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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1419 matches for " dietary supplementations "
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Effect of Growth Enhancers on Quality of Chicken Meat During Cold Storage
Fatma H. Ali,D.A. Zahran
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the effect of some growth enhancers as dietary onion & garlic (Allium sativum) and vitamin E supplementation with water on the meat quality parameters of broiler chicken. A total of 150 chicks were divided into 3 groups, 50 birds per treatment. The first group was fed control diet, the second group fed control diet supplemented with onion 2% and garlic 2% and the third group fed on control diet with vitamin E mixed with water. Birds were slaughtered at the end of the trial to evaluate pH , moisture content, cooking loss, shear force, instrumental color and fatty acids composition of refrigerated (5±1oC for 6 days) and frozen (3 and 6 months) samples. There was a significant decrease in the mean pH, shear force, a*- and b*- values and cooking loss in samples from chicken dietary supplemented with onion & garlic, and also in chicken (supplemented) with vitamin E mixed with water compared with the control. The mean moisture contents of chicken samples were not significantly influenced by the used growth enhancers. There was a numeric decrease in total saturated fatty acids (TSF %) and an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids (TUS %) in chicken samples (supplemented) with vitamin E mixed with water than control and which supplemented with onion & garlic. Palmitic was the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic was the predominant unsaturated fatty acid. It could be concluded that the supplementation of onion & garlic and vitamin E improved chicken meat quality during refrigerated and frozen storage.
Early breeding of buffalo heifers: Mineral supplementation and its effects on development and pregnancy rates in the province of Corrientes, Argentina
G. Crudeli,O. Balbuena,M. Olazarri,N. Monzon
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.643
Abstract: Two commercial mineral supplement formulae were used to evaluate their effects on body weight, average daily gain and reproduction at first breeding in seventy buffalo heifers, between 14 and 16 months old. Pasture from this area of the province of Corrientes, Argentina, is known to be phosphorus and sodium deficient. The experiment began on 26th December 2005 and ended on 9th August 2006. On 15 th May 2006 two bulls were introduced in each group for 59 days. Treatments were: (a) usual mineral supplement (US - Ca=12% and P=6%); (b) a mineral quelated supplement (QS, Tortuga - Ca=5,7%, P=4,1%, Na, K, Co, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn, N). Minerals were supplied every week ad libitum. Animals were kept in separate paddocks and were rotated every month to minimize the paddock effect. Body weight, jugular blood and stool samples were taken every month. Blood serum was assayed for mineral and progesterone (P4) concentration. Crude protein and dry matter digestibility were estimated on faecal samples by NIRS scanning. The weight at weaning, the initial and the final live weight for the breeding period were: 224.6 and 230.7, 322.2 and 321.7 and 342.8 and 326.6 kg. in QS and US groups, respectively. Live weight was increased by QS supplement (Table 1). Pregnancy rates, determined by transrectal ultrasound, were 60.0% and 17.3 % (P<0.05) for QS and US groups, respectively. It is concluded that QS supplement increased the body development and the early pregnancy rates in buffalo heifers. Further investigation is needed to confirm these findings.
Effects of Antioxidant Supplementations on Oxidative Stress in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
I. Nourmohammadi,S. Athari-Nikazm,M.R. Vafa,A. Bidari
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) exposing these patients to oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antioxidant supplementations on oxidative status and disease activity in RA patients. Forty nine RA patients (41 females, 8 males, age 48.78±12.54 years) participated in this randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly divided into two groups to received antioxidant supplementations in combined with conventional treatment (Group I, n: 24) or conventional treatment only (group II, n: 25) for 12 weeks. Plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were measured at the beginning of the study and after intervention in both groups. Disease activity was also measured before and after intervention using Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI). Supplementation with antioxidant yielded significantly decreased in plasma MDA concentration (p<0.0001) and disease activity (p<0.0001) and statistically increased in TAC levels (p<0.0001) in group I in comparison to group II after 12 weeks. This study indicates that antioxidant supplementations may play an important role in improving oxidative stress and decreasing disease activity in these patients.
