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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23191 matches for " disease spread "
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The patterns and risks for disease spreading of cattle movement in China  [PDF]
Xiangdong Sun, Yongjun Liu, Youming Wang, Peng Li, Aizhen Guo, Zhining Jia, Xiaofeng Wang, Hongjie Zhang, Jian Zhang, Yong Yu, Yanwei Sun, Baoxu Huang
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.412094

In order to reduce the risks for the spread of disease in cattle movements, we investigated China’s cattle breeding and movement pattern, analyzed risk factors of disease infection caused by long-distance movement, explored the relevant risk management measures and conjectured the direction of cattle movement based on the regional distribution of cattle inventory and beef price. We also constructed a market value chain in live cattle movements and qualitatively analyzed the risks for unapparent infection in the process of movement. Meanwhile, we put forward a long-term policy of reducing the risks for unapparent infection and animal health supervision measures.

Perspectivas teóricas sobre la dinámica de la mixomatosis con aplicaciones en control biológico
Aparicio,Juan P; Solari,Hernán G; Bonino,Never A;
Ecolog?-a austral , 2006,
Abstract: myxomatosis is a lethal disease for the european rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) produced by the myxoma virus and transmitted by mosquitos and fleas. myxomatosis has been used for the biological control of exotic populations of the european rabbit in some countries, for example in australia. exotic rabbit populations produce an important negative impact on the economy of diverse regions of the world, including argentina. in this work we present mathematical models representing the local dynamics of myxomatosis as well as its dispersion on wild populations of o. cuniculus, the latter with the aid of an explicit spatial model. the dispersion speeds obtained are consistent with those obtained in field studies in great britain, but under-estimate observations made in australia. resorting to stochastic simulations we show that the likelihood for myxomatosis to be established depends on the viral strain used. the standard strategy, consisting in introducing highly virulent strains in wild rabbits populations, might not be the optimal according to our results.
Modelling the Effect of Treatment and Infected Immigrants on the Spread of Hepatitis C Virus Disease with Acute and Chronic Stages
American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ajcam.20120201.02
Abstract: This paper examines the effect of Treatment and Infected Immigrants on the spread of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) disease with Acute and Chronic stages. A nonlinear mathematical model for the problem is proposed and analysed qualitatively using the stability theory of the differential equations. The results show that the disease free equilibrium is locally stable at threshold parameter less than unity and unstable at threshold parameter greater than unity. Globally, the disease free equilibrium is not stable due existence of forward bifurcation at threshold parameter equal to unity. However the disease becomes more endemic due to the presence of infected immigrants in the community. It is also shown that in the presence of treatment, the rate of infected immigrants (acute and chronic) decreases and consequently the treated infected individuals decreases continuously. Numerical simulation of the model is implemented to investigate the sensitivity of certain key parameters on the treatment and infected immigrants on the spread of the disease with acute and chronic stages.
Validation of the Gravity Model in Predicting the Global Spread of Influenza
Xinhai Li,Huidong Tian,Dejian Lai,Zhibin Zhang
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8083134
Abstract: The gravity model is often used in predicting the spread of influenza. We use the data of influenza A (H1N1) to check the model’s performance and validation, in order to determine the scope of its application. In this article, we proposed to model the pattern of global spread of the virus via a few important socio-economic indicators. We applied the epidemic gravity model for modelling the virus spread globally through the estimation of parameters of a generalized linear model. We compiled the daily confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1) in each country as reported to the WHO and each state in the USA, and established the model to describe the relationship between the confirmed cases and socio-economic factors such as population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), and the distance between the countries/states and the country where the first confirmed case was reported ( i.e., Mexico). The covariates we selected for the model were all statistically significantly associated with the global spread of influenza A (H1N1). However, within the USA, the distance and GDP were not significantly associated with the number of confirmed cases. The combination of the gravity model and generalized linear model provided a quick assessment of pandemic spread globally. The gravity model is valid if the spread period is long enough for estimating the model parameters. Meanwhile, the distance between donor and recipient communities has a good gradient. Besides, the spread should be at the early stage if a single source is taking into account.
An epidemiological analysis of the Beijing 2008 Hand-Foot-Mouth epidemic
ZhiDong Cao,DaJun Zeng,QuanYi Wang,XiaoLong Zheng,FeiYue Wang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-010-0144-0
Abstract: This paper presents an empirical analysis of the epidemiological data concerning the 18445 HFMD-infected cases in Beijing in 2008. The main findings are as follows. (i) Seasonal variations in incidence were observed, with a peak observed during the summer season, especially in May. Male patients outnumber female patients by 1.57:1. (ii) Most cases occurred in children 4 years old or younger. Outperforming Weibull distribution and Gamma distribution as to model fitness when analyzing patient ages, log-normal distribution indicates that the estimated mean age is 3.4 years. (iii) The age distribution seems to indicate cyclic peaks with roughly one-year intervals. (iv) Correlation analyses (ρ = 0.9864) show that time of birth in different months has an impact on the chance of being infected by HFMD. Birth month seems to present a high risk factor on infants and young children. (v) The morbidity rate is 132.7/100000 during the HFMD epidemic in Beijing in 2008. The morbidity map shows that the risks of HFMD infection in areas close to the city center and suburbans are much lower than those in the urban-rural transition zones. Spatial risks inferred from the morbidity map demonstrate a clear circular pattern. (vi) The prevention and control measures taken by the public health departments seem to be effective during the summer season, resulting in the early ending of the epidemic (one month earlier than the natural season) and reduced outbreak size.
An epidemiological analysis of the Beijing 2008 Hand-Foot-Mouth epidemic

