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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19476 matches for " drug therapy "
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Atrial Fibrillation: a Patient's Guide to Understanding Drug Therapy
Ragini S. Bhakta
Journal of Atrial Fibrillation , 2008, DOI: doi: 10.4022/jafib.v1i4.515
Abstract: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) as defined by the American Heart Association is an irregular heart beat (rhythm) where the small upper chambers of the heart (atria) beat ineffectively. The atria cannot pump all of the blood out of the chambers, resulting in pooling of the blood or clot formation. Unfortunately, if a part of the clot leaves the atria, it can become lodged in an artery in the brain resulting in an ischemic stroke.
Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy: The Giant Rats Tail  [PDF]
Vinod Prabhu, Siddik Uzzaman, Viswanathan Mariammal Berlin Grace, Chandrasekharan Guruvayoorappan
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.23045
Abstract: Nanotechnology has the potential to offer solutions to these current obstacles in cancer therapies, because of its unique size and large surface-to-volume ratios. Nanoparticles may have properties of self-assembly, stability, specificity, drug encapsulation and biocompatibility as a result of their material composition. Nanoscale devices have impacted cancer biology at three levels: early detection, tumour imaging using radiocontrast nanoparticles or quantum dots; and drug delivery using nanovectors and hybrid nanoparticles. Other role of nanotechnology, in management of various diseases and also in drug resistance in leukemia by blocking drug efflux from cancer cells and induce efficient delivery of siRNA into lymphocytes to block apoptosis in sepsis and targeting tumors also. Nanocrystals labeling with immune cells can act as a platform technology for nanoimmunotherapy. This review addresses the advancement of nanoparticles in drug delivery and in cancer therapy.
Development of the Japanese Medication Adherence Scale and Verification of Its Reliability and Validity in Hypertensive Patients  [PDF]
Rika Shimada, Yasuaki Dohi, Kazunori Kimura, Satoshi Fujii
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.63014
Abstract: A 32-Item Japanese Medication Adherence Scale had been developed as a tool for evaluating the medication-taking behavior of hypertensive patients and predicting therapeutic efficacy, and an Internet survey of 990 hypertensive patients throughout Japan was performed. As a result, factor 1 “Expectation of pharmacological efficacy” (9 items), factor 2 “Motivation to be self-controlled in taking medication” (6 items), and factor 3 “Negative feelings about taking medication” (4 items) were identified, comprising a total of 19 items. The scale was highly reliable. Because it proved capable of discriminating between the 2 groups with different medication-taking status and blood pressure, its validity had also been confirmed.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents: Early Prevention and Non-Drug Therapy  [PDF]
Lunan Zhao, Ting Long, Amy Leung Hui, Ruozhi Zhao, Shaohua Long, Wen Peng
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2017.73010
The global rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in youth has increased dramatically in the last 30 years. This increase mirrors the global epidemic of childhood obesity. Studies show that, compared to adults who develop T2DM, youth with T2DM ultimately suffer from more harmful symptoms. The prevalence of T2DM and obesity in youth signals a significant public health issue that financially burdens governments, families, and individuals. Since evidence suggests that T2DM in youth is different from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults, researchers and clinicians face many difficulties in developing new treatments. Most treatment efforts have relied on drugs; however, recent studies suggest that non-drug therapy also effectively reduces obesity and diabetic symptoms. Healthier eating, increased physical exercise, and positive mental health, are often underappreciated factors towards managing obesity. Yet these lifestyle changes empower both young and older patients to independently fight diseases and attain better health. To manage the global health risk of obesity, further research addressing the prevention and nondrug early intervention of T2DM and obesity in youth is urgently needed. The present review focuses on the latest updates in the field.
A eficácia das interven??es farmacológicas e psicossociais para o tratamento do tabagismo: revis?o da literatura
Mazoni, Cláudia Galv?o;Fernandes, Simone;Pierozan, Pollianna Sangalli;Moreira, Taís;Freese, Luana;Ferigolo, Maristela;Barros, Helena M. T.;
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-294X2008000200005
Abstract: smoking cessation is associated to health benefits, because individuals who stop smoking will avoid most tobacco-related disorders. our aim was to review the most important characteristics and the efficacy of the pharmacological and psychossocial treatments available for tobacco smokers, presenting meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials fundamental conclusions. pharmacological interventions involving nicotine replacement and antidepressant use, with bupropion as the first line agent, and psychossocial interventions involving cognitive behavioral therapies and face-to-face or phone-based motivational interventions are proving to be efficacious. pharmacotherapies increase two-fold the chance of abstinence and face-to-face or phone-based psychosocial interventions increase the chance of quitting smoking in 1.5 to 2.5 times in comparison to individuals who try to quit smoking by themselves. these data support health professionals to decide the most effective treatment for individual smokers, according to the available interventions tested, their efficacy and the benefits of use.
Pundir Sarika,Badola Ashutosh
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Hypertension, elevated blood pressure, is a noteworthy public health concern worldwide due to its significant contribution to the global health burden and its role as a prominent risk factor for the development of a number of disease processes. The control of blood pressure is required in patients with hypertension to produce the maximum reduction in clinical cardiovascular end points, especially in patients with co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus where more aggressive blood pressure lowering might be beneficial. Recent clinical trials suggest that the approach of using monotherapy for the control of hypertension is not likely to be successful in most patients. Combination therapy may be theoretically favoured by the fact that multiple factors contribute to hypertension, and achieving control of blood pressure with single agent acting through one particular mechanism may not be possible. Combining the drugs makes them available in a convenient dosing format, lower the dose of individual component, thus, reducing the side effects and improving compliance.
