical present
Eficácia e seguran?a do uso inalatório da adrenalina-L na laringite pós-intuba??o utilizada em associa??o com a dexametasona
Fernandes, Iracema C. O.;Fernandes, José Carlos;Cordeiro, Andréa;Hsin, Shieh H.;Bousso, Albert;Ejzenberg, Bernardo;Okay, Yassuhiko;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572001000300008
Abstract: objective: to assess the efficacy and safety of the use of nebulized l-epinephrine associated with dexamethasone in postintubation laryngitis. method: we carried out a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study with two cohorts of patients with postintubation laryngitis graded 3 to 6 by downes-raphaelly score during two years. our population was divided into two groups: a and b; both groups received intravenous dexamethasone and two doses of nebulized saline; however, only group b received l-epinephrine. the efficacy was assessed by downes-raphaelly score. the side effects of l-epinephrine were evaluated according to the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmia, increased blood pressure, and average heart rate of group b in comparison to group a. results: twenty-two patients were included in group a (average score = 4.8) and 19 in group b (average score = 5.2). during treatment, 3 patients in group a presented a score of 8 and were reintubated. this group also showed higher mean clinical scores than group b during the first two hours of the protocol; these results were not statistically significant. no side effects were observed due to epinephrine. the gas blood measurements were adequate in both groups, but better in the control group. conclusions: we did not observe increased efficacy for the treatment of postintubation laryngitis when nebulized l-epinephrine was used simultaneously with intravenous dexamethasone. some indicators, however, did present a favorable trend when combined therapy was used and should be submitted to further evaluation.
Sevoflurano e desflurano sobre o ritmo cardíaco de c?es tratados com infus?o contínua de doses crescentes de adrenalina
Nunes, Newton;Rezende, Márlis Langenegger de;Santos, Paulo Sérgio Patto dos;Wang, Lilia;
Ciência Rural , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782004000100019
Abstract: the volatile anesthetics increase the sensibility of the myocardium or its conduction system to the action of endogenous and/or exogenous epinephrine, predisposing the animal to cardiac arrhythmias. among the volatile anesthetics, sevoflurane and desflurane are quite recent drugs and even though they have antiarrhythmogenic characteristics, there aren’t studies comparing these properties. the aim of this work was to study comparatively the cardiac rhythm and observe occasional atrioventricular blockages in dogs anesthetized with desflurane and sevoflurane, receiving increasing doses of epinephrine. 20 healthy adult male and female mongrel dogs were used. the animals were separated in two groups (g1 and g2). in g1, anesthesia was induced with propofol (10mmg-1.kg-1iv) and maintained with sevoflurane (1.5 mac). thirty minutes after the begin of volatile anesthetic administration, the epinephrine infusion was initiated at a dose of 1mmg.kg-1.min-1. at each 10 minutes the dose was increased in 1mmg.kg-1.min-1 until 6mmg.kg-1.min-1. for g2, the same methodology was used, except that sevoflurane was replaced by desflurane (1.5 mac). at each epinephrine dose, the non-sinusal cardiac beats were counted and the occurrence of atrioventricular blockages was evaluated. the numerical data were submitted to profile analysis and kruskall-wallis. the results allow to conclude that desflurane reduces in a more efficient way the arrhythmia produced by epinephrine and also the occurrence of atrioventricular blockages.
The use of epinephrine-containing anesthetic solutions in cardiac patients: a survey
GERLACH, Raquel Fernanda;SANTOS, José Eduardo Tanus dos;ESCOBAR, Carlos Alberto Bazaglia;
Revista de Odontologia da Universidade de S?o Paulo , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-06631998000400008
Abstract: a questionnaire survey of 150 last term dental students from four dental schools was performed to delineate their current opinion with regard to the use of epinephrine-containing anesthetic solutions for dental procedures in cardiac patients. the students provided their opinion as "contraindicated" or "not contraindicated" regarding the use of these solutions in eight cardiac patients with either stable or unstable heart diseases including ischemic heart disease, arrhythmia, hypertension, and heart failure. we found an overall 77% rate of right answers among all students. mistakes occurred more frequently when treating patients with ischemic heart disease (68% of right answers). although vasoconstrictors may offer many advantages and are not contraindicated to the majority of cardiac patients, graduating dental students sometimes do not comply with current guidelines.
