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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 355 matches for " ecuador. "
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Ethnicity, Labor and Indigenous Populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon, 1822-2010  [PDF]
Robert Wasserstrom, Teodoro Bustamante
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2015.51001
Abstract: According to most recent research, Indians in Ecuador’s Amazonian region (the Oriente) lived outside of modern markets and political systems until around 40 years ago. But this view obscures the essential role of indigenous labor in earlier cycles of extractivism and exploitation. Beginning in the 18th century, lowland Quichua and other ethnic groups were defined as much by their place within long-distance economic networks as they were by their languages or cultures. Using newly discovered historical records and other sources, we can now reconstruct the ebb and flow of commodity booms in Amazonian Ecuador and their impact on indigenous populations.
Mitigation of Ecuadorian Earthquake Impact  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2018.73012
The mechanism of “Bing-Bang-Channeling-Cut” was proposed to reduce the volcanic energy (“Bing”) from the Galapagos Hot Spot (GHS) for the mitigation of Ecuadorian earthquake impact (“Bang”). The lag time between the volcanic eruptions in the GHS and Ecuadorian earthquake was probably caused by the undersea seamounts of the Carnegie Ridge (CAR) (“Channeling”). Experimental results from the water reservoir showed that the lag time decreased when increasing the number of drilled holes (“Cut”) in the bottom of reservoir. The present study showed that there was an additional vector initiating the Ecuadorian earthquake from the volcanic eruption in the GHS through the CAR. It was concluded that the harmful effects of Ecuadorian earthquakes could be mitigated by releasing the volcanic energy through the enlarged exit diameters in Holes of Site 1239 (A, B, C) with the presently productive upwelling chlorophyll system at the northeastern CAR.
Familial Relationship of Migrants and Remittances Behavior: Theory and Evidence from Ecuador  [PDF]
Hilcías E. Morán
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.48057

This paper develops a simple analytical model with altruistically motivated remittances to analyze the determinants of remittances using household data from Ecuador. The model predicts that migrant remittance behavior and household migration size are non-monotonically correlated. The empirical work suggests that migrant remittances are a non-increasing function of the number of migrants within the household. If there is a positive selection of migrants, then one would expect that the forgone household income due to migration is higher than when there is a negative selection. According to the Ecuadorian data of households with at least 1 migrant, prior to migration the individuals who left had a higher education level than those relatives left behind. The average years of schooling of the migrants are 3.5 years, higher than the non-migrants. It seems that when migration size changes from 2 to 3 and from 3 to 4 migrants within the same household, the forgone household income due to migration might have a positive effect on altruistically motivated remittances, which compensates for the negative effect of the increased number of migrants on the individual amount of remittances (Nash assumption). The results of allowing a non-linear relationship between migrant remittance behavior and household migration are partially distinguished from those reached when there is a linear relationship and also contrast with the predictions of rent-seeking literature. Moreover, it shows that Ecuadorian migrants who moved to Spain were less likely to remit and remit less than those migrants whose destination country was the United States.

Deforestation, Agrarian Reform and Oil Development in Ecuador, 1964-1994  [PDF]
Robert Wasserstrom, Douglas Southgate
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.41004

Recent biodiversity research in the Western Amazon has emphasized the linkages among road construction, deforestation and loss of indigenous lands. Many observers have concluded that hydrocarbon production inevitably means destruction of forests and expropriation of native territory. Yet evidence from the eastern lowlands of Ecuador (known as the Oriente) shows that oil can be developed without roads or harmful impacts. The Oriente also provides another contrasting case: in areas where no oil was discovered, the government often built roads to support its agricultural colonization efforts. In these areas, a great deal of deforestation and indigenous displacement occurred. Such evidence suggests that a different set of agrarian and environmental policies might permit oil activity without loss of rain forest or indigenous territory.