ZhiDong Cao,DaJun Zeng,QuanYi Wang,XiaoLong Zheng,FeiYue Wang,

科学通报(英文版) , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents an empirical analysis of the epidemiological data concerning the 18445 HFMD-infected cases in Beijing in 2008.The main findings are as follows.(i) Seasonal variations in incidence were observed,with a peak observed during the summer season,especially in May.Male patients outnumber female patients by 1.57:1.(ii) Most cases occurred in children 4 years old or younger.Outperforming Weibull distribution and Gamma distribution as to model fitness when analyzing patient ages,log-normal distrib...
Perianal Paget’s Disease and Malignancies of Lower Hindgut and Anal Canal
Gianluca Pellino,Guido Sciaudone,Silvestro Canonico,Francesco Selvaggi
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.6051/j.issn.2224-3992.2012.01.038
Abstract: Perianal Paget’s disease (PPD) consists of a skin neoplasia whichcan be either primary or secondary to an underlying internal malignancy.Treatment of perianal Paget’s disease associated with primarycolonic or anal adenocarcinoma is secondary to the treatment of theprimary tumor and, thus, accurate clinical, pathological and immunohistochemicalassessment is essential. Adenocarcinomas are estimatedto be only 10% of anal cancer, and anal mucinous or colloidadenocarcinoma is an even rarer entity. We reviewed literature concerningthe association between malignancies of the lower gastrointestinaltract and anal canal not associated with a chronic fistula-inanoand perianal Paget’s disease, focusing on immunohystochemicaldifferential diagnosis and management. Immunohistochemistryis very useful in choosing the ideal treatment for perianal Paget’s disease; our “immunopanel” is useful to classify perianal Paget’sdisease.
The Determinants of Interest Rate Spreads in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation  [PDF]
Anthony E. Akinlo, Babatunde Olanrewaju Owoyemi
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.37107
Abstract: The paper examines the determinants of interest rate spreads in Nigeria using a panel of 12 commercial banks for the period 1986-2007. The results suggest that cash reserve requirements, average loans to average total deposits, remuneration to total assets and gross domestic product have positive effect on interest rate spreads. However, non-interest income to average total assets, treasury certificate and development stocks have negative relationship with interest rate spreads. In general, the findings that suggest a reduction in cash reserve ratio, high bank overhead costs amongst others will help to moderate the high interest rate spreads in Nigeria.
The Spread and Reception of Don Quixote in China  [PDF]
Guoen Chen, Hongying Zhao
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.22011

The reception of Don Quixote in China started in the early 20th century, with its media Japanese literature and Russian literature and its initiating point Chinese social reforms as well as intellectuals’ self-reflections on their role. Zhou Zuoren was the very first to make a scientific criticism of the novel Don Quixote while Lu Xun took the lead in exploring the essence of Don Quixote’s spirit, defining it as mixing realism with idealism, which would have a negative impact on its readers. Lu Xun was thus inspired to create a character named AQ, eternally charming readers. Feiming, as an explorer of the truth of humanity, orientalized Don Quixote’s spirit in the form of parody. Don Quixote has become a universal symbol of the human spirit, has aroused the attention of Chinese intellectuals, and has even directly “engaged in” the controversies in the Chinese literary world. By the end of 20th century, translations and research on Don Quixote attained new achievements, Don Quixote again winning recognition as an essential theoretical category in helping researchers in the literary world elaborate on the phenomenon of human spirit.

An Analysis of the Determinants of Arbitrage Spread  [PDF]
Etienne Redor
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.93034
Abstract: This study examines the determinants of arbitrage spread of S&P 500 firms between 2004 and 2014. We find that bid hostility, the relative size of the target compared to the potential bidder and the acquisition premium paid by the bidding firm are associated with greater arbitrage spread while the proportion of cash in the offer and target termination fees are associated with smaller arbitrage spread.
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