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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15467 matches for " drought stress "
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Ultrasound on Seedling Growth of Wheat under Drought Stress Effects  [PDF]
Haiyan Ran, Liyan Yang, Yanling Cao
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.67064
Abstract: This study used different intensity ultrasound treatments, wheat seedlings in the germination energy, germination rate, growth potential, root length, and number of lateral roots optimal radiation dose selection. Studied under drought stress were the optimal dose of radiation treatment of wheat seedling leaf relative water content (RWC), protein content, Methane Dicarboxylic Aldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and the impact of amylase activity. Studies have shown that after ultrasonic treatment enhanced drought resistance of wheat seedlings, alleviate drought stress on wheat seedling injury to 65 W 15 min ultrasonic treatment works best.
Phenotyping of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.) at Seedling Stage under Drought Condition  [PDF]
Shirin Aktar, Nilima Hossain, Mohammad Golam Azam, Masum Billah, Priya Lal Biswas, Mohammad Abdul Latif, Motiar Rohman, Shamim Ara Bagum, Mohammad Shalim Uddin
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.911156
Abstract: Drought is envisaged as the greatest demolishing natural impacts throughout the world since it has observed extensive place of agronomical land sterile almost the world. It’s the significant crop output-limiting producer, and elaborated learning of its result on plant enhancement dictation is diametrical. At present, drought tolerant hybrid maize has been trying to induce Bangladesh especially drought affected zone to identify the drought endurance maize genotypes. Consequently, a feasible pot study of 49 hybrid maize genotypes were directed to determine an adequate drought level to promote aliment and promotion of maize plant below the water stress conditions with treatment (control and drought) and three replications. The data were received after 35 days of sowing using appropriate procedures. Specially, the stomata were collected by the white transparent nail polish from the lower part of leaves. Descriptive statistic of the all traits like percentage of SPAD, leaf rolling (LR), maximum root length (MRL), maximum shoot length (MSL), root dry matter (RDM), shoot dry matter (SDM), length of
Effects of Moisture Deficit on the Yield of Cowpea Genotypes in the Guinea Savannah of Northern Ghana  [PDF]
Damba Yahaya, Nicholas Denwar, Matthew W. Blair
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/as.2019.104046
Abstract: Cowpea is multipurpose, leguminous, high protein crop in the tropics that provides food for humans and fodder for animals. The crop adds nitrogen and other nutrients to the soil through symbiotic relationship with rhizobia and direct decomposition of cowpea by-products. Despite its multiple benefits for humankind, the yield of cowpea is far below its potential and its production in the crop’s birthplace of Africa is especially affected by abiotic factors. Soil moisture deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect the yield of cowpea in the semi-arid tropics, including the Sahelian and Guinea Savannah regions in West Africa. Even though cowpea is a drought tolerant legume, different genotypes respond differently to drought, resulting in up to 100% or more yield increases in the case of resistant genotypes or 50% or more yield loss in case of susceptible types. Mitigating the effect of soil moisture deficit on cowpea production requires selection of genotypes that can withstand drought. With this in mind, the goal of this study was to identify drought tolerant cowpea germplasm for the Savannah region of Northern Ghana using cultivated genotypes from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) tested with and without irrigation at the Bontanga irrigation facility during the dry season in 2018. Fifty genotypes were used, which included 45 imported from USDA and five (5) local genotypes from the Savannah Agriculture Research Institute (SARI). The experiment had 2 × 50 factorial treatments (irrigation × genotypes) and consisted of randomized complete block design with three (3) replications per treatment. Two (2) watering regimes were introduced namely, drought stressed (no irrigation) and non-stressed/control (irrigated). Morpho-physiological, phenological and yield data were taken on the cowpeas evaluated with drought tolerance assessed based on grain yield data and derived indices. All parameters measured showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) except for the number of branches per plant. Genotypes PI339600, PI527263, PI527302, PI582793, PI582867 and SARI-6-2-6 produced high grain yields under both drought stress and non-stress conditions. These genotypes could be exploited for future breeding programs for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the savannah ecology and other areas with similar environmental conditions.
