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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13932 matches for " energy harvesting "
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Effective Thermoelectric Power Generation in an Insulated Compartment  [PDF]
Harkirat S. Mann, Yosyp Schwab, Brian N. Lang, Jarrett L. Lancaster, Ronald J. Parise, Giovanna Scarel
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2014.43020
Abstract:
The Seebeck coefficient S is a temperature- and material-dependent property, which linearly and causally relates the temperature difference T between the “hot” and “cold” junctions of a thermoelectric power generator (TEC-PG) to the voltage difference V. This phenomenon is the Seebeck effect (SE), and can be used to convert waste heat into usable energy. This work investigates the trends of the effective voltage output V(t) and effective Seebeck coefficient S'(t) versus several hours of activity of a solid state TEC-PG device. The effective Seebeck coefficient S'(t) here is related to a device, not just to a material’s performance. The observations are pursued in an insulated compartment in various geometrical and environmental configurations. The results indicate that the SE does not substantially depend on the geometrical and environmental configurations. However, the effective Seebeck coefficient S'(t) and the produced effective
Energy Harvesting Based on Magnetic Dispersion for Three-Phase Power System  [PDF]
Tarcisio Oliveira de Moraes Júnior, Yuri Percy Molina Rodriguez, Ewerton Cleudson de Sousa Melo, Maraiza Prescila dos Santos, Cleonilson Protásio de Souza
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.53B005
Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study on Magnetic-Dispersion based Energy Harvesting Systems (MD-EHS) on electrical conductors that supply power for a three-phase AC motor. It introduces two MD-EHS which are based on magnetic cores of different material, named, nanocrystalline, ferrite and iron powder. The first one consists of harvesting energy from magnetic flux through three symmetrical magnetic cores installed on each power conductors of a three-phase AC motor. The second one consists of a single magnetic core for harvesting energy from magnetic flux of only one of these conductors. Both ones have an AC/DC converter and a variable resistor based load. Experimental results have agreed with the theoretical analysis and show that the first proposed MD-EHS is capable of supplying 14 times more energy than the second MD-EHS, considering nanocrystalline cores and phase current of 3 A, and 7.5 times more energy, considering ferrite cores and phase current of 9 A. Such energy can be applied to various low-power devices, especially in wireless sensor network.

Two-Capacitor Electrostatic Microgenerators  [PDF]
Igor L. Baginsky, Edward G. Kostsov, Victor F. Kamishlov
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.511A002
Abstract:

All modes of operation of a two-capacitor generator based on overflow of the charge accumulated in capacitors through the load resistance between two capacitors with antiphase modulated capacitances by means of in-plane or out-of-plane shift of the electrode plates under action of a mechanical force are analyzed paying the especial attention to fabrication of the generators with small sizes. Numerical solutions for all the modes are obtained, and they are found to be universal. Analytical estimates of the maximum power of the generator as a function of the capacitances modulation factor are derived. Experimental investigations of a two-capacitor rotational electric generator show that its characteristics are consistent with the analysis performed and that this analysis can be used to describe all specific features of operation of particular generators. Applications of the devices in micro-design for feeding the remote sensors are discussed.

Decoupling the Electrical and Entropic Contributions to Energy Transfer from Infrared Radiation to a Power Generator  [PDF]
Aidan L. Gordon, Yosyp Schwab, Brian N. Lang, Graham P. Gearhart, Tara R. Jobin, Justin M. Kaczmar, Zachary J. Marinelli, Harkirat S. Mann, Brian C. Utter, Giovanna Scarel
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.54031
Abstract: The interaction between infrared radiation and a power generator device in time is studied as a route to harvest infrared, and possibly other electromagnetic radiations. Broadening the spectrum of the usable electromagnetic spectrum would greatly contribute to the renewable and sustainable energy sources available to humankind. In particular, low frequency and low power radiation is important for applications on ships, satellites, cars, personal backpacks, and, more generally, where non-dangerous energy is needed at all hours of the day, independent of weather conditions. In this work, we identify an electric and an entropic contribution to the energy transfer from low power infrared radiation to the power generator device, representing electrical and thermal contributions to the power generation. The electric contribution prevails, and is important because it offers multiple ways to increase the voltage produced. For example, placing black-colored gaffer tape on the illuminated face doubles the voltage produced, while the temperature difference, thus the entropic contribution, is not sensitive to the presence of the tape. We recognize the electric contribution through the fast changes it imparts to the voltage output of the power generator device, which mirror the instabilities in time of the infrared radiation. The device thus acts as sensor of the infrared radiation’s behavior in time. On the other hand, we distinguish the entropic contribution through the slow changes it causes to the voltage output of the power generator device, which reflect the relative delay with which the two faces of the device respond to thermal perturbations.
