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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3025 matches for " diet of cockerels "
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Effect of Graded Level of Alphamune G on Performance, Blood Chemistry and Histology of Cockerel Chicks
S.A. Bolu,V. Ojo,O. Oluyemi,O.I. Babawale
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the response of day-old cockerel chicks to graded levels of Alphamune G (0.00, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06%). The experiment which was conducted for 8 weeks employed a completely randomized design. Feed intake and nutrient retention were not significantly influenced (p>0.05) by dietary inclusion levels of Alphamune G. However, weight gain and feed to gain ratio were significantly improved (p<0.05) for cockerel chicks fed 0.06% inclusion level when compared with the control. The values were 7.78 and 4.58 g/bird/week, respectively. Haematology and serum indices did not show any significant effect as a result of the graded levels of dietary Alphamune G. Histological characteristics revealed slight morphological changes in specific organs of birds fed Alphamune G supplemented diet vis-a viz the control diet. Inclusion of Alphamune G at 0.06% in the diets of cockerel chicks gave the best performance.
Evaluation of Palm Kernel Meal as Substitute for Soyabean Meal in the Diet of Growing Cockerels
G.S. Ojewola,U.K. Ozuo
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: One hundred and twenty Anak Cockerels were used in a 56-day trial to determine the substitutional value of Palm Kernel meal (PKM) for Soyabean meal in the diet of growing cockerels. The five week-old cockerels were randomly allotted to five dietary treatment groups in which the dietary soyabean meal had been substituted with PKM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The diets were respectively designated as diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. The results showed that mean daily body weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio for all the treatments were significantly (P< 0.05) influenced. Birds fed diet 2 had the highest weight gain (1229.17g) followed by birds fed diet 1 (control) while birds fed diets 3, 4 and 5 respectively had their weights depressed. Birds fed diet 2 gave the best feed-to-gain ratio (3.88). The feed cost per kilogramme diet significantly (P< 0.05) decreased with the increasing PKM replacement of soyabean meal. Diet 2 gave the least cost per kg weight gain (N159.90) and the highest accruable revenue (N614.58). From the results of this study, it would appear that substituting 25% of soyabean meal with PKM in growing cockerel diets would not only be economically advantageous but enhanced performance.
Comparison of slow freezing and vitrification methods for Venda cockerel’s spermatozoa  [PDF]
Masindi L. Mphaphathi, Dibungi Luseba, Ben Sutherland, Tshimangadzo L. Nedambale
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.23028
Abstract: An improvement in avian semen cryopreservation is essential and has the potential to improve the cryo-gene banking efficiency. This study compared two cryopreservation methods (slow freezing and vitrification) and the effect of different thawing/warming temperatures (5℃, 25℃ and 41℃) on Venda cockerel’s spermatozoa. Semen samples from Venda cockerels were diluted with modified Kobidil+ extender supplemented with 8% dimethyl sulfoxide. Semen from each ejaculate was stained with nigrosin/eosin for viability examination. The cryopreserved samples were either slow cooled in 0.25 mL straw or vitrified in a solid surface vitrification (SSV) device. Semen straw or cryovial was stored in liquid nitrogen container. The straw or cryovial with sperm was thawed or warmed at 5?C, 25?C and 41℃ and analysed by a Computer-Aided Sperm Analysis (CASA). There was a significant difference in live/normal sperm between the semen donors. Cockerels spermatozoa cryopreserved by slow freezing (43%) and thawed at 5?C had a significantly higher survival and motility rate compared to vitrification (2.5%) method. In conclusion, there was higher rate of live/normal morphology sperm. Cryopreservation process reduces sperm motility and velocity rate regardless of cryoprevervation method and thawing or warming temperatures. However, slow freezing was a better method to maintain motility of spermatozoa following cryopreservation.
Valores energéticos e aminoácidos digestíveis da semente do capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp) para aves
Rodrigues, Paulo Borges;Dutra Júnior, Wilson Moreira;Rostagno, Horacio Santiago;Rodrigues, Kênia Ferreira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982004000500011
Abstract: three assays were carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of the barnyardgrass seeds (echnochloa spp.) for poultry. in the first assay, twelve adult cockerels were used to determine the true metabolizable energy value corrected by nitrogen retained (tmen), using the forced fed method. in this assay six cockerels were forced fed 30 g of the feed and six cockerels were fastened to determinate metabolic and endogenous losses. in the second assay, twelve cecectomized cockerels were used to determine the true digestibility coefficients of the amino acids in the tested feed, using the same metodology. to determinate the apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen retained (amen) in the thirth assay, the total excreta collection method was used, with 80 growing chicks of commercial strain. the barnyardgrass seed was included in the proportion of 25 percent of the reference diet, which contained 20% cp and 3000 kcal of the me/kg. the reference and test diets were fed to four replicates of ten birds each. the energy values determined were 1813 kcal amen and 1976 kcal of the tmen/kg as fed. the true digestibility coefficients of the essential and non essential amino acids were, in average, 78.2 % and 78.3 %, respectively. the threonine and the lysine shown lower digestibility (65.8 and 67.2%, respectively) and the phenilalanine (86.4%) follow by the methionine (86.0%) presented higher values among essential amino acids. the tyrosine (90.5%) and cystine (56.3%) presented higher and lower digestibility coefficients, respectively, among the non essential amino acids.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2009,
Abstract: In a 2 × 3 factorial design, two hundred and seven 3 weeks old black (Bovan Nera) and white (Gold line) cockerels were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. The basal diet was based on maize, soybean meal, groundnut cake and wheat offal. Probiotics replaced the wheat offal in Diets I, II and III in proportion of 0, 0.05 and 0.1%. Probiotics contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Saccharomyces boulardii. Each diet was offered to 3 pens of 12 black cockerels each or 3 pens of 11 white cockerels each. Starting chicken of both strains responded non-significantly to increasing probiotics concentration in feed intake, body weight gain, and feed/gain ratio. A nonsignificant interaction occurred between strain and dietary probiotics concentration for all response criteria. The slope of regression of body weight changes depending on age was higher for white than black.
Safety Evaluation of Prolonged Administration of Stresroak in Grower Cockerels
A.A. Oyagbemi,A.B. Saba,R.O.A. Arowolo
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: Stresroak is a herbal preparation from