Protein Profiles and Dehydrin Accumulation in Some Soybean Varieties (Glycine max L. Merr) in Drought Stress Conditions  [PDF]
Estri Laras Arumingtyas, Evika Sandi Savitri, Runik Dyah Purwoningrahayu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.41018
Abstract: Drought is one of environmental stresses which the most limiting to plant growth and productivity. Drought stress led to a series of changes including biochemical changes like accumulation of osmolit and specific proteins involved in stress tolerance. One of the proteins that play a role in the mechanism of drought resistance is dehydrin protein. This study aimed to identify the protein profiles and dehydrin accumulation in 7 varieties of local Indonesian soybeans: Tanggamus, Nanti, Seulawah and Tidar (tolerant), Wilis and Burangrang (moderate) and Detam-1 (drought stress sensitive). Plants were treated with drought stress by adjusting soil water content to 25% below field capacity and compared with plants which were grown on normal condition as control plants. The results of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a new protein with the molecular weight of 13 and 52 kDa were induced in Tanggamus, Nanti, Seulawah and Tidar varieties. Western blotting analysis for dehydrin showed that the quantity of the protein in the leaves of all varieties except Tanggamus decreased in drought stress conditions. The quantity of d
Effect of Water Stress on the Growth and Yield of Cotton Crop (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  [PDF]
Arbab Sahito, Zulfiqar Ali Baloch, Amanullah Mahar, Sohail Ahmed Otho, Shahmir Ali Kalhoro, Amjad Ali, Fahad Ali Kalhoro, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Fayaz Ali
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67108
Abstract: Cotton is one of the most important fibre crops playing a key role in economic and social affairs of the world. Water is a critical factor which influences on growth and yield of the cotton crop. Scarcity of water has put tremendous pressure on scientists to introduce drought tolerant cotton varieties. This study was aimed to determine water stress effects on the growth and yield of cotton. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of number of irrigations on the growth and yield of cotton during 2014. The field trial was conducted at the Experimental Fields of Agronomy Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan. A three replicated Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was employed to layout the experiment having plot size of 2.5 m × 5 m (12.5 m2). Four cotton varieties i.e. NIAB-78, Shahbaz-95, Sindh-1 and TH-224/87 were chosen for this study based on their frequent farmer usage. All the agronomic practices were performed according to standard procedures. Results showed that all the growth and yield components of cotton were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by varieties and irrigation frequencies with exception of monopodial branches and staple length, which were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by irrigation frequencies. The cotton crop irrigated six times at 21 days interval showed better results with 138.16 cm plant height, 1.45 monopodial branches per plant, 21.83 sympodial branches per plant, 44.58 bolls per plant, 33.86% G.O.T., and 26.97 mm staple length, 149.84 g seed cotton yield per plant and 2271.16 kg·ha-1 seed cotton yield. This study concluded that variety NIAB-78 showed superiority over Shahbaz-95, Sindh-1 and TH-224/87 in almost all the characters of economic importance, and the cotton crop received 6 irrigations at 21 days interval resulted in significantly economical overall performance as compared with 5 irrigations or 4 irrigations with higher seed cotton yield.
Differential Expression of microRNAs in Maize Inbred and Hybrid Lines during Salt and Drought Stress  [PDF]
Yeqin Kong, Axel A. Elling, Beibei Chen, Xingwang Deng
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2010.12009
Abstract: Here, we analyzed whether the microRNA (miRNA) expression levels differ between maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17 and their reciprocal hybrids under salt and drought stress. We found that miR156, miR164, miR166, miR168, miR171 and miR319 are differentially expressed under abiotic stress. Interestingly, Mo17 × B73 showed the strongest change in miRNA expression in response to salt or drought stress, and was also the most resilient line when under abiotic stress in terms of water loss. In summary, our findings open the possibility that differential miRNA expression levels might be involved in heightened stress tolerance in maize hybrids.
