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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2562 matches for " epidemiologic surveillance "
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Perfil epidemiológico do atendimento antirrábico humano em Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
Veloso,Rejane Dias; Aerts,Denise Rangel Ganzo de Castro; Fetzer,Liane Oliveira; Anjos,Celso Bittencourt dos; Sangiovanni,José Carlos;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232011001300036
Abstract: animal bites are injuries that carry the risk of rabies transmission, a disease with a 100% mortality rate. the purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiologic profiles of post exposure human anti-rabies treatments and to analyze whether prescriptions were appropriate. this cross-sectional study collected data from the forms of the brazilian notification system (sistema nacional agravos de notifica??o - sinan), which were filled out by the professionals responsible for treatment in healthcare services in the second semester of 2006. of the 2,223 cases identified, 50.3% of the individuals were male, the age group with the greatest number of cases was 20 to 59 years (47.6%); the type of injury responsible for the largest number of medical consultations was animal bite (87.4%), and 35.3% of the injuries were in the lower extremities. dogs were the animals that caused the most injuries (91.7%). the analysis of type of treatment showed that vaccination was prescribed for 78.1% of the individuals, and anti-rabies serum, for 6.4%. of the all treatments, 96.2% were classified as correctly prescribed. although treatments were classified as necessary, the option of keeping animals that cause aggressions under observation should be considered so that the number of treatments administered can be reduced.
A new definition of drowning: towards documentation and prevention of a global public health problem
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862005001100015
Abstract: drowning is a major global public health problem. effective prevention of drowning requires programmes and policies that address known risk factors throughout the world. surveillance, however, has been hampered by the lack of a uniform and internationally accepted definition that permits all relevant cases to be counted. to develop a new definition, an international consensus procedure was conducted. experts in clinical medicine, injury epidemiology, prevention and rescue from all over the world participated in a series of "electronic" discussions and face-to-face workshops. the suitability of previous definitions and the major requirements of a new definition were intensely debated. the consensus was that the new definition should include both cases of fatal and nonfatal drowning. after considerable dialogue and debate, the following definition was adopted: "drowning is the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid." drowning outcomes should be classified as: death, morbidity, and no morbidity. there was also consensus that the terms wet, dry, active, passive, silent, and secondary drowning should no longer be used. thus a simple, comprehensive, and internationally accepted definition of drowning has been developed. its use should support future activities in drowning surveillance worldwide, and lead to more reliable and comprehensive epidemiological information on this global, and frequently preventable, public health problem.
Dengue: inquérito populacional para pesquisa de anticorpos e vigilancia virológica no Município de Campinas, S?o Paulo, Brasil
Lima, Virgília Luna Castor de;Rangel, Osias;Andrade, Valmir Roberto;Silveira, Naoko Yanagizawa Jardim da;Oliveira, Susely Salviano de;Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007000300025
Abstract: the epidemiology of dengue in the municipality of campinas, s?o paulo, brazil, was studied in 1998 using a randomized sero-epidemiological survey. epidemiological surveillance data from 1996-2003 were also analyzed, with an emphasis on virological surveillance. 1,260 individuals participated in the survey and had blood samples drawn by finger stick on filter paper. blood samples were tested by eia-icc, an enzyme immunoassay using infected cells as antigen. dengue antibody prevalence (14.79%) was lower than in other surveys in other states of brazil, but higher than in two other serological surveys in s?o paulo state. dengue antibody prevalence was far higher than the reported case incidence during the 1996, 1997, and 1998 epidemics. antibody prevalence and reported case incidence in different health districts were disproportional. the article concludes by recommending further research on the significance of transmission rates during epidemics and more intensive virological surveillance, especially in years with few reported cases.
