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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7812 matches for " environment "
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FROM THE THIRD WORLD STUDIES DESK: War and Resource Exploitation: Winners and Losers
Miriam Coronel Ferrer
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2002,
Development of an Indicator Scheme for the Environment Impact Assessment in the Federal District, Mexico  [PDF]
Maria Perevochtchikova, Iskra Alejandra Rojo Negrete
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.43027

In this work is developed a proposal of environment indicators needed for the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) process in Mexico’s Federal District (FD); through which are authorized the construction and realization of different work actions and activities. The methodology is based on the combination of cabinet and field work, performed in three stages. In the first, a documental review was carried out within the topic of Environment Impact (EI), the EIA and the study area, with a subsequent analysis of the environment indicators at an international, national and regional scale. In the second, the systematization of information was performed for the sixteen study cases at a local scale and the organization and analysis of a data base with the allotted information. And in the last stage, a field work was realized with participative observations in three verification sites and interview applications to the principal actors of the EIA process. These results allowed: to determine the main limitations within the EIA process (methodological, technical and operational), to propose an indicators scheme, and to formulate recommendations focused on the improvement of this Environment Public Policy instrument.

Broadband and Telecommuting: Helping the U.S. Environment and the Economy  [PDF]
Joseph P. Fuhr, Stephen Pociask
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.21007
Abstract: This study examines how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. through the widespread delivery of broadband services and the expansion of telecommuting. Telecommuting can reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the next 10 years by approximately 588.2 tons of which 247.7 million tons is due to less driving, 28.1 million tons is due to reduced office construction, and 312.4 million tons because of less energy usage by businesses. This paper explores these broadband services and their effects on the environment, specifically as a means to achieve better and cleaner energy use, while enhancing economic output, worker productivity and the standard of living of American consumers.
Use of a Weight of Evidence Approach to Determine the Likelihood of Adverse Effects on Human Health from the Presence of Uranium Facilities in Port Hope, Ontario  [PDF]
Rachel Lane, Patsy Thompson, Michael Ilin, Marcelle Phaneuf, Julie Burtt, Pascale Reinhardt
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.29134
Abstract: The radium and uranium processing industry exists in Port Hope, Ontario, since 1932. Between 1932 and 1966, most of the waste material from these industries was deposited throughout the town. During these years, waste management practices did not prevent the spread of contamination. Several environmental and health studies have been conducted to assess the potential contamination effects in the Port Hope Community over the last 70 years. The current study used a weight of evidence approach to assess the types and levels of contaminants of concern in the environment, and the potential human exposure to these contaminants. Their toxicological and radio-toxicological properties were also assessed to determine their potential health effects. The results of these assessments were further compared to findings of earlier epidemiological studies of Port Hope residents and nuclear industry workers. The conclusions of this study indicated that: 1) Levels of exposure to radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants in Port Hope are below levels known to cause adverse health effects. 2) Epidemiological studies provide no evidence of health effects as a result of past and present activities of the Port Hope nuclear industries. 3) The environmental risk assessments and the epidemiological studies are consistent and support each other. 4) Port Hope’s findings are consistent with the results of over 40 epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere on populations living around similar facilities or exposed to similar environmental contaminants.
REE Distribution Pattern in Plants and Soils from Pitinga Mine—Amazon, Brazil  [PDF]
Maria do Carmo Lima e Cunha, Vitor Paulo Pereira, Lauro V. Stoll Nardi, Artur C. Bastos Neto, Luiz Alberto Vedana, Milton L. L. Formoso
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2012.24025
Abstract: The rare earth element contents of plant specimens of the families Rhamnaceae, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (local name: Saracura-Mirá) and of Pteridófitas from genus Gleichenia sp. e Adiantum sp. (ferns) were determined and compared to those of the soils, in the Pitinga Mine area, Amazon, Brazil. The Pitinga mine district has large tin reserves genetically related to two granite bodies, Agua Boa e Madeira, both intrusive in volcanic rocks included in the Iricoumé Group. This deposit contains, also, bodies of cryolite and rare metals, such as Zr, Nb, Ta, Y and REE. The REE biogeochemical signatures, shown by the collected plants, reflect the patterns of the respective soils. The Eu and Ce anomalies shown by some plant samples are inherited from soils, as well. The higher contents of REE observed in fern samples confirm they are accumulators and reflect the abundance of REE in the soils of Pitinga Mine region. Additionally, that supports their potential use in geochemical exploration and bioremediation. The results of this study stress the importance of biogeochemical research integrated with geochemistry of soils, rocks and minerals.
From Traditionalism to Modernism: A Study of the Problem of Environment in Africa  [PDF]
Okoye A. Chuka
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.24040
Abstract: The history of the environmental philosophy carries with it the effort to overcome the medieval anthropocentric morality. Here, nature is seen from the instrumental value which they give. The instrumental value here shows the existence of things as important only as they are useful to man. The contemporary environmental ethics bring a novelty showing these environmental bodies as possessing an intrinsic value showing that they have an ethical value. The medieval ethical system which denies intrinsic value to the environment and thus posits man as being at the center of any moral system leads to the over possession of the environment by man. This over possession by man has led to the destruction of environment by man who exploits the environment in his service. This work looks at the African scenario which seems to be facing more environmental degradation in the contemporary times. The reason for this is surmised by this paper as a damaging evolution of the African history from traditionalism which seems to respect the environment to modernism which demystifies the mysteries accorded the environment and hence putting the environment into excessive use through some actions like deforestation, burning of fossil fuels and so on. This paper suggests a crusade against these damaging effects of modernism for a better preservation of the environment.
The Legal Regime of Noise Pollution in Nigeria  [PDF]
Hakeem Ijaiya
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.51001