Avalia??o do uso de colírio no paciente portador de glaucoma
Lisboa, Renato Dichetti dos Reis;Picosse, Fabíola Rosa;Mello, Paulo Augusto de Arruda;Paranhos Junior, Augusto;
Revista Brasileira de Oftalmologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-72802007000500007
Abstract: purpose:to identify the most important variables interfering with the correct topical administration of antiglaucomatous drugs. methods: forty glaucomatous patients under clinical treatment were interviewed and observed while applying antiglaucomatous drugs. the following variables were analyzed: sex; age; income; washing of the hands; number of drops; motor abnormalities; availability of another person to apply the drug; place of the globe reached; bottle-eye contact; previous instruction; positioning for application; development of a burning sensation, pain or irritation. using the questionary, the variables were correlated with the quality of instillation. results: among all variables, only the availability of another person to apply the drug and the existence of a burning sensation, pain or eye irritation showed statistically important correlation to proper instillation. conclusion: the presence of a companion and the development of burning sensation affected the quality of instillation.
Consumo de antioxidantes durante tratamento quimioterápico
Rohenkohl, Caroline Cavali;Carniel, Ana Paula;Colpo, Elisangela;
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva (S?o Paulo) , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-67202011000200004
Abstract: background: the cancer is defined as chronic multifactorial disease, in which cells have uncontrolled growth. several factors contribute to its development, one of them is inadequate diet. the stages of initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis have often been related to oxidative stress. aim: to assess the consumption of antioxidants in cancer patients during the different cycles of chemotherapy. methods: a descriptive exploratory study, including patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. to investigate the consumption of antioxidants, was prepared a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (sqffq) and an anamnesis clinic-nutrition chart. results: the sample consisted of 30 patients with mean age of 56.4 ± 2.3 years. according to the daily consumption represented by cycles, there was an adequate intake of vitamin c, vitamin e and zinc and inadequate intake of vitamin a and selenium. by dividing the study in the four quartiles of intake of antioxidants, there was adequate intake of vitamin a with 25% and inadequate amounts of vitamin c, vitamin e, zinc in 25% of the sample and also selenium in all quartiles. among the studied food sources considered rich in antioxidants, the most used were carrot, spinach, papaya, orange, soybean oil, sunflower oil, red meat, cheese and chicken. conclusion: the studied population reached the recommended daily intake for antioxidants when it was analyzed in cycles of treatment, but there was high percentage of inadequate intake when divided into quartiles. thus, the nutritional advice is an indispensable factor to help prevent and control cancer.
Ensaio clínico duplo-cego randomizado e placebocontrolado com naltrexona e interven??o breve no tratamento ambulatorial da dependência de álcool
Castro, Luís André;Laranjeira, Ronaldo;
Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0047-20852009000200002
Abstract: objective: the objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of naltrexone with brief intervention among patients with alcohol dependence. method: this study is a 12-week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. the sample of 71 patients was randomly divided in two groups (one receiving naltrexone and the other placebo). alcohol-dependent subjects were treated with 50 mg of naltrexone or placebo daily for 12 weeks. both treatment groups received brief intervention. the primary results for this study were relapse rate and change in drinking behaviors. results: in the intention-to-treat fewer naltrexone treated subjects relapsed (3% 21%; p = 0.054). naltrexone with brief intervention was not effective in decreasing drinking days (6.2 + 10.6 3.05 + 7.3; p = 0.478), moderate drinking days (0 2.2 + 6.9; p = 0.345) and heavy drinking days (0.03 + 0.2 0.3 + 0.9; p = 0.887). naltrexone was well tolerated. the most frequent adverse effects in our sample were: headache (25.4%), drowsiness (20.9%), nausea (16.4%), hyperphagia (16.4%), anorexia (14.9%), anxiety (10.4%), heartburn (10.4%) and irritability (10.4%). conclusions: although the naltrexone group showed a tendency to reduce relapse rate (> 5 drinks/day), no differences were found in other alcohol consumption variables between naltrexone and placebo groups. further studies should examine the efficacy of this kind of treatment combination in the primary health care.
Eficacia de un ácido kaurénico extraído de la planta venezolana Wedelia trilobata (Asterácea) contra Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis
Brito,Solanny; Crescente,Oscar; Fernández,Alexis; Coronado,Aura; Rodriguez,Noris;
Biomédica , 2006,
Abstract: introduction. leishmaniasis is a global public health problem without adequate treatment options, hence requiring research on new drug development. objective. our main objective was the evaluation of a kaurenic acid (ent-kaur-16-in-19-oico), isolated from the venezuelan plant wedelia trilobata (asteracea), on leishmania (v) braziliensis both in vivo and in vitro. materials and methods. the in vitro assay was performed using axenic amastigotes and promastigotes as well as infected and uninfected macrophages. parasites and macrophages were treated with concentrations of the compound varying between 10 and 250 μg/ml. the effect of the compound on cellular viability was evaluated by counting dead and living cells in a hemocytometer and by the colorimetric method using mtt (methylthiazoletetrazolium). for the in vivo assay, balb/c mice were infected subcutaneously with 1x106 promastigotes of l.(v.) braziliensis and afterwards treated with a daily dose of 30 mg/kg in 100 μl of kaurenic acid administered by intraperitoneal injection for one week. results. the compound had a lethal effect on axenic amastigotes and promastigotes with dl50 of 0.25 and 0.78 μg/ml, respectively, in 24 hours. low toxicity was observed for j774-g8 macrophages with a dl50 of 25 μg/ml and high viability (70-92%), while a moderate viability was observed for infected macrophages (37-81%), with concentrations of 25 μg/ml or less. additionally, a 70% reduction was observed in the size of the skin lesions in balb/c mice with no evident toxic effect. conclusion. the results indicate that this compound has a potent leishmanicidal effect on l.(v.) braziliensis.
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