Sami ?ZTüRK,Zafer ?ALI?KANER,Mehmet KARAAYVAZ,Mustafa GüLE?
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla) and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach). Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology.
The Effect of Epinephrine On The Development of oogenesis Of Mice (Mus Musculus) Strain of Japanese
Sri Utami,Suyanto
Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: When stress persists continuously and repeatedly, it will automatically increase the epinephrine in the body in which excessive consequently can provide interference on various body systems. In the event of physical stressors can affect the frequency and amplitude of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). It is important for the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Additionally stressors can also activate the sympathetic nervous system. If the increase is excessive pulsation can reduce and stop the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Decrease in Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) will inhibit the growth of ovarian follicles and decrease the synthesis of estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries. Decreased synthesis of estrogen and progesterone can cause a decrease in the number of ovarian follicles (Speroff, 1994).The study population was female mice derived from laboratory Biomedic Andalas University in Padang. Mice used were 2-3 months old, weighing an average of 25-35 grams. The Effect of Epinephrine on the Development of Oogenesis of Mice (mus musculus) Strain of Japanese, is the growth of primary follicles in which a decline in the number of primary follicles ranging from provision of 0.002 mg / ml, epinephrine administration lowered formation of secondary follicles at a concentration of 0.004 mg / ml and above but no decrease in concentration of 0.002 mg / ml, epinephrine administration lowered formation of tertiary follicles at a concentration of 0.004 mg / ml, 0.006 mg / ml, 0.008 mg / ml and 0.01 mg / ml and no decrease in concentration of 0.002 mg / ml, epinephrine administration did not reduce the formation of follicle de Graaf and administration of epinephrine significantly reduce the formation of the corpus luteum at a concentration of 0.004 mg / ml, 0.006 mg / ml, 0.008 mg / ml and 0.01 mg / ml and no decrease in concentration of 0.002 mg / ml.
Oktay ?AKMAK?I,Tufan KE?EC?,Süleyman PATLAR
Beden Egitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: A recent scientific research aimed to explain the effects of the glycerol supplement on the levels of epinephrine and kortisole parameters of sedentary individuals and some sportsmen who exercise regularly.In the research, forty students with an average age of 22.82 ± 1.49 year and an average weight of 73.96 ± 9.16 kg, who still study at the Physical Education and Sport Collage and the other faculties, were used as subjects.Subjects were they were as follows: 1. the group of sedentary, 2. the group of sedentary supplemented with glycerol, 3. the group of exercise, 4. the group of exercise supplemented with glycerol.The test of shuttle and run of 20 meters was applied to subjects in the groups E and GE within twenty days time. Subjects of the groups GS and GE were supplemented orally with the dose of 1.2 g/kg of glycerol at ten o’clock every morning within the period of twenty days. At the same time, samples of blood were taken from all the subjects before these tests. Besides, samples of blood were taken again after the tests. At the and of this period of time, the specified exercise tests were applied to all groups after the second blood test. After the exercise test, samples of blood were taken from the subjects the third time. Then, the samples of blood were taken from them two hours after the exercises the fourth time and also twenty four hours after the same exercises the fifth time again.The levels of serum epinephrine and also cortisole parameters available were measured. Having applied Variance Analysis regarding the importance control of differences of parameters among the groups, Duncan’s test of Multiple Range was applied. In addition to that, the test of Wilcoxon Signed Ranks was used to determine the differences within every group.In the meantime, accordingly, it was clearly understood that the average submaximal exercises applied in this work had a profound (P≤0.05) effect on the levels of serum epinephrine and cortisole on the levels the contrary. It can be said that the glycerol supplement applied together with this exercise protocol had no remarkable effect on the levels of serum epinephrine and cortisol also on the levels of at least by the sum used in the tests and in that limited period of time.
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