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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4200 matches for " epigenetic targeting agents "
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Epigenetic modulation in the treatment of atherosclerotic disease
Mikaela M. Byrne,Anthony W. Ryan
Frontiers in Genetics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00364
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is the single largest cause of death in the western world and its incidence is on the rise globally. Atherosclerosis, characterized by the development of atheromatus plaque, can trigger luminal narrowing and upon rupture result in myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. Epigenetic phenomena are a focus of considerable research interest due to the role they play in gene regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been identified as potential drug targets in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. miRNAs are known to play a role in gene silencing, which has been widely investigated in cancer. In comparison, the role they play in cardiovascular disease and plaque rupture is not well understood. Nutritional epigenetic modifiers from dietary components, for instance sulforaphane found in broccoli, have been shown to suppress the pro-inflammatory response through transcription factor activation. This review will discuss current and potential epigenetic therapeutics for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, focusing on the use of miRNAs and dietary supplements such as sulforaphane and protocatechuic aldehyde.
Intravitreal injection analysis at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute: evaluation of clinical indications for the treatment and incidence rates of endophthalmitis
Ludimila L Cavalcante, Milena L Cavalcante, Timothy G Murray, et al
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S11094
Abstract: travitreal injection analysis at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute: evaluation of clinical indications for the treatment and incidence rates of endophthalmitis Original Research (4638) Total Article Views Authors: Ludimila L Cavalcante, Milena L Cavalcante, Timothy G Murray, et al Published Date May 2010 Volume 2010:4 Pages 519 - 524 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S11094 Ludimila L Cavalcante, Milena L Cavalcante, Timothy G Murray, Michael M Vigoda, Yolanda Pi a, Christina L Decatur, R Prince Davis, Lisa C Olmos, Amy C Schefler, Michael B Parrott, Kyle J Alliman, Harry W Flynn, Andrew A Moshfeghi Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Objective: To report the incidence of endophthalmitis, in addition to its clinical and microbiological aspects, after intravitreal injection of vascular-targeting agents. Methods: A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 10,142 intravitreal injections of vascular targeting agents (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, triamcinolone acetonide, and preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide) between June 1, 2007 and January 31, 2010, performed by a single service (TGM) at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Results: One case of clinically-suspected endophthalmitis was identified out of a total of 10,142 injections (0.009%), presenting within three days of injection of bevacizumab. The case was culture-positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis. Final visual acuity was 20/40 after pars plana vitrectomy surgery. Conclusions: In this series, the incidence of culture-positive endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of vascular agents in an outpatient setting was very low. We believe that following a standardized injection protocol, adherence to sterile techniques and proper patient follow-up are determining factors for low incidence rates.
Polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer agents
Dinarvand R, Sepehri N, Manoochehri S, Rouhani H, Atyabi F
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S18905
Abstract: lylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer agents Review (10791) Total Article Views Authors: Dinarvand R, Sepehri N, Manoochehri S, Rouhani H, Atyabi F Published Date April 2011 Volume 2011:6 Pages 877 - 895 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S18905 R Dinarvand1,2, N Sepehri1, S Manoochehri1, H Rouhani1, F Atyabi1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Nanotechnology Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Abstract: The effectiveness of anticancer agents may be hindered by low solubility in water, poor permeability, and high efflux from cells. Nanomaterials have been used to enable drug delivery with lower toxicity to healthy cells and enhanced drug delivery to tumor cells. Different nanoparticles have been developed using different polymers with or without surface modification to target tumor cells both passively and/or actively. Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), a biodegradable polyester approved for human use, has been used extensively. Here we report on recent developments concerning PLGA nanoparticles prepared for cancer treatment. We review the methods used for the preparation and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles and their applications in the delivery of a number of active agents. Increasing experience in the field of preparation, characterization, and in vivo application of PLGA nanoparticles has provided the necessary momentum for promising future use of these agents in cancer treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side effects.
Metilación y expresión de genes en el cáncer diferenciado de tiroides
Marrero Rodríguez,María Teresa;
Revista Cubana de Endocrinolog?-a , 2010,
Abstract: in past years the study of epigenetic alterations in the cancer development becomes significance. the methylation of desoxyribonucleic acid is the more frequent and important epigenetic change until now studied and play a significant role in the transcription regulation of genes. recently it was noted the existence of abnormal methylation patterns in many types of cancer, including the thyroid one, which leading to inactivation of tumor suppressors genes and to genome instability. the methylation of specific genes such as the co-transporter of iodine/sodium, the thyroglobulin and the receptor of thyroid stimulant hormone (tsh) in the thyroid differentiated cancer, is one of the failure cause in treatment of patients presenting this disease. in patients with thyroid cancer it has been initiated a treatment with demethylation agents in patients with abovementioned cancer with a genetic alteration due to methylation to correct these alterations, to restore the function and thus the possibility of a effective treatment.
