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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1132 matches for " employment "
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Discrimination in a Covert Methodology: An Analysis of Physical and Social Characteristics That Prohibit People from Becoming Employed  [PDF]
Steven V. Cates, Heather Dana
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.42022
Abstract: Organizations all over the world are found guilty of using stereotypes to discriminate against applicants in the selection process for employment. This research seeks to answer the question what stereotypes are used to discriminate against people in the selection process and consequently provide an analysis of the physical and social characteristics that prohibit people from gaining employment. A sample of 87 working adults taking a Human Resources Management course were selected to complete a survey that questioned them on physical characteristics and how they affected their decisions on hiring or rejecting applicants. Historical research has held that interviews possess some stereotypes such as race, gender, age, height and weight to judge applicants rather than their skills, knowledge and ability to perform the job. Five hypotheses were posited for testing. Mixed support was provided that respondents ignore most stereotypical characteristics in the employment selection process but surprisingly strong support for one’s appearance and dress was found. It is recommended that interviewers undertake detailed training, decrease stereotyping by focusing on job description and keep interviews job related. It is also wise for interviews to include tests when judging applicant’s skills, knowledge and ability. Federal laws and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission also serve to ensure that equal opportunity is granted to all and discrimination is avoided.
Rethinking the Government Role of Promoting Employment Policies for Persons with Disabilities: A Case Study of Anhui Province in China  [PDF]
Xia Luo, Yuting Fan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.58017
Abstract: Under the backdrop of a slowing global economy and downward pressure on the domestic economy, the Chinese government in 2012 put forward a goal of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, achieving common prosperity for everyone, and promoting social equity and justice. However, a truly prosperous society cannot be completed without taking into consideration people with disabilities. One focus should be on doing everything possible to promote employment opportunities and improve income for the persons with disabilities. Consequently, the Chinese government is interested in finding solutions and developing measures to address the issues of employment for them. This case study utilizes literature research, interviews, and statistical analysis methods to review government policies for people with disabilities in Anhui Province. The government support policies for persons of disabilities are about three main employment forms, human resources development and financial direct support. The article expounds the improper roles of the government such as imperfect implementation of policies, weak interventions by social organizations, limited welfare enterprises, inadequate community and family function development. It also suggests that the government strengthen policies, foster NGOs, and play the role of family and community to improve employment for persons with disabilities.
A Birth Cohort Analysis of First Employment Spells  [PDF]
Luke Ignaczak
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.511159

The duration of the first employment spell of workers across five different birth cohorts is investigated using pooled data from the 15th and 20th cycles of the Canadian General Social Survey. These retrospective surveys contain information that spans well over the last half of the 20th century. The data are benchmarked against the Labour Force Survey to emphasize the distinct nature of employment spells vis-a-vis job tenures as commonly used in the literature. Overall, this paper contributes to the debate of employment stability by analyzing the differences between job and employment durations and showing that successive cohorts of workers have had increasingly shorter first employment durations. The analysis finds cohort effects which play a significant role in explaining declining employment tenure. The cohort effects can be seen as a proxy for a number of socio-economic factors that affect the hazard of separation from employment. Separate analysis is completed for men and women by birth cohort. This pattern of declining tenure has occurred for both men and women, but the decline has been far more prominent for men. For men, macroeconomic factors affect the hazard more strongly in more recent cohorts, which is consistent with recessionary periods generating decreasing employment stability across cohorts. For women, cohort effects are consistent with the increasing generosity of maternity leave provisions through Unemployment Insurance.

Migration, Employment, and Industrial Development in Japan  [PDF]
Tetsuya Nakajima
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.48083
Abstract: Industrial development in Japan is accompanied by massive migration from agricultural to industrial areas. In a modified Harrod-Domar model, this paper compares two steady states, the first and the second, which emerge before and after the termination of such migration, respectively. Then, the paper shows that employment rates must be lower in the second steady state. Further, by examining the effects of fiscal policy, the paper shows that the balanced budget multiplier exceeds unity, and fiscal policy raises households’ disposable income and consumption.
Can We Manage a Balance between Care and Employment?
—The Compatibility of Informal Care and Employment at the Alpen-Adria University