Yo fuí vendida”: Reconsidering Peonage and Genocide in Western Amazonia  [PDF]
Robert Wasserstrom
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.72004
Abstract: The Amazon Rubber Boom (1885-1930) has long been known by its worst outrage: Julio César Arana’s brutal enslavement of 13,000 Indians around 1904 in Peruvian-held territory along the lower Putumayo River. In contrast, where indigenous people were not driven by the whip, researchers have argued that they remained largely unaffected by rubber collection. Archival evidence and a reexamination of older ethnographies suggest a different conclusion: debt peonage and forced labor, not brutality, drove most native workers to gather rubber. Few if any Indian households in western Amazonia escaped from this commerce. As the Rubber Boom receded, survivors often constructed new ethnic identities in what James Scott has called “shatter zones.” Such findings call for a revised, historically grounded scholarship that problematizes commodity booms and their impact on native communities.
ICP Analyses from the Cinnabar-Mercury Occurrence at Azogues (Loma Guashon), Ecuador: Ancient Industrial Uses and Human Health Implications  [PDF]
William E. Brooks
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2018.61003
Abstract: ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) analyses of the Cretaceous marine sandstones at the Azogues (Loma Guashon), Ecuador cinnabar-mercury occurrence gave 11 - 113 ppm Hg. However, the ancient Azogues mines have been well documented previously, for example: 1) a 1799 hand drawn map “Plan del Cerro Mineral de Azogue” shows numerous adits; 2) during Colonial time, Cuenca founder, Gil Ramirez Davalos was owner of the mercury mines; 3) in the late 1800s, Teodoro Wolf described well-worked adits at Guashon and samples with 0.5% Hg; and more recently, 4) the Metallogenic Map of Ecuador shows the mercury occurrence at Azogues. Mineral resource assessment of the Azogues occurrence is important to regional archaeological studies of resource availability and ancient use of cinnabar as a pigment and as a source of mercury for gold amalgamation before the arrival of the Europeans, and possibly later, for silver amalgamation, during Colonial time.
Del amparo a la acción de protección jurisdiccional
ávila Santamaría, Ramiro;
Revista IUS , 2011,
Abstract: the 2008 constitution of ecuador recognizes various mechanisms in order to guarantee the jurisdictional protection of the law. these guarantees attempt to prevent potential infringement of people's rights and restore those that have already occurred. within preventive measures we find regulative norms, public policies and precautionary measures. among the remedial actions of the law we also find the protective action of their rights. this view as a "guarantor" is new to the ecuadorian legal system, i would dare say at least in constitutional terms, and in comparative law. this article is a study of these institutions.
Factores asociados con el incumplimiento del tratamiento antipalúdico en pacientes ecuatorianos
Martha C. Yépez,Denis Zambrano,Fernando Carrasco,Rodrigo F. Yépez
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2000,
Abstract: Un total de 249 personas residentes del noroccidente del Ecuador, con diagnóstico clínico de paludismo, confirmado mediante frotis de gota gruesa, recibieron tratamiento con cloroquina o primaquina según el régimen terapéutico vigente en el Servicio Nacional de Erradicación de la Malaria. Se realizó nueva valoración clínica y frotis de gota gruesa 4 d después en los casos de P. falciparum (n = 120) y 8 d más tarde en los de P.vivax (n = 129); se averiguó mediante interrogatorio directo si el paciente había o no cumplido con el tratamiento y se investigaron las causas para haber actuado en uno u otro sentido. La información se procesó en paquetes EPI-INFO 6.04 y SPSS PC 7,0, se utilizaron la prueba de bondad de ajuste y el análisis factorial de correspondencias. Se definió como paciente cumplidor a quien tomó diariamente el número de pastillas prescrito, durante el número de días indicado, con el intervalo establecido y en el momento preciso. Por cada 3 pacientes cumplidores hubo 2 incumplidores; el incumplimiento no se asoció significativamente con la edad, el sexo, la escolaridad, la etnia, procedencia urbana o rural o el nivel de ingreso monetario. El conocimiento de la gravedad de la infección sí contribuyó al cumplimiento. Las razones del incumplimiento se asociaron principalmente con los medicamentos (efectos secundarios/renuencia a tomarlos); el olvido y el hecho de "curarse enseguida" fueron