Dietary patterns and risk of cervical cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay  [PDF]
Eduardo De Stefani, Gisele Acosta, Hugo Deneo-Pellegrini, Alvaro L. Ronco, María Mendilaharsu, Gabriel Landó, María E. Luaces, Cecilia Silva
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.12006
Abstract: In the time period 1996-2004, a case-control study on diet and cervical cancer was conducted at the National Cancer Institute in Uruguay. The study included 268 cases and 536 controls with non-neoplastic diseases. The foods and beverages in the food-frequency questionnaire were included in a factor analytic model. This method retained three factors which were labeled as the drinker, red meat, and prudent patterns. The model explained 60% of the variance. Whereas the red meat and drinker patterns were directly associated with the risk of cervical cancer (OR for red meat pattern 1.79, 95% CI 1.12-2.86), on the other hand, the prudent pattern was inversely associated with cervical cancer (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.93). To our knowledge, this study was the first one using factor analysis in order to elucidate the role of the diet in relation with cervical cancer.
Food and Nutrient Intake among People Following Major Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery  [PDF]
Sharon Carey, Jane Young, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.37133
Abstract: Introduction: Surgery to the upper gastrointestinal region of the gut results in symptoms greatly impacting on dietary intake, and a diet high in energy and protein is encouraged. The aim of this study was to examine the food and nutrient intakes of people having had major upper gastrointestinal surgery, and compare them to current food and nutrient recommendations. Materials and Methods: People having had major upper gastrointestinal rouxeny surgery greater than 6 months ago were recruited. Each person completed a three day food diary and food intakes were compared to the Healthy Food Guide for Australians. Macro and micro-nutrient intakes were compared to the Estimated Average Requirement reference values for Australia and New Zealand. Results: Thirty people were recruited and analysis of dietary intakes indicated inadequate serves of cereals, vegetables, fruit and dairy products compared to recommendations, resulting in below Estimated Average Requirements for many vitamins and minerals. Severely malnourished people, and those having had total gastrectomy surgery, were at greatest risk of not meeting macro and micro-nutrient recommendations. Conclusions: People having had major upper gastrointestinal surgery are encouraged to have a diet high in energy and protein. However this advice seems to be followed at the expense of other food groups, leading to low intakes of many micronutrients. Careful monitoring of dietary intakes and signs of nutrient deficiencies should be included as part of routine follow-up for this group of people. Further research is required to determine whether poor dietary intakes result in clinical deficiencies.
Relationship between Overweight and Dietary Patterns in Brazilian Preschoolers  [PDF]
Luciana Neri Nobre, Angelina do Carmo Lessa, Joel Alves Lamounier, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.86042
Abstract: Background/Objectives: The prevalence of overweight in children is a growing health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between overweight and dietary patterns in preschoolers. Methods: In total, 232 preschoolers (age 5) residing in the city of Diamantina, Brazil, were evaluated. Dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric parameters and socioeconomic/behavioral information from a questionnaire were evaluated using a cross-sectional design. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis, and the relationship between overweight and dietary patterns was examined by logistic regression analysis. Results: “Mixed diet”, “snack” and “unhealthy” dietary patterns were identified. Children daughters of obese mothers, and those who had higher average weight gain in the first four months of life had a significantly higher chance of being overweight (respective values: OR = 3.81; p = 0.002; and OR = 2.97; p = 0.009). Higher levels of maternal education were associated with higher “mixed diet” scores (p < 0.001), whereas lower levels of maternal education (p < 0.001), higher per capita income (p < 0.001) and higher average weight gain from 0 to 4 months (p = 0.002) were associated with higher “snack” scores. Higher per capita income was also associated with lower “unhealthy” scores (
Consistent prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes across six years of second-year medical school students  [PDF]
Lynn Seabolt, Taren B. Spence, Heidi J. Silver
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.47058
Abstract: Background: The dietary behaviors of physicians and medical students are strongly associated with their nutrition counseling practices. Little research to date describes their dietary intakes and no recent studies have assessed the adequacy of their micronutrient intakes. As micronutrient imbalances are associated with a variety of chronic diseases, public guidelines target increasing dietary nutrient density. The purpose of this study was to identify micronutrient imbalances in the diets of medical students and determine whether intakes are becoming more compliant with dietary guidelines over time. Methods: From 2000 to 2006, 409 second-year Vanderbilt University medical students completed the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire prior to the required “Introduction to Clinical Nutrition” course. Nutrient data were compared to Dietary Reference Intake values. Results: Dietary intakes of male students were consistently inadequate for vitamin E, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium and potassium across the six cohorts. Despite a significant increase over time in the number of vegetable servings consumed, the intakes of female students revealed the same inadequacies, as well as inadequate folate and iron intakes. Multivitamin and multimineral supplementation, consumed regularly by 51% of students, closed the gap in meeting estimated micronutrient requirements, except vitamin E. Conclusions: These data can be used to inform the content of nutrition interventions for medical students focused on making optimal food selection choices as well as the content of nutrition education in the medical school curriculum. It is important to enhance medical students’ preparedness as fu- ture health care providers—not only to serve as role models for healthy dietary behaviors, but also to better recognize the nutrition needs of their future patients.
