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Trace Element Concentrations in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Selected Parts of Eastern Province of Kenya  [PDF]
David M. Maina, Lydia W. Njenga, John M. Onyari, Benjamin N. Kyalo
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.37075
Abstract: Dietary quality is vital in maintaining sound nutritional status. The ecological conditions thus influence the type of diets and their nutritional quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the trace element/mineral content of some of the commonly consumed diets in Machakos, Kitui, Makueni and Mwingi districts. Decorticated maize, beans and finger millet flour samples were purchased from the local markets. For each category, a total of ten samples were collected from each district. The samples were put in plastic bags, sealed and transported to the laboratory in the Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology, University of Nairobi for preparation and analysis. The cooking of the samples was carried out according to local traditional methods. In the decorticated samples, mean copper concentrations were observed to be below 20 μg·g-1; mean zinc concentrations ranged from 34 to 63 μg·g-1 and mean manganese concentrations were in a similar range of 34 to 78 μg·g-1. The mean iron concentrations were significantly high with a range of 161 μg·g-1 to 287 μg·g-1. A similar trend was observed in the beans where the mean copper concentrations varied from 11 to 33 μg·g-1, mean zinc concentrations ranged from a low value of 24 μg·g-1 to a high value of 35 μg·g-1, mean manganese concentrations varied from 33 μg·g-1 to 98 μg·g-1 and the mean iron concentrations ranged from 227 μg·g-1 to 647 μg·g-1. The cooked Muthokoi samples from Machakos district had relatively high mean trace element concentrations: manganese—109 μg·g-1; iron—280 μg·g-1; copper—19 μg·g-1; and zinc—41 μg·g-1. The only exception was mean iron concentrations which were extremely high in samples from Mwingi District where the concentrations varied from 73 μg·g-1 to 1597 μg·g-1. In finger millet flour, the mean manganese concentrations varied from 95 to 290 μg·g-1, whereas the mean iron concentrations ranged from 127 μg·g-1 to 259 μg·g-1. In contrast, the mean copper and zinc concentrations were low in comparison to the manganese and iron concentrations. As a whole, the mean copper concentrations in the diets are significantly low compared to the other three trace elements. However, the total content is not necessarily a reflection of the amount assimilated in the body. Finger millet was found to be an excellent source of manganese and iron whereas beans were observed to be
Influence of Close-Up Starting Programs on Performance of Light-Weight Feedlot Steers Calves during the Early Receiving Period  [PDF]
Rubén Barajas, Jaime Salinas-Chavira, Richard A. Zinn
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.45027
Abstract: The influence of close-up feed strategies on growth performance and dietary NE in light-weight feedlot steers during a 56 d receiving period was evaluated. Dietary treatments were formulated to meet the average metabolizable amino acid requirements of calves during 1) the initial 7 d; 2) the initial 14 d; and 3) the initial 21 d following arrival into the feedlot, assuming average interval DMI of 2.8, 3.0, and 3.6 kg/d, respectively. Thereafter, all steers received dietary treatment 3. Fish meal was the source of supplemental protein. One hundred eight medium-framed crossbred steers (168.4 ± 5.0 kg) were blocked by weight and assigned to 18 pen groups (6 steers per pen). P-value (≤0.10) was considered as statistically significant. Daily weight gain (linear effect, P = 0.09) and gain efficiency (linear effect, P = 0.08) decreased as the close-up interval increased. DMI was not influenced by feeding program (P = 0.46). The ratio of observed to expected dietary NEm (linear effect P = 0.06) and NEg (linear effect, P = 0.05) decreased as length of close-up interval increased. Morbidity was low (18%) and not affected (P > 0.40) by dietary treatments. It is concluded that the addition of a close-up diet formulated to meet the metabolizable amino acid requirements of shipping stressed calves during the initial 7 d in the feedlot, when feed intakes are comparatively low, will have long-term beneficial effect on cattle growth performance and dietary NE.