otras razones. El perfil del incumplidor se identificó con un adolescente, varón, mestizo, pobre y proveniente del área rural. A total of 249 persons living in the Northwest part of Ecuador with a clinical diagnosis of malaria confirmed by thick blood films were treated with chloroquine and primaquine according to the therapeutical system in force in the National Service for Eradication of Malaria. New clinical assesment and thick blood film were applied after 4 days in P.falciparum (n=120) cases and after 8 days in P.vivax (n=129) cases; patients were questioned about the compliance or non-compliance with the treatment, and the reasons for their acting in either way were studied. EPI-INFO 6.04 and SPSS PC 7.0 packages served to process the information; "kind adjustment test" (bondad de ajuste) abd factorial analysis of correspondences were used. The patient who daily took his/her pills for the number of days indicated, at the established intervals and at the right time was defined as a patient complying with the drug therapy. For every 3 patients complying with treatment, there were 2 who did not; non-compliance was not significantly related to age, sex, edu
Grupo Drosophila asiri (Diptera, Drosophilidae), un nuevo grupo de especies andinas con la descripción de dos nuevas especies y la redescripción de Drosophila asiri
Figuero, María Luna;Rafael, Violeta;Céspedes, Diego;
Iheringia. Série Zoologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212012000100005
Abstract: the drosophila asiri group is a new group of species in the subgenus drosophila. the specimens were captured in the highlands of ecuador from 3200 m to 4000 m above sea level. this group includes drosophila (d.) asiri vela & rafael, 2005, that was previously described within the d. onychophora species group, and two new species, drosophila (d.) yuragyacum sp. nov. and drosophila (d.) yanaurcus sp. nov. these species were captured using banana and yeast bait, in bosque protector pasochoa, in the quebrada de cruz loma and in páramo de papallacta. the members of the d. asiri species group appear to be endemic to the ecuadorian andes. all three species of the d. asiri group are large flies (about 6 mm). males have a sclerotized aedeagus with two well sclerotized lateral projections in the shape of horns. these characteristics distinguish members of this species group from other groups within drosophila.
Emerging patterns in overweight and obesity in Ecuador
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892008000700010
Abstract: estudios epidemiológicos recientes han demostrado una elevada prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en ni?os y adultos de ecuador. esto afecta a más de la mitad de la población, especialmente a las mujeres. también se ha observado una alta tasa de personas con síndrome metabólico, una enfermedad asociada con el exceso de peso que incrementa el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. esos datos indican que en ecuador está en marcha una transición nutricional -la sustitución de dietas bajas en calorías principalmente de origen vegetal por dietas ricas en calorías con más componentes de origen animal-, en la que las dietas urbanas se componen primordialmente de grasa, azúcar y cereales refinados. esta dieta puede explicar en parte la alta prevalencia encontrada de sobrepeso y obesidad. las políticas internacionales que intensifican el comercio exterior y extienden el alcance de las corporaciones transnacionales de alimentos facilitan esta transición nutricional al llevar nuevos productos alimenticios a los mercados en desarrollo. los cambios en el crecimiento de la población, la estructura por edades y la distribución de los ingresos, así como el aumento del grado de urbanización, también contribuyen a esta transición al crear grandes plazas centralizadas de consumidores. al dise?ar programas de intervención en ecuador se deben tener en cuenta tres características de su población, economía y geografía: 1) ecuador mantiene estrechos lazos con los estados unidos de américa y puede ser especialmente sensible a la influencia económica, industrial y cultural de ese país; 2) la variada geografía ecuatoriana puede impedir la aplicación de programas uniformes, ya que las diferencias regionales en la densidad de carreteras y los patrones climáticos influyen en la práctica de ejercicios y la actividad física; y 3) ecuador es el país más densamente poblado de américa del sur. por consiguiente, y tomando en cuenta los éxitos en este campo en otros países en desarrollo, los esfuerzos en
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