The Effects of Food Neophobia and Food Neophilia on Diet and Metabolic Processing  [PDF]
August Capiola, Bryan Raudenbush
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.310183
Abstract: Past research shows that food neophobics (those individuals reluctant to try novel foods) and food neophilics (those individuals overtly willing to try novel foods) differ in terms of sensory evaluations, psychophysical ratings, stimulus sampling, physiological responses, and genetic predispositions. The present study assessed whether such factors had an effect on participants’ dietary consumption and subsequent nutritional adequacy. One hundred and sixteen participants, aged 18 - 76 years, completed a food diary for three days as well as several eating-related questionnaires. Nutritional summaries and questionnaire scores were subjected to a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with participants being sorted into three groups depending on their Food Neophobia Score. These three groups consisted of food neophobics, average individuals, and food neophilics. Groups were found to differ significantly on dietary intake of 20 specific nutritional and caloric items, with food-neophobics typically having the lowest intake. Implications support the initial hypothesis of food neophobics having less nutritionally plentiful diets than food neophilics, thus leading food neophobics to have a nutritionally deficient diet. This finding is important since decrease in nutritional intake can result in health related deficiencies.
Natural Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  [PDF]
Rupal Patel Mansukhani, Lucio R. Volino, Rozena Varghese
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.55059

In the past decade, there has been an increase in the use of natural products in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several agents, such as guar gum, magnesium, oat bran, blond psyllium, and soy, have shown efficacy for treatment of T2DM. Objective: To review the scientific literature to identify effects of natural products (i.e., dietary supplements) for the treatment of T2DM. Methods: A search of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database was performed to identify natural products advocated for the treatment of T2DM. Natural products categorized as both “possibly effective” and “likely safe” (guar gum, magnesium, oat bran, blond psyllium, and soy) were selected for review. A MEDLINE (1950-March 2013) literature review was performed. Articles published within the last ten years (January 2003-March 2013) and pertinent articles published prior to 2003 were included in this review. Diabetes prevention studies were not selected for this review. Conclusions: Based on the published information, there is little evidence to support the use of herbal products for the treatment of T2DM. Some agents may be useful as adjunctive therapy; however, patients should be encouraged to speak with their health care practitioner before starting or stopping any herbal products.

Nutrient Intakes from Food of Lactating Women Do Not Meet Many Dietary Recommendations Important for Infant Development and Maternal Health  [PDF]
Nathan S. Pratt, Holiday A. Durham, Christina L. Sherry
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.517177
Abstract: Literature describing dietary intakes of lactating mothers in the United States (US) is limited and none of the existing studies attempts to identify whether dietary shortcomings of lactating mothers are distinct from those of women of childbearing age in the US. The first objective of this observational study was to comprehensively analyze the dietary intakes of lactating mothers in the US to determine whether nutrient intakes from food were sufficient to meet recommendations. The second objective was to compare these intakes to those of women of childbearing age in the US. Weekly 3-day food records were collected from subjects for six weeks in 2012-2013. Subject mean daily intakes of food groups, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and specific fats including omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were determined and compared to daily recommendations. Intakes were compared to US women using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Fruit, vegetable, and dairy intakes of mothers were ≤50% of recommendations, resulting in 12 of 26 analyzed vitamins or minerals including potassium, iodine, chromium, choline, and vitamins A, D, and E having mean daily intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement. Vitamin D intake of subjects was 18% lower than US women, while most other nutrients showed intakes within 10% of each other between populations. Lactating women are not meeting the increased dietary needs associated with breastfeeding, supporting education initiatives and interventions specifically tailored to breastfeeding populations to increase intakes of vitamin D, vitamin E, iodine, biotin, carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids from food.
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