Perception of Anemic Women Instead of Herbal Medicine and Dietetics in Treatment of Nutritional Anemia  [PDF]
F. Ben Slama, S. Médini, N. Ben Mansour, R. Chamli, H. Aounallah-Skhiri, M. Hsairi, O. Belhadj
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.511107
Abstract:

The iron deficiency anemia is relatively common among young women in Tunisia. Phytotherapy has a place in the treatment of this deficiency anemia. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the perception of anemic women vis-à-vis the use of herbs and dietary and adapted through a survey in Greater Tunis. Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 124 anemic women, recruited from public health facilities in Greater Tunis. Results: The majority of women surveyed (84.7%) had secondary or university education, 10.5% primary and 4.8% were illiterate. Among the women surveyed, 93.5% received a replacement iron-based medical treatment. Among the iron-rich foods, they are legumes that were most appreciated by almost all respondents. While food sources of vitamin B12 and folate were ignored by the majority of women (68%). Two out of three women were unaware of the importance of meat products as the main source of iron, vitamin B12 and folate. Almost half of the women had the habit of consuming tea every day just after meals and they convict that increases the amount of blood. The frequency of the use of traditional medicinal plants by women surveyed in order to treat their anemia was 40%. These women were often advised to use plants by other anemic women and traditional herbalists whose skills in this area were acquired by experience and transmitted from father to son without adequate scientific training. The plants most frequently used were fenugreek, cumin, oregano, rosemary and parsley. Conclusion: These data clearly found the need to intervene for better education of women and girls by the establishment of a nutrition education program associated with other environmental actions. If herbal keeps a place in iron deficiency anemia, the practice of herbal medicine and the preparation of its remedies require the acquisition of institutional competence within the public health authorities whose training must be constantly updated.

DIETAS SIMPLES E COMPLEXA SOBRE O DESEMPENHO DE LEIT?ES NA FASE DE CRECHE
Quadros, Arlei Rodrigues Bonet;Kiefer, Charles;Henn, Jo?o Dionísio;Scariot, Geraldo;Silva, José Henrique Souza da;
Ciência Rural , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000100019
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate diets fed from 21 to 63 days of age on piglets performance. ninety-six piglets three crossbrad were fed with two types of diets: simple and complex. a completely randomized design with two treatments and twelwe replicates per treatment was used. the daily feed intake (dfi), the daily weight gain (dwg), the feed:gain ratio (f:g) and the weights were evaluated in the period. the piglets fed with complex diets had higher dfi and dwg in the post lactation. in the period (nursery phase), there was no diet type effect on weight and the f:g.
Dietas para leit?es em aleitamento e pós-desmame
Ferreira, Vanusa Patrícia de Araújo;Ferreira, Aloízio Soares;Donzele, Juarez Lopes;Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira;Gomes, Paulo Cezar;Cecon, Paulo Roberto;Teixeira, Alexandre de Oliveira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982001000300021
Abstract: two hundred crossbred piglets (landrace ′ large white), fed in the period from 14 to 56 days of age, were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, to evaluate the effects of different diets on the piglets performance, relative and absolute weights of liver and pancreas in suckling and post-weaning periods. the treatments consisted of four diets, that were supplied from 14 to 42 days of age, when were replaced by a simple diet (nursing ration). the results allowed to conclude that all diets containing sources of hight protein quality, like integral dried milk and fish meal, withouth supplementary source of energetic foods, like dried whey when supplied pigs from 14 days to 42 days of age, provide the same results for the pigs weaned to the 28 days of age and receiving simple diets with corn and soybean meal.
A Theory-Based Dietary Intervention for Overweight, Postpartum Mothers and Their Children Improves Maternal Vegetable Intake  [PDF]
Grace Falciglia, Julia Piazza, Nicholas J. Ollberding, Libbey Spiess, Ardythe Morrow
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.77068
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a dietary intervention to increase target vegetable intake in overweight, postpartum mothers; and their children. Methods: Overweight mothers attending their six-week postpartum follow-up visit and their infants (n = 104 pairs) were randomized to intervention or usual care groups during the time period 2008-2011. Mothers received four 60 minute education sessions with a nutrition professional and eight monthly follow-up phone calls. Counseling began at the obstetrician office and continued at the regularly scheduled pediatric visits. The primary study outcome was the change in maternal target vegetable intake. Secondary outcomes included child target vegetable intake and whether child vegetable intake was modified by exposure to breastfeeding. Mother/child energy intake and weight indices were also assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (6-weeks postpartum), 6, 12 (post-intervention), and 18 (follow-up) months. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the impact of the dietary intervention on study outcomes relative to usual care. Results: Mothers randomized to the intervention had greater consumption of target vegetables at 6, 12 and 18 months (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). There were no differences between groups in maternal energy intake, body mass index, or child target vegetable or energy intake. The child’s target vegetable intake at 12 months was related to the mother’s intake at 6 months (P = 0.03), however, this relationship was not modified by exposure to breastfeeding. Conclusion: A dietary intervention targeting the diet of the mother/child dyad resulted in improved maternal vegetable intake.