Aspectos fisiológicos, anat?micos e ultra-estruturais do rizoma de Costus arabicus L. (Costaceae) sob condi??es de déficit hídrico
Costa, Vanessa Pires da;Hayashi, Adriana Hissae;Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de;Silva, Emerson Alves da;
Hoehnea , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2236-89062012000100007
Abstract: costus arabicus l. is an herbaceous species, native to the forest that accumulates starch in the rhizome as the main reserve carbohydrate. water stress is one the most important environmental factor that regulates plant growth and development, leading to changes in physiological, biochemical and anatomical traits. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water deficit on the anatomy, carbohydrate concentration and ultrastructure of starch grains of the rhizome of costus arabicus l. through the following water regimes: plants irrigated daily and every seven (7d) and 15 days (15d). anatomical and ultrastructural traits of the rhizome, relative water content in leaves (rwc), leaf water potential (ψw), osmotic potential of the rhizome (ψo), total soluble sugars (tss), reducing sugars (rs) and starch of the rhizome were evaluated. we observed significant reductions in ψw and ψs in 15d plants, but with small variations in the rwc. the anatomical analysis showed that the rhizome is covered by epidermis or stratified cork and there is a delimitation between the cortical and vascular regions. we detected the presence of numerous starch grains and idioblasts with phenolic contents in the parenchyma of the two regions. changes in the anatomy of the rhizomes were only observed in plants irrigated every 15 days, in which cells of covering tissue and the outer cortical layers became more flattened and sinuous walls; however, no ultrastructural differences were observed on the starch grains. the water deficit imposed was sufficient to generate physiological, biochemical and anatomical changes in plants of c. arabicus l. such alterations suggest the occurence of an avoidance mechanism and that anatomical changes were dependent of the intensity and duration of water deficit.
Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Oat (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars in Climatic Conditions of Isfahan
M. R. Jazayeri,A. M. Rezai
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2006,
Abstract: This study was conducted at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology in 2003 to evaluate drought tolerance potential of 20 oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes including 14 cultivars released in Canada, two cultivars released in the United States of America and Switzerland and four Turkish breeding lines. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used in each irrigation treatment (i.e., irrigation after 70±3 and 130±3 mm evaporation from class A pan). Results of analysis of variance revealed significant differences among cultivars for all studied traits in both irrigation treatments, with the exception of plant height at heading stage and biological yield in stress condition. Stress condition significantly reduced all the traits. Also, the interaction of genotypes by irrigation treatments was significant for days to heading, grain and biological yields and 1000-grain weight. To evaluate drought tolerance of the studied cultivars, Rosielle and Hamblin tolerance index, mean productivity (MP), Fischer and Maurer stress susceptibility index and Fernandez geometric mean productivity and stress tolerance index were calculated based on yield data in stress and non- stress conditions. According to the obtained results, stress tolerance index seems to be the most effective index to identify tolerant genotypes. Rank correlations of stress tolerance index and grain yields in stress and non-stress conditions were 0.93 and 0.78, respectively. Based on this index, Boyer and Paisley were found to be the most tolerant cultivars.
Physiological Effects of Chitosan Coating on Wheat Growth and Activities of Protective Enzyme with Drought Tolerance  [PDF]
Defang Zeng, Xinrong Luo
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.23034
Abstract: Seedling period is an important stage of plant growth. This research was mainly to analysis the influence of chitosan on wheat seedling growth and physiological mechanisms under drought stress. The results showed that the group coated with chitosan significantly improved the growth index such as germination rate, wet weight, root length, root active, and impacted physiological indices such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)), the content of malwondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll compared with CK under drought stress. Activities of POD, CAT and SOD increased and then decreased, the content of MDA increased under drought stress. But. variation rates of the group coated with chitosan were slower than that of CK, which indicates that chitosan can significantly improve anti-oxidant enzymes activity to clear timely active oxygen and reduce the content of MDA so as to alleviate the degree of damage in the drought stress and make seedlings grow better. The results also showed that chitosan improved chloro-phyll content than that of CK, which demonstrated that chlorophyll content significantly influenced the photosynthetic efficiency of the mutant and added wheat above ground biomass and the field experiment results showed that chitosan increased yield 13.6% than that of CK.
Nutritional Yield of African Indigenous Vegetables in Water-Deficient and Water-Sufficient Conditions  [PDF]
Jen Wen Luoh, Caroline B. Begg, Rachael C. Symonds, Dolores Ledesma, Ray-Yu Yang
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.59091
Abstract:

Water scarcity in certain regions of sub-Saharan Africa impacts agricultural production while prolonging dry seasons, and contributing to food insecurity and malnutrition. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the nutritional yield (edible yield × nutritional content) of indigenous leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Africa under water-stressed conditions. Two species of amaranth, two species of African nightshade, and two varieties of Ethiopian kale were examined under environment-controlled water-sufficient and water-deficient conditions. Fresh and dry stem and leaf weights significantly decreased in the three crop groups under the water-deficient treatment. Nutritional values for carotenoids, tocopherols, calcium and zinc showed significant differences at the content level among treatments. Among the 6 crops evaluated, the amaranth species named Amaranthus hypochondriacus and the African nightshade species named Solanum scabrum had the lowest nutrient losses in drought conditions.

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