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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1282 matches for " dog "
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Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Ki-67 in Actinic Keratosis and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Dogs  [PDF]
Sabrina Dos Santos Costa Poggiani, Mário Roberto Hatayde, Renée Laufer-Amorim, Juliana Werner
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.22007
Abstract: Actinic keratosis is a common disease in humans, which also affects dogs. Lesions occur in chronically sun exposed areas, such as flank, ventral and lateral abdomen. It has been reported that actinic keratosis is a pre-neoplastic disease which may evolve into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is one of the most frequent malignant neoplasm in dogs. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between COX-2 and cell proliferation on the outcome of dogs with actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. This study included 10 skin sections of actinic keratosis (G1) and 10 cutaneous SCC (G2). Data including age, breed, gender and histopathological findings were documented. Paraffin-embedded tissues were retrieved for COX-2 and Ki-67 staining. American Pit Bull Terrier dogs were the most affected ones in both G1 and G2, the mean age was 4.3 (±0.8) years and 5.6 (±1.7) years, respectively. Mean score of COX-2 immunostaining in G1 and G2 was 8.16 (±3.51) and 8.56 (±1.03), respectively. Mean percentage of immunopositive cells for Ki-67 in G1 and G2 was 15.77 (±8.81) and 17.71 (±12.21), respectively. There was no association between COX-2 expression and Ki-67, recurrence, survival and metastasis rate (p > 0.05). These findings highlight the role of COX-2 and Ki-67 in carcinogenesis, but do not confirm the relationship between COX-2 expression and increased cell proliferation in dogs. COX-2 may play a role in carcinogenesis, but this pathway is not responsible for cellular proliferation in actinic keratosis and cutaneous SCC in dogs. Both markers were not useful tools to differentiate the outcome of affected dogs.
Canine Prostate Carcinoma: Four Clinical Cases in Sexually Intact and Neutered Dogs  [PDF]
Enrico Bigliardi, Carla Bresciani, Anna Maria Cantoni, Francesco Di Ianni, Giorgio Morini, Simone Voccia, Attilio Corradi, Enrico Parmigiani
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.24042
Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most important malignancies in men. In old men the frequency of prostate cancer at necroscopy has been reported to exceed 40%. Dogs are the only large mammals other than humans with a significant incidence of spontaneous prostate cancer. Adenocarcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma are the most common histological type but the precise cell of origin in dog is not known. The incidence of prostatic carcinoma in dogs is low (0.2% - 0.6%). Prostatic carcinomas occur in sexually intact and neutered dogs and the risk increase in castrated dogs associated to pulmonary and bone metastases. The castration does not initiate the development of prostatic carcinoma in dog but does favour tumour progression. In men the early stage detection of prostate cancer can offer various therapies as radical prostatectomy, radial therapy, thermal ablation, anti-androgen therapy, chemotherapy. In dogs the diagnosis is often in advanced stage of the cancer and the survival time for dogs with prostate cancer is poor. The median time reported is 30 days after diagnosis. In this study we reported three cases of prostatic carcinoma in intact sexually dogs and one in a neutered dog. The sexually intact subjects were older (mean age = 10.5 years) and they had prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCA). The interval between castration and onset of prostatic problems was 3 years. All the dogs showed dysuria, macroscopic hematuria, dyschezia and ataxia. All dogs have been euthanized in order to relieve pain and suffering.
In vivo evaluation of an experimental root-end filling material versus MTA  [PDF]
Paul D. Eleazer, S. Craig Rhodes, David M. Horn, Patricia DeVilliers, Shi Wei, Lea Novak, Erik D. Dohm, Richard A. Weems, Mark S. Litaker
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33A003
Abstract: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been found to be very biocompatible in a large number of studies. However, the handling properties can be challenging and research on modified materials to enhance placement are few. The purpose of this study is to compare a new faster setting, and more easily placed preparation with classic MTA in an animal model. Canine premolar teeth from two dogs were randomized and received quadrant surgery timed to allow 50 day and 98 day comparisons. Histologic and radiographic comparisons were made. Results were essentially equal in healing, even close to the materials.
Novel genomic biomarkers for acute gentamicin nephrotoxicity in dog  [PDF]
James Eric McDuffie, Jingjin Gao, Jingying Ma, David La, Anton Bittner, Manisha Sonee, Matthew Wagoner, Sandra Snook
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2013.33018