A cultura na ponta do garfo: estética e hábitos alimentares na cidade de S?o Paulo - 1890/1920
Sant'Anna, Denise Bernuzzi de;
Cadernos Pagu , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-83332012000200006
Abstract: this paper explores some changes in the eating habits of people who lived in the city of s?o paulo between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. new restaurants, coffee shops and bakeries were created along with renewed hygiene requirements for the production and sale of food. at the same time habits at the table during meals were modified according to male and female differences and taste. since that period there was on the one hand, the invention of a gastronomic style, very typical of s?o paulo's citizens, although it may be referred mainly to the elite or rich classes. on the other hand, the development of a peculiar taste for food occurred at the same time that diets to lose weight became increasingly popular together with a higher control over body weight.
Influência da rela??o volumoso: concentrado e do tempo de reten??o hidráulica sob a biodigest?o anaeróbia de dejetos de bovinos
Orrico Júnior, Marco A. P.;Orrico, Ana C. A.;Lucas Júnior, Jorge de;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162010000300003
Abstract: the aim of this survey was to evaluate the possible alterations that exist in composition and in anaerobic biodigestion process of cattle manure in phase of slaughter and fed with different proportions of roughage: concentrate and with different times of hydraulic retention (thr). 24 batch digesters of bench with capacity of 12 liters, from which 12 were provided with cattle manure that were fed with diet 1 (60% roughage: 40% concentrate) and diet 2 (40% roughage:60% concentrate) and submitted to 30; 60; 90 and 120 days of trh were used. the efficiency of anaerobic biodigestion process was evaluated by reductions of total solids, volatile solids; neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and the most probable number (mpn) of total and thermo tolerant coliforms, and production potential of biogas and methane were evaluated. results showed that the increase of roughage proportion in diet conduced the smallest efficiency in the process, mainly in the production potential of biogas and methane, which were, in average, 13% smaller. regarding to mpn of total and thermo tolerant coliforms, significative reductions as increased thr were observed.
Performance of Carassius auratus with different food strategies in water recirculation system
Moreira,R.L.; Da Costa,J.M.; Teixeira,E.G.; Moreira,A.G.L.; De Moura,P.S.; Rocha,R.S.; Vieira,R.H.S.F.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011,
Abstract: the efficiency of a recirculation system for the cultivation of c. auratus, fed with natural and artificial diets was evaluated. the experiment consisted of four treatments with four replicates. the first two treatments used recirculation system and the last two static system. in the first and fourth treatment, animals were fed with brine shrimp biomass (50% cp), while in the second and third treatments a commercial flake ration (42% cp) was used. at the end of cultivation (60 days), water samples were taken from all experimental units and subjected to standard plate count for determining the density of mesophilic bacteria. final weight (g), final length (cm), specific growth rate (% day -1) and weight gain (%) were significantly different (p<0.05) among tested diets, but the culture systems did not affect fish performance. there was significant difference (p<0.05) between systems for total ammonia and nitrite. animals fed with brine shrimp biomass acquired more intense and brighter colors than those fed only with commercial flake food. the values of standard plate count of mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.0 × 103 to 1.1 × 104 cfu.ml-1. in this study we observed that c. auratus is a species tolerant to adverse water conditions, perhaps with increased stock densities, the recirculation system could play some positive role on the zootechnical performance of cultured animals.
Effect of dietary protein intake on calf resilience to Haemonchus placei infection
Louvandini, Helder;Abdalla, Adibe Luis;Coop, Robert L.;Mc Manus, Concepta Margareth;Gennari, Solange Maria;
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-95962002000500002
Abstract: twenty, 2-3-month-old worm free male holstein calves, were assigned to two groups each containing ten animals. each group was offered one of two diets: high (hp) and low (lp) protein with 257 and 91 gkg-1 dry matter respectively, balanced for energy and minerals. after an initial period of 4 weeks on the diets, the calves from each group were subdivided into two groups of four and six calves. a trickle infection of 5,000 haemonchus placei l3 was given twice a week for nine weeks to the sub group of six calves (i). the remaining four calves from each dietary group were used as non-infected control (c). four weeks after the last infection, all calves were slaughtered and worm burdens counts. carried out biochemical determinations, faecal egg counts and body weights were carried out once a week. the hp group had significantly higher mean adult worm burdens (11,900 ± 7,660) when compared with bp (5,450 ± 7,895). faecal egg counts were higher in the hp than lp group. despite higher worm burdens, resilience was increased in the hp calves, with higher packed cell volume values as well as body weight when compared with the lp group.
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