Nadja Frate, Brigitte Jenull
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.57020
Abstract: Thedemographic trend confronts the younger generation with the decision to care for family members. The care of a loved one is seen as not only a challenge but also a burden. The aim of the present study is to investigate the compatibility of care and employment in the university context by a multilevel triangulations design. First we determined the amount of persons concerned by all staff members of the Alpen-Adria University (AAU) (n = 919). Subsequently we discussed the problems in depth with ten employees. The results show that 11% of the employees are caring for a family member and are exposed to a variety of burden. In addition to physical and mental disorders, there are changes in the work style. The affected employees kept the care secret and formulated fears of job loss and degradation of efficiency. These results formed the basis for expert interviews (n = 7) and the development of concrete solutions.
Tourism and Employment Spillovers in a Small Island Developing State: A Dynamic Investigation  [PDF]
Sheereen Fauzel
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.62016
Abstract: Using a dynamic vector error correction model, and catering for dynamism and endogeneity, the present study attempts to address the question on whether tourism development enhances employment in Mauritius using time series data for the period 1988-2014. The results show that indeed tourism expansion has contributed towards boosting direct, indirect and induced employment in both the long run and short run. The findings also demonstrate that investment in the tourism sector positively influences the employment variable. Moreover, a uni-directional causality is found in the investigation running from tourism development to employment creation as a result of the expansion of the tourism sector.
Attitudes of Jordanians People toward Employment of Persons with Disabilities  [PDF]
Rodaina Khader Ibrahim Al Tarawneh
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.49013
Abstract: This study aimed to know the attitudes of Jordanians people toward employment of persons with disabilities, and it aimed to investigate the effect of some variables on these attitudes. In order to achieve the aims of this study, a questionnaire of attitudes toward employment of persons with disabilities were used to collect data from 800 persons (344 males and 456 females). The results indicated that the percentage of Jordanians people who emphasized that the work was a right for people with disabilities was (88.5%), and the percentage of Jordanians people who pointed out that people with disabilities unproductive was (69%). Also it indicates that there are statistically significant differences between the Jordanians people in the attitudes toward employment of persons with disabilities due to (Age, Educational level and Existence of a disability in the individual’s family). Also there are no statistically significant differences between Jordanians people in the attitudes due to (Gender and Economic level).
Analysis of Labour Market Indicators in Slovakia
Kotuli? Rastislav
Journal of Competitiveness , 2011,
Abstract: One of the prerequisites for the creation of employment opportunities is the overall conditions of a country’s economy. However, this prerequisite is not the only requirement that guarantees an increase in employment. The factors that influence the rate of employment are connected with the entrepreneurial environment of a country. The entrepreneurial environment is one of the basic factors that contribute to the creation of work opportunities in a market economy. This paper points to the fact that, future growth of the employment rate will be connected to the quality of the workforce as well as the renewed economic-political concept with a priority on the knowledge economy based on learning competences.
Trade and Women Employment in China: An Insight into the Low Presence of Women Workforce in the 21st Century Corporate China  [PDF]
Anirban Nandi
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.71005
As China enjoys being the second largest economy in the world, it’s women can said to have the credit for its country’s economic development in this 21st century. This paper studies the women employment factor in China and identifies the issue of lower female workforce in Chinese businesses despite of Chinese women, from various walks of life excelling in the corporate world, and studies their income and the employment discrimination faced by them. This research takes a correlation methodology approach to establish the cause of such lower women presence in the Chinese businesses. The study uses re-gression analysis to establish the relationships between the women employed in Chinese businesses and the success rate of those businesses. The rate of discrimination against women in employment by viz. family, male peers and company officials is also being determined. The research concludes with women’s significance in big Chinese corporate giants highlighting their con-tribution towards them through continued presence, the need of increasing female income and bringing in a level playing field for women through equal opportunity policies, the future prediction on the rate of firm profits and the need for further research on the broader aspects of the issue specific to the topic in concern.
Factors Associated with Perceived Time Pressure among Employed Mothers and Fathers  [PDF]
Terrie Fitzpatrick, Bonnie Janzen, Sylvia Abonyi, Ivan Kelly
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.32025
Abstract: Research suggests that the perception of being pressed for time is increasing in many Western societies and that such perceptions are linked with social and mental well-being. The aim of this study was to clarify the family and work-related characteristics associated with perceived time pressure in a sample of Canadian working mothers and fathers. A telephone survey of 1160 employed parents (674 women and 486 men) conducted in a mid-size Canadian city in 2005 provided the data for this study. Results of the multiple linear regression analyses showed that both role occupancy and role quality was related to perceived time pressure and that the nature of these relationships depended on gender. For mothers, the following factors were associated with increased time pressure: occupancy of an unpaid caregiving role, parenting a child with at least one health/behavioral problem, and the perception of parenting as draining or anxiety provoking. Regarding the paid work environment, women who were categorized as high strain (i.e., high demands/low control) or active (high demands/high control) also reported higher levels of time pressure. For fathers, greater perceived time pressure was associated with: occupancy of the partner role, the perception of parenting as draining, being a multiple job holder and having a high strain (i.e., high demands/low control) or active (high demands/high control) psychosocial work environment. Limitations of the study are discussed as are the policy implications of the findings.
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