Objectives: Novel biomarkers indicative of drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) in dogs would have significant application in preclinical drug development. We conducted a feasibility study to identify genomic expression profiles for monitoring progressive, acute DIKI in dogs. Materials and Methods: Animals were intramuscularly administered either 0.9% physiological saline or gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day) for 10 consecutive days and euthanized on day 11. Serum and urine samples were collected at various time points and kidney samples were collected at necropsy for biomarker measurements. Results: Acute gentamicin-induced renal histopathology changes were localized to the proximal convoluted tubules and characterized as slight-to-marked, diffuse cortical-medullary tubular epithelial degeneration/necrosis. Serum creatinine (sCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) elevations suggestive of mild renal dysfunction were first observed on days 7 to 8. Gentamicin-induced increased urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) mRNA was observed on day 6 preceding detectable elevations of sCr and/or BUN. Increased urinary KIM-1 mRNA correlated with multifocal KIM-1 immunostaining in the corticomedullary tubular epithelial cells. Microarray analysis revealed changes in additional mRNA expression products detected in urine and/or kidney that should be further investigated for use as potential biomarkers for acute gentamicin related nephrotoxicity in dogs. Conclusion: These findings suggested the utility of non-invasive urinary genomic parameters for monitoring acute DIKI in dogs.

The Dog as a Risk Factor in Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Review  [PDF]
Francisco Assis Lima Costa
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2012.22006
Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Despite the euthanasia of dogs serologically positive, such action has not solved the endemic in Brazil. A risk area for VL involves the presence of the vector, the occurrence of canines and the record of human cases. The factors that have favored the persistence and spread of VL in Brazil are related to the predatory action of man on the environment, to the migratory movements and rural exodus, and a close coexistence of man and animals. Thus considering the epidemiological chain of VL, one fact seems clear: we do not know yet the true extent of the participation of the dog in the infectious cycle of VL. The clinical disease is an important indicator of the extent of the problem in an endemic area. The immunological events are complex and involve resistance and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). One aspect in CVL is that many symptomatic dogs underwent xenodiagnosis not infect the vector. In such cases the pattern recognition receptors CD11b+, TLR2+, and NO present higher values for dogs with results in immunohistochemistry of skin and xenodiagnosis negative (IMH-/XENO-) than dogs with immunohistochemistry in skin and xenodiagnosis positive (IMH+/XENO+), suggesting that innate immunity modulates the competence of the dog to infect the vector. The organic response in CVL varies from individual to individual and within the same individual, with a strong evidence of being organ-specific. Only 20% of asymptomatic dogs have parasites in the skin and 15% are able to recover from clinical signs and eliminate the parasites spontaneously. In this review, we analyze the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis and clinical, immunological and pathological conditions that can contribute to understanding the role of dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.
Tacrolimus for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Dog  [PDF]
Masashi Yuki, Yosiaki Oota, Noriaki Nagata
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.23025
Abstract: A 2-year-old intact female Toy poodle was referred with a 2-week history of diarrhea. Blood examination findings indicated thrombocytosis, severe hypoproteinemia, and hypoalbuminemia; endoscopy revealed duodenal mucosal irregularity and increased graininess. Based on these results and additional histopathological findings, we made a diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy caused by lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis with lymphangiectasia. The dog was initially treated with prednisolone. Improvement was only observed with high-dose prednisolone; its dose could not be reduced without relapse. When cyclosporin, methotrexate, and chlorambucil were combined with prednisolone, no further beneficial effect was observed. When tacrolimus was combined with prednisolone, improvement was seen and the dose of prednisolone could be reduced. Tacrolimus is both a calcineurin inhibitor and a multi-drug-resistant inhibitor, so it may be an effective treatment choice for a dog refractory to standard inflammatory bowel disease treatment. This is the first report of tacrolimus for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in dogs.
Uterine Liposarcoma in a German Shephard Dog  [PDF]
Vullo Cecilia, Russo Marco, Mariotti Francesca, England C. W. Gary, Catone Giuseppe
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.32015

Uterine tumours in the bitch are considered rare. The most common are leiomyomas representing more than the 90% of all uterine canine tumours. Very few cases of uterine malignant tumours have been described in the veterinary literature and uterine liposarcoma had never discovered. Also in human medicine lipomatous tumours, whether benign or malignant, are very rare in the uterus. These tumours may arise from the misplacement of an embryonic progenitor cell, metaplasia of mature mesenchymal tissues of other types, perivascular adipocytes or from traumatic displacement of adipocytes. The authors describe a case of unilateral liposarcoma in the uterus of a German Shepherd dog and its radiographic, ultrasonographic evaluation and the histopathological appearance.

