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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 16822 matches for " environmental policy "
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SOX Emissions Reduction Policy and Economic Development: A Case of Yokkaichi  [PDF]
Sachiyo Asahi, Akira Yakita
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.31004
Abstract: We find an inverted U-shape relationship between local income and SOX emissions, i.e., the so-called environmental Kuznets curve, in the Yokkaichi area. It is then shown (1) that the income level at the peak of the curve is fairly low relative to those reported for countries and/or the world in the literature, and (2) SOX that the drastic decline in emissions after the peak of the inverted U-shape was brought about by technical progress in cleaning up the environment but not by the declining output levels, despite increases in output level. It should be noted that the local residents’ campaigns moved and backed up the local governments, in contrast to the SOX reductions in developed economies in 1980 pushed by the international agreements, i.e. Sulphur Protocols. The administrative agencies supported by local residents’ campaigns, rather than decreasing returns in production technology, played a critical role even at such a low income level.
Strategic Environmental Assessment to Improve Infrastructure Impact Assessments in Brazil  [PDF]
Isabel Silva Dutra de Oliveira, Marcelo Monta?o, Marcelo Pereira de Souza
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.410136

The wider consideration of environmental effects and alternatives in early stages of decision-making has been pointed as one of the major benefits of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Adopted by virtually all of developed countries and sprawling around emergent and developing ones, it is recognized that SEA effectiveness is attached to its systematic application in development plans and programmes. Brazil and many developing countries have different experiences with this instrument and lacks of definition of a procedural framework to promote the use of SEA in strategic levels of decision. As a consequence development projects are frequently threatened” by impact assessment outcomes, especially when a mandatory project-EIA has to inform decisions. In order to contribute to the implementation of SEA in developing countries, the present paper discusses the potential benefits of using SEA in transport infrastructure plans and programmes, through a case study applied to transport plans in the state of Sao Paulo (south-eastern Brazil). The outcomes indicate that SEA could contribute to improve infrastructure impact assessments, minimizing social and environmental conflicts, augmenting the acceptability of projects and decisions, reinforcing the need for SEA to be systematically implemented in Brazil.

Good Practices in Strategic Environmental Assessment Processes under the Brazilian Practitioners’ Vision  [PDF]
Antonio W. L. da Silva, Marinilse Netto, Paulo Selig, Alexandre Lerípio
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.96045
Abstract: The use of good practices (GP) can improve the technical quality and, as a consequence, the outcome of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process, increasing its effectiveness. This study aimed to present GP pointed out by Brazilian practitioners (members of the SEA development teams) from the perspective afforded by their participation in processes of this tool. The data were collected through personal interviews with 11 professionals responsible for preparing a total of 17 SEAs, who were asked about what measures adopted in the SEA could be considered BP. The responses were audio-recorded, transcribed, and had their content assessed by Content Analysis technique. Nine GP were highlighted by practitioners. The GP indicated represent a valuable contribution to the improvement of future use of SEA, either in Brazil or in other countries, because they are the result of consolidated experience in real cases of application of the tool.
Technological Change and Carbon Markets*  [PDF]
Patrik S?derholm
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2010.12010
Abstract: In this brief note we discuss the innovation impacts of different market-based policy instruments in the climate field, and in particular the case of markets for carbon allowances. The note provides a brief review of the theoretical and empirical literature, and addresses important issues concerning policy instrument choice, the need for multiple policies as well as the timing and commitment strategies of the regulating agency. The analysis suggests that technological progress depends critically on developing and maintaining efficient carbon markets. In the case emissions are under-priced and/or adoption behaviour distorted by, for instance, inefficient plant entrants and closure provisions, any new carbon-free innovation will not be sufficiently exploited. However, for both economic and political reasons other policy instruments-most notably public R & D and technology support-will be needed to complement the price signals provided by carbon markets.
A Simulation Model for Road and Maritime Environmental Performance Assessment  [PDF]
J. J. Usabiaga, M. Castells, F. X. Martínez,, A. Olcer
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47079

The White Paper published in 2011, Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area [1], urges on a 30% modal shift of road freight over 300 km to other modes (rail, maritime and inland waterways) by 2030, and more than 50% by 2050. However the environmentally friendly performance of maritime transport regarding air pollutant emissions in comparison with road transport is in doubt. This paper presents a three dimension simulation model, in which performed transport work, arisen emissions and produced impact are estimated and inter-related for the assessment of the environmental performance of both road and maritime transport. The simulation model will be a valuable decision making tool for policymakers as it enables the precise assessment of considered transport alternatives in the EU27 until 2020, and hence supports the design of future intervening actions.