RF Energy Harvesting for Hybrid Application: Review and Analysis
Mr. Rajiv Dahiya,,Dr. A. K. Arora,,Prof. Dr. V.R.Singh
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Wireless Sensor node is one of the important technologies for the recent world applications like military, agriculture, health etc. But the major problem associated with these nodes is their battery dependence. The Battery Dependence for such nodes responds to the life time of the complete node.Failure of network due to node failure occurs when the battery completely depleted. To beware from such conditions for critical conditions there is one more option of Energy harvesting. In this paper we have discussed about many kinds of energy harvesting procedures. RF energy harvesting and related work discussion are the major issues which we have discussed in this paper. The Power transmitted and received, DC power output, efficiency enhancement due to multipliers or charge pumps are the areas which have been discussed in this paper. Some protocols and routing techniques are also discussed in this paper.
Potential of Power Generation Utilizing Waste Kinetic Energy from Vehicles  [PDF]
Wail Adaileh, Khaled Al-Qdah, Mayyas Mahasneh
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.32015
Abstract: Energy generation has seen significant development in recent years. This investigation describes a new technique for generating energy from the waste kinetic energy of the vehicles at low speed. A complete description of the system is presented including the general concept, configurations, mechanical design, and electrical system. The system based on the principle of drum rotation due to low movement or transportation of the vehicles driven at low speed at different places such as moles, hotels, universities entrance and fast meals gates. The results show that this new technology could provide an efficient and low cost method of generating electricity from vehicles and the generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for street lighting, domestic uses such as air conditioning, lighting, heating. Some major factors have been studied and practically designed and tested such as there is no possibility to failure or yielding of shaft under loading and the drum is more strength to bending and other forms of stress. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical and the vehicles waste kinetic energy is one of the renewable sources of energy which can be harnessed to generate electricity. This system depends on the vehicle’s weight, when the weight increase the rpm of the drum will increase. As the horizontal vehicle speed is increased the rotational speed of the drum will be increased. It was found that the effective rotational drum speed (n = 35 rpm) at which the system starts to charging. The friction between the tire and the drum increases when the vehicle weight increases. The reported results indicated that we need only about 10% of vehicle attractive effort to generating a sizable amount of electrical energy. Also, the testing results proven that the minimum effective vehicle’s speed is 20 Km/hr, this means that all of the vehicle going over the system can be harnesses to produce the energy. The suggested model will be able to generate energy may be economically feasible to use for a larger applications, and thus helps to reduce the costs of energy production. On the practical side we have been able to produce and store electrical energy using this model at minimum speed of 20 km/hr, and the system is considered simple to install, inexpensive compared with other sources, safe, and has no bad impacts on the environment. Also, the system can be modified and subjected to upgrading. The system total cost was found to be
Optimization of the Voltage Doubler Stages in an RF-DC Convertor Module for Energy Harvesting  [PDF]
Kavuri Kasi Annapurna Devi, Norashidah Md. Din, Chandan Kumar Chakrabarty
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2012.33030
Abstract: This paper presents an optimization of the voltage doubler stages in an energy conversion module for Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvesting system at 900 MHz band. The function of the energy conversion module is to convert the (RF) signals into direct-current (DC) voltage at the given frequency band to power the low power devices/circuits. The design is based on the Villard voltage doubler circuit. A 7 stage Schottky diode voltage doubler circuit is designed, modeled, simulated, fabricated and tested in this work. Multisim was used for the modeling and simulation work. Simulation and measurement were carried out for various input power levels at the specified frequency band. For an equivalent incident signal of –40 dBm, the circuit can produce 3mV across a 100 k? load. The results also show that there is a multiplication factor of 22 at 0 dBm and produces DC output voltage of 5.0 V in measurement. This voltage can be used to power low power sensors in sensor networks ultimately in place of batteries.