Epigenetics Modifications and Therapeutic Prospects in Human Thyroid Cancer
Giuseppe Boccuzzi
Frontiers in Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2012.00040
Abstract: At present no successful treatment is available for advanced thyroid cancer, which comprises poorly differentiated, anaplastic, and metastatic or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer not responding to radioiodine. In the last few years, biologically targeted therapies for advanced thyroid carcinomas have been proposed on the basis of the recognition of key oncogenic mutations. Although the results of several phase II trials look promising, none of the patients treated had a complete response, and only a minority of them had a partial response, suggesting that the treatment is, at best, effective in stabilizing patients with progressive disease. “Epigenetic” refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without any alteration in the primary DNA sequence. The epigenetic processes establish and maintain the global and local chromatin states that determine gene expression. Epigenetic abnormalities are present in almost all cancers and, together with genetic changes, drive tumor progression. Various genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and invasion (p16INK4A, RASSF1A, PTEN, Rap1GAP, TIMP3, DAPK, RARβ2, E-cadherin, and CITED1) as well as genes specific of thyroid differentiation (Na+/I? symport, TSH receptor, pendrin, SL5A8, and TTF-1) present aberrant methylation in thyroid cancer. This review deals with the most frequent epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer and focuses on epigenetic therapy, whose goal is to target the chromatin in rapidly dividing tumor cells and potentially restore normal cell functions. Experimental data and clinical trials, especially using deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating agents, are discussed.
Progress of Epigenetic Methylation in Lung Cancer Research
Shaowei ZHANG, Zhiqiang XUE
- , 2017, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2017.09.08
Abstract: Lung cancer is becoming an increasing threat to Chinese residents and its incidence continues to rise while the treatment effect is far from satisfactory. Hence, it is essential to improve the level of early diagnosis, treatment, prognosis in lung cancer. An epigenetic trait is a stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence. The epigenetic studies, such as DNA methylation and histone methylation, are progressing rapidly in oncology research. A comprehensive understanding of its development status and existing problems is of great significance for the future research and the implementation of precision medicine. Herein, we aim to outline the progress of DNA methylation and histone methylation modification in lung cancer and make a prospect for the future research.
Correlation of an ex Vivo Model with Clinical Application of an Epigenetic Modifier, Inhibiting Tumor Growth and Metastasis, in Resistant Cholangiocarcinoma—A Case Study  [PDF]
M. A. Nezami, Aron Gould Simon, Geoffrey Bartholomeusz
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.71006
Abstract: Bile duct cancer is a rare form of cancer, with approximately 2000 new cases diagnosed in the United States each year. The prognosis of this disease is very grave, especially in the form of intrahepatic (IHCC), as there is no person with stage four who lives for 5 years, and the average prognosis is less than a year, a majority of patients die in less than 6 months despite all therapies. It is suggested that one of the key elements in the disease progression is the intratumoral hypoxia inducible factor one alfa (HIF-1a) as a regulator of malignant behavior and recently described as a new prognostic indicator of IHCC. (9, 10) HIF is a key regulator under the microenvironmental (terrain) influence, and therefore studies of the cell lines in an in vitro environment where there is no hypoxia, usually fail to translate to a clinical outcome in vivo, unless the cells are transfected by full-length HIF-1alpha (fL HIF-1alpha) and dominant-negative HIF-1alpha (dn HIF-1alpha). To overcome this barrier, an ex vivo model is designed at MD Anderson experimental therapeutics where the patient tumor sample is transferred to the mice and treated with drugs, where the tumor can cross talk with the actual terrain and mimic the human stroma where the HIF can be triggered. Results show significant tumor necrosis on the intrahepatic cholangiocacinoma, only after 5 days of exposure to an experimental compound that is known to suppress hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) through inhibiting protein synthesis. (11, 12) Further this is explored in the same actual patient with terminal diagnosis, and proves itself with promising initial response. Here, we review this method and the clinical perspectives, and suggest this method to be studied in larger trials.
Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: Is there a role of histology-specific treatment?
Masashi Takano, Hiroshi Tsuda, Toru Sugiyama
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-31-53
Dendrimers as carriers for contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging
GuoPing Yan,ChaoWu Ai,Liang Li,RongFeng Zong,Fan Liu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-010-3267-4
Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive clinical imaging modality, which has become widely used in the diagnosis of human diseases around the world. Some MRI exams include the use of contrast agents. The goal of an ideal MRI contrast agent involves the tissue- or organ-targeting materials with high relaxivity and specificity, low toxicity and side effects, suitable long intravascular duration and excretion time and high contrast enhancement with low doses, in vivo, all coupled to low overall cost. Dendrimers are synthetic, highly branched, mono-disperse macromolecules of nanometer dimensions. Properties associated with these dendrimers such as uniform size, water solubility, modifiable surface functionality and available internal cavities make them candidates for ideal carriers of MRI contrast agents. The research progress of the dendritic contrast agents is discussed.
A Model for NAD(P)H:Quinoneoxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Targeted Individualized Cancer Chemotherapy
Asher Begleiter,Nadia El-Gabalawy,Laurie Lange,Marsha K. Leith
Drug Target Insights , 2009,
Abstract: NQO1 (NAD(P)H:quinoneoxidoreductase 1) is a reductive enzyme that is an important activator of bioreductive antitumor agents. NQO1 activity varies in individual tumors but is generally higher in tumor cells than in normal cells. NQO1 has been used as a target for tumor specific drug development. We investigated a series of bioreductive benzoquinone mustard analogs as a model for NQO1 targeted individualized cancer chemotherapy. We compared the tumor cell growth inhibitory activity of benzoquinone mustard analogs with sterically bulky groups of different size and placed at different positions on the benzoquinone ring, using tumor cell lines with different levels of NQO1. We demonstrated that functional groups of different steric size could be used to produce a series of bioreductive antitumor agents that were activated by different levels of NQO1 in tumor cells. This series of drugs could then be used to target cells with specific levels of NQO1 for growth inhibition and to avoid damage to normal cells, like bone marrow cells, that have low levels of NQO1. This approach could be used to develop new bioreductive antitumor agents for NQO1 targeted individualized cancer chemotherapy.
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