Man is born with noise and dies with that, thus noise is part of human life and a natural product of human environment. Noise like smog, is a slow agent of death. Noise may not appear as a threat to global environment on the same level as deforestation, hazardous wastes or emission of poisonous gases into the atmosphere but if it continued the next 30 years as it has for the last 30 years, it could become lethal. Against this background, this paper examines noise as a factor harmful to the environment with focus on Nigeria. The paper looks at noise pollution in Nigeria and the legal regime relating to the problem. The paper examines how environmental law and other relevant sources of law endeavoured to tackle noise pollution in the country.

Environmental and Health Impacts from Slaughter Houses Located on the City Outskirts: A Case Study  [PDF]
Abha Lakshmi Singh, Saleha Jamal, Shanawaz Ahmad Baba, Md. Manirul Islam
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.56058

This paper explores the location of slaughter houses in the city outskirts, describes its functioning and explores its impact on the environment and health of residents living in its vicinity. A medium sized city of North India, Aligarh, was selected for the case study. The study is mainly based on primary sources of data collected through survey of city ouskirts, slaughter houses, villages and households located in its vicinity. For in-depth investigation, 2 slaughter houses located in the outskirts, 460 households living in the vicinity of these slaughter houses (0 to 3 km) were randomly selected for sampling. Data were collected with the help of questionnaire. Field surveys revealed that there were innumerable authorized and unauthorized slaughter houses inside the city, Makdoomnagar was the oldest one (1995), individual households in many parts of the city were slaughtering animals in one room, the city outskirts had 6 big slaughter houses and meat processing units and innumerable open illegal ones. Investigations revealed that all the slaughter houses suffer from very low hygienic standards posing both environment and health hazards due to discrete disposal of waste, highly polluted effluent discharge, burning and boiling of bones, hooves, fat, meat, etc. The results show that for the residents living in the immediate vicinity of the slaughter house, both the environmental conditions and their health conditions were worst.

Changes in Human Population Characteristics and Environmental Change in the West Matogoro Catchment Area of Songea, Tanzania  [PDF]
Michael J. Haule
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.512064
Abstract: The study was carried out in West Matogoro Catchment Area (WMCA) of Songea, Tanzania, to establish whether for the period between intercensal periods 1978-1988 and 1988-2002, and between 2002 and 2005 characteristics of human population of the area had changed in terms of size, age structure and sex composition. In case it did, then the study had to establish whether such changes may be used to explain the observed forest cover change that occurred in the area. Establishing whether the observed changes were proportionate was important in linking the relationship among factors at hand. The study partly tested the thesis by Liu and others which linked human population changes and their implications to the panda habitat [1]. The findings indicated existence of changes in human population characteristics for the period under review. Variations in terms of population size, age structure and sex composition were realized. While growth was measured by the total population and size of age group of the environmentally active population as identified by the study by Haule, sex composition was determined by sex ratios [2]. The environmentally active age group included males aged 20 to 44 and females aged 10 to 44, i.e. the key actors in felling trees for farm expansion and for firewood respectively. Geographic Information System (GIS) evidence indicated progressive forest cover deterioration. When compared, the changes in human population characteristics and those of the forest cover were noted to be un-proportional. Variations were in terms of increase in human population size and expansion of age group of the “actors” thus attributed to the augmenting deforestation. A positive relationship was demonstrated between population growth, expansion of age segment of the key actors and expanded deforestation. We reiterate that any sustainable measures to address the environmental issues should take into account changes in demographic characteristics of the in Situ population which forms the locus of the interface between population and environment. These factors signify the intensity and duration of the involved forces that characterize forest cover quality.
Which Yields with Wastes? Study on Pilot of the Efficiency of Water Treatment Plant— Case of the Sector of Algerian Tanning  [PDF]
Mohamed Necer, Rachid Smail
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615134
Abstract: Tannery industries generate wastewater containing high concentrations of sulfur. Most of wastes are liquid (effluent). The river section and tanning are the source of most tannery waste. Dehairing is a process of separation of hair and epidermis. Lime and sulfides are used for this process. Thus, sulfur in wastewater dehairing occurs as sulfide. Today, catalysis is at the centre of major societal concerns about energy, environment and sustainable development. The discovery of new catalytic processes and the improvement of existing ones are also critically important for improving the quality of life while simultaneously reducing the adverse impact of human activities on the environment. With a substitution approach of a catalyst MnSO4 by multiple wastes from tannery and the metallurgical sector, this study investigated the recycle of waste from dehairing process and waste from metallurgical industry. The results indicated 32% of oxidized sulfur for the first waste derived from process of depilation and 30% for the second waste from metallurgical process industry. A preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the proposed solution is much cheaper than the discharging of waste and wastewater in a WWTP; however, the sustainability of the proposed solution provided a second alternative, to alleviate the operational costs of installations wastewater from tanneries, without significantly impacting the environment.
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