Probing the Wave Nature of Light-Matter Interaction  [PDF]
D. E. Boone, C. H. Jackson, A. T. Swecker, J. S. Hergenrather, K. S. Wenger, O. Kokhan, B. Terzi?, I. Melnikov, I. N. Ivanov, E. C. Stevens, G. Scarel
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2018.82005
Abstract: The wave-particle duality of light is a controversial topic in modern physics. In this context, this work highlights the ability of the wave-nature of light on its own to account for the conservation of energy in light-matter interaction. Two simple fundamental properties of light as wave are involved: its period and its power P. The power P depends only on the amplitude of the wave’s electric and magnetic fields (Poynting’s vector), and can easily be measured with a power sensor for visible and infrared lasers. The advantage of such a wave-based approach is that it unveils unexpected effects of light’s power P capable of explaining numerous results published in current scientific literature, of correlating phenomena otherwise considered as disjointed, and of making predictions on ways to employ the electromagnetic (EM) waves which so far are unexplored. In this framework, this work focuses on determining the magnitude of the time interval that, coupled with light’s power P, establishes the energy conserved in the exchange of energy between light and matter. To reach this goal, capacitors were excited with visible and IR lasers at variable average power P. As the result of combining experimental measurements and simulations based on the law of conservation of energy, it was found that the product of the period of the light by its power P fixes the magnitude of the energy conserved in light’s interaction with the capacitors. This finding highlights that the energy exchanged is defined in the time interval equal to the period of the light’s wave. The validity of the finding is shown to hold in light’s interaction with matter in general, e.g. in the photoelectric effect with x-rays, in the transfer of electrons between energy levels in semiconducting interfaces of field effect transistors, in the activation of photosynthetic reactions, and in the generation of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells to enable vision in vertebrates. Finally, the validity of the finding is investigated in the low frequency spectrum of the EM waves by exploring possible consequences in microwave technology, and in harvesting through capacitors the radio waves dispersed in the environment after being used in telecommunications as a source of usable electricity.
Recharging Sensor Nodes Using Implicit Actor Coordination in Wireless Sensor Actor Networks  [PDF]
Mohsen Sharifi, Saeed Sedighian, Maryam Kamali
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.22017
Abstract: Wireless sensor actor networks are composed of sensor and actor nodes wherein sensor nodes outnumber resource-rich actor nodes. Sensor nodes gather information and send them to a central node (sink) and/or to actors for proper actions. The short lifetime of energy-constrained sensor nodes can endanger the proper operation of the whole network when they run out of power and partition the network. Energy harvesting as well as minimizing sensor energy consumption had already been studied. We propose a different approach for recharging sensor nodes by mobile actor nodes that use only local information. Sensor nodes send their energy status along with their sensed information to actors in their coverage. Based on this energy information, actors coordinate implicitly to decide on the timings and the ordering of recharges of low energy sensor nodes. Coordination between actors is achieved by swarm intelligence and the replenishment continues during local learning of actor nodes. The number of actors required to keep up such networks is identified through simulation using VisualSense. It is shown that defining the appropriate number of actor nodes is critical to the success of recharging strategies in prolonging the network lifetime.
Design, Modeling and Analysis of Implementing a Multilayer Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Mechanism in the Vehicle Suspension  [PDF]
Wiwiek Hendrowati, Harus Laksana Guntur, I. Nyoman Sutantra
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.411094
Abstract: This paper deals with the design, modeling and analysis of implementing a Multilayer Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting (ML PZT VEH) Mechanism in the vehicle suspension. The principle of work of the proposed ML PZT VEH mechanism is reducing the relative motion of the suspension, amplifying the applied force to the PZT by a specific design of mechanism and combining a single layer PZT into multilayer PZT to increase the produced electricity. To maintain the performance of suspension as the original suspension, the ML PZT VEH mechanism is mounted in series with the spring of the suspension. The proposed ML PZT VEH mechanism and its implementation to the vehicle suspension were mathematically modeled. Responses of the vehicle before and after implementing ML PZT VEH mechanism were simulated. The results show the proposed mechanism can produce output voltage of 2.75 and power of 7.17 times bigger than direct mounting to the vehicle suspension. And the simulation result shows that mounting ML PZT VEH mechanism in series with the spring of the vehicle suspension does not change the performance of suspension.
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