Uso de agrotóxicos e suicídios no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil
Pires, Dario Xavier;Caldas, Eloísa Dutra;Recena, Maria Celina Piazza;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2005000200027
Abstract: prevalence of suicide with pesticides in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil, was evaluated based on data from the integrated state center for toxicological surveillance under the state health department and reported from january 1992 to december 2002. population and crop production data were collected from the brazilian institute of geography and statistics, and suicide data were obtained from the state health department. during the period studied, 1,355 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported, including 506 suicide attempts, resulting in 139 deaths. the regions of campo grande and dourados had the highest prevalence of suicide attempts, with dourados having the most deaths. dourados also had a high prevalence of suicide attempts overall, with an increasing trend in the previous 10 years. the results indicated that dourados is a critical region in the state in terms of intentional ingestion of pesticides, showing the need for an epidemiological investigation to better evaluate and quantify these events among the rural population.
Nueva gripe [A(H1N1) 2009]: definición de caso sospechoso. Revisión de la concordancia en los criterios de definición de caso utilizados en las distintas comunidades autónomas espa?olas
Hernández Merino,á.;
Pediatría Atención Primaria , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S1139-76322009000400002
Abstract: introduction: the present pandemia by a novel flu virus and its potential and uncertain effects on the population, have produced an extraordinary amount of actions at all levels. all arrangements are based on data of the pandemia situation. this paper approaches the concordance in the suspected case definition criteria of infection by the new virus among the spanish autonomous communities (aa. cc.) and to discuss its possible impact on the validity of the cumulated information. material and methods: documents and official protocols of the aa. cc. health departments on novel flue suspected case definition have been compiled, while being in force the recording and information system based on the comprehensive and individualized record of cases. results: documents of 16 of the 17 aa. cc. (all but cantabria and the autonomous towns of ceuta and melilla) have been found. all the variables that take part in the definition of case show outstanding differences among the aa. cc. studied; especially the criteria of fever (with various level thresholds) and the clinical manifestations of the flu-like syndrome. discussion: there aren't two equal formulations of suspected case among the studied ones, what compromises the final validity of the cumulated data which are the basis for the analysis and arrangements made.
Single lesion as an indicator to monitor the leprosy trend to elimination in hyperendemic areas
Ignotti, Eliane;Bayona, Manuel;Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina;Andrade, Vera L.G.;Valente, Joaquim G.;
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-790X2007000300013
Abstract: introduction: prevalence and detection rates of leprosy are not sufficient to show the real magnitude of changes in epidemiological patterns. objectives: evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of the proportion of new leprosy patients with a single skin lesion (ssl) as a potential indicator of the elimination of leprosy. methods: we conducted a retrospective study based on secondary data analyzing newly reported cases of leprosy between 1997 and 2002, in the city of palmas, tocantins, brazil. patients with a single lesion were compared to remaining patients, and the odds ratio was used as measure of association. results: out of the 1,303 new cases of leprosy, 481 (36.9%) had a ssl. an increasing time-trend was observed in the proportion of new cases detected with a single lesion, which grew from 20.3% in 1999 to 49.1% in 2002 (linear trend p<.001) while a reduction in the number of new cases was observed simultaneously after 1999. the proportion of patients with a single lesion was higher in women, young age, paucibacillary, tuberculoid and indeterminate clinical forms, residents of urban areas, those with negative baciloscopy, with macular lesions, without physical disabilities, and mainly detected in primary health care units. conclusions: these findings confirm that the proportion of patients with a ssl can be used as a sensitive and feasible indicator to assess the progress of the elimination of leprosy in hyperendemic areas.
Aspectos epidemiológicos da malária no Estado de S?o Paulo, Brasil, 1983 a 1992
Wanderley,Dalva Marli Valério; Silva,Rubens Antonio da; Andrade,José Carlos Rehder de;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101994000300005
Abstract: epidemiological aspects of malaria in the state of s.paulo, brazil, based on the cases motified between 1983 and 1992 are presented. in the period 20,200 cases, of which 65.7% presented plasmodium vivax (p.v.) and 27.3% p. falciparum (p.f.), were confirmed. no differences as between the years was observed. no differences in the distribution by sex (85,4% male) or age (63.6% whit ages between 20 and 39 years) were noted. the epidemiological investigations demonstrated that in 2.0% the transmission of malaria has occurred in two different areas of the state of s.paulo. one of these areas is covered with atlantic forest where malaria is considered endemic, with a predominance of p. vivax and low parasitaemias associated with kerteszia. the other area is the paulista plateau, where nyssorhynchus and patients with imported malaria were responsible for pochets p.v. and p.f. it was noted that 91.6% of the cases came from other regions of the country, 89.0% of them from rondomia, mato grosso and pará. the increase in the number of cases from mato grosso, corresponding to 51.7% of the total in 1992, was verified over this ten-years period. malaria induced by blood transfusion and among drug users represented 27 and 58 cases, respectively. the lethality rate was 5.0/1,000 patients and occurred among patients with first time and late diagnosis of p. falciparum malaria. the study of this information adds its contributions for malaria surveillance.
Sistema de informa??o em AIDS: limites e possibilidades
Nichiata, Lúcia Yasuko Izumi;Shima, Hisako;
Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0080-62341999000300012
Abstract: the article makes an analysis of the current system of information (si) in aids, aiming the difficulties with that was confronted when looking for to characterize the way as it happened and it developed in 1995 the epidemic of the aids in the regional administration of health of pirituba-perus (ars-8) of the municipal district of s?o paulo. some are enumerated critics that the epidemic ,surveillance and the si they come suffering in the last years, such as the centralization and the disaggregation of the information; the data that contemplate aspects eminently biological, the use of complex forms. these subjects, added to the difficulties that were imposed to the e/she/it to look for to characterize the epidemic in the area, he/she revealed that the system, just as her found structured, it hindered the characterization of the epidemic and the systematic accompaniment for the local levels of health. he/she gets himself the attention for the need of revision of the purpose of the si in aids, of the nature and of the quality of the collected data. it is reiterated the importance of the integration of the several databases partner-demografics of the focus microlocalizado of sl for the district of health.
Investiga??o epidemiológica de, um novo caso de leishmaniose visceral ocorrido na Grande S?o Paulo, Brasil
Iversson,Lygia Busch; Pires,Raquel B. Robert; Ribeiro,Maracy Alves; Takeda,Augusta K.; Escriv?o Júnior,Alvaro; Tolezano,José Eduardo; Buralli,Geraldo Magela;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1982, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101982000400002
Abstract: an epidemiological investigation was made in the urban zone of s. paulo, brazil, to elucidate a case of visceral leishmaniasis that occurred in a two-year old child, born and always resident in that place. the possibility of congenital transmission was eliminated. the transmission by blood transfusion and biological vector was discussed on the basis of the past history of the child and the results of a serological survery in human population with indirect imunofluorescence, passive hemagglutination and leishmanin tests, serological survey on dogs and furthermore entomological research in residual forest situated in the neighbourhood of the patient's house.
Vigilancia entomológica de Aedes (S) aegypti y otros culícidos en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba 1991-1996
Marquetti,María del Carmen; Valdés,Vivian; Aguilera,Lucita; Navarro,Agustín;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2000,
Abstract: the results of the entomologic surveillance carried out from 1991 to 1996 in boyeros municipality, city of havana within the program for eradication of aedes aegypti were analyzed. data on mosquitoes fauna collected in the municipality by various sampling methods, larval survey, human bait, capture at rest and larval traps. culex quinquefasciatus, aedes mediovittatus and aedes aegypti species were the most found by the different methods. it was proved that water tanks, man-made deposits, other kinds of tanks and low tanks were the most exploited resources by mosquitoes for their breeding in this municipality whereas larval surveys were the most sensitive method for detecting species since it contributed a greater variety of species. reference is made to the search for a mechanism that help estimate adult populations from larval indices provided by surveys and the method of capture at rest is stressed as the most sensitive method for adult mosquitoes, particularly for dengue vector within the surveillance system aimed at this species.
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