Influence of Surgical Technique on Overall Survival, Disease Free Interval and New Lesion Development Interval in Dogs with Mammary Tumors  [PDF]
Rodrigo dos Santos Horta, Gleidice Eunice Lavalle, Rúbia Monteiro de Castro Cunha, Larissa Layara de Moura, Roberto Baracat de Araújo, Geovanni Dantas Cassali
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2014.32006

The best surgical technique for the treatment of mammary tumors in female dogs has been exhaustively debated among the scientific community. Despite biological knowledge of these tumors, some authors have suggested aggressive procedures, without any clinical advantage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of surgical procedure on the overall survival, disease-free interval and new lesion development interval in dogs with mammary tumors treated according to established prognostic factors. This prospective study included 143 intact female dogs that underwent surgery for mammary neoplasms and were followed up for about 738.5 days. Each animal represented a repetition. Each surgical technique represented a group: lumpectomy (P1), mammectomy (P2), regional mastectomy without cranial abdominal gland involvement (P3), regional mastectomy with cranial abdominal gland involvement (P4), and radical mastectomy (P5). Considering only the first surgical event, 84.6% of animals had more than one mammary tumor, and tumors were identified in two mammary chains in 52.5%. There was no difference in ipsilateral and contralateral tumor development when surgical techniques were compared. Only 33 dogs developed new lesions in remaining mammary tissue, without correlation with primary lesion. Surgical technique had no effect on the overall survival, disease-free

Propolis in Dogs: Clinical Experiences and Perspectives (A Brief Review)  [PDF]
Nelly Tovar Betancourt, Lucila García-Contreras, Tonatiuh Alejandro Cruz Sánchez
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.51002
Abstract: In light of the scarcity of novel therapeutic agents that are effective, the pharmaceutical industry has found a newer source of therapeutic compounds in natural products and herbal medicine to address the current health problems in humans and animals. What is particularly promising about these agents is that they produce fewer side effects and are more cost effective than synthetic compounds. This means greater availability of these treatments particularly for less developed countries who can’t afford expensive treatments. The reduced side effects also mean greater patient tolerance and increased compliance thereby yielding maximal therapeutic effect without negatively impacting on quality of life. Among the natural products more frequently employed nowadays is propolis, a resin that is routinely collected by bees (Apis mellifera). Propolis contains flavonoids, caffeic acid esters and diterpenic acids, which provide the bactericidal, antiviral and antifungal properties to this product. The use of propolis to address a variety of conditions in small animal species is beginning to play an important role in the currently available treatments. Its use appears to be an effective treatment with no side effects at low cost. This paper reviews the different applications of this compound to treat diseases in dogs.
Palatability Testing of Oral Chewables in Veterinary Medicine for Dogs  [PDF]
Michelle Aleo, Stacy Ross, Csilla Becskei, Eileen Coscarelli, Vickie King, Mary Darling, Julie Lorenz
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.88011
Abstract: For veterinary medications administered per os, animal health companies strive to develop highly palatable dosage forms that are voluntarily accepted by animals to improve compliance and convenience. Achieving high palatability is often complex and difficult even without the presence of an active ingredient. This work compared acceptance and preference studies, as standardized methods are not established for informing formulation development or for more routine testing. Formulation development was followed by an acceptance study completed with laboratory Beagle dogs. One acceptance study and one preference study were completed in mixed breed dogs, also laboratory-housed, to gain wider representation of dog breed and age. Through these studies, we have evaluated both formulation parameters and palatability study conduct. In general, more complex palatants that have appealing taste, smell, and mouth feel enhance voluntary uptake. However, dosage forms that are too chewy may not be freely consumed even with complex palatants. The addition of aroma can entice dogs to prehend the tablet, as observed in one preference study. Preference studies in the veterinary pharmaceutical field identify the preferred first choice or first prehend, but not which product will be routinely voluntarily and fully consumed. Acceptance studies with cross-over treatment groups are used to quantify the full consumption of a dosage form when a dog is not given two choices at once. Since all dogs in acceptance studies are offered all treatment groups throughout the study, a comparison between degrees of consumption could suggest that one formulation might be preferred over another.
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