The Role of Advanced Biological Data in the Rationality of Risk-Based Regulatory Decisions  [PDF]
Douglas Crawford-Brown
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.43028

Advanced biological information such as computational biology, in vitro transformation assays, genome pathway analysis, genotoxicity assays, proteomics, gene expression, cell signaling disruption and hormone receptors offer the poten- tial for significant improvements in the ability of regulatory agencies to consider the risks of the thousands of compounds—and mixtures of compounds—currently unexamined. While the science for performing the assays underlying such information is developing rapidly, there is significantly less understanding of the rationality of using these data in specific decision problems. This paper explores these issues of rationality, identifying the issues of rationality that remain to be developed for applications in regulatory risk assessment, and providing a draft decision framework for these applications. The conclusion is that these rapid, high throughput methods hold the potential to significantly improve the protection of public health through better understanding of risks from compounds and mixtures, but incorporating them into existing risk assessment methodologies requires improvements in understanding the reliability and rates of Type I and Type II errors for specific applications.

Ecologia política: onde est o os conteúdos da política?
Peter A. Walker
Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente , 2011,
Abstract: The limited engagement of political ecology with broader social and environmental research, discourse, and policy may in part reflect the general weakness of public engagement by the discipline of geography as a whole (MURPHY, 2005). Yet, as a field that largely emerged from critiques of policy, and owes much of its intellectual genealogy to applied fields such as hazards studies (WATTS; PEET, 2004, p. 8), the ambivalence toward policy among many political ecologists seems puzzling. How can we understand this apparent ambivalence? How can we explain the indifference, if not actual hostility, toward political ecology by some policy-makers? These are the questions this essay examines. The reader (and certainly the author) may be disappointed that this essay provides no firm answers but, after 20 years of an uncertain and sometimes tense relationship between political ecology and policy, these questions merit greater discussion.
A institucionaliza o das políticas e da gest o ambiental no Brasil: avan os, obstáculos e contradi es
Gustavo Ferreira da Costa Lima
Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente , 2011,
Abstract: This article discusses the recent institutionalization process of environmental policies and management in Brazil. It reviews bibliography from the perspective of Political Ecology, that emerged at the end of twentieth century as a new field of knowledge founded in the critic and politicizing of environmental problems since a reflection of its genesis, consequences, contradictions and possible alternatives. This discussion articulates the concepts of environmental policy, environmental management, democratic sustainability, and participatory democracy, besides other issues of less centrality. It discusses environmental policies advancements, obstacles and contradictions, as well as tries to verify if these policies were capable of restraining environmental degradation and to establish a democratic sustainability in the country. The article certifies that environmental policies advanced to a certain degree in Brazil, especially in legal and institutional aspects, in a tendency to decentralization, in the diffusion of information about environmental problems, and in the construction of sustainable development notion as a discursive resource in conciliating conflicts between environment and development. On the one hand, a governmental system of environmental agencies in all levels of government administration has been constituted. On the other hand, a broad judicial array, recognized by experts as one of the most advanced in the world, has also been established. However, in spite of these relative advances, the analysis concludes that environmental policies in Brazil advanced in a hesitant and contradictory way that made them incapable to overcome environmental degradation and political conflicts resulting from capitalist expansion in the country.
Protection of Nigerias Environment: A Critical Policy Review
Onyenekenwa C. Eneh,V.C. Agbazue
Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: In the bid to manage and control widespread anthropogenic environmental degradation, Nigeria formulated environmental protection policies, spanning 1915 to 1992. This review study is a critique of these policies. Not only that many of the policies are dated, many are fragmented. Many of them were not formulated with contributions from informed masses, nor based on nationally generated baseline data. Rather, they are mostly guidelines and standards adapted from the adopted and approved materials of the appropriate system of the United Nations, thereby compromising socio-economic and climatic differences. Participation of the people in policy formulation and implementation is lacking in Nigeria. Implementation and monitoring are wishy-washy and din-don affairs crippled by widening and deepening corruption. It is recommended that anti-graft agencies be overhauled. Environmental sustainability education needs to be mainstreamed in the curricula of schools and universities while awareness creation on environmental pollution needs to be given the seriousness it deserves.
[Book Review] Andrew Jordan & Duncan Liefferink (2005) Environmental Policy on Europe: The Europeanization of National Environmental Policy
Stijn Billiet,Karen Hussey,Claudia Dias Soares
Journal of Contemporary European Research , 2005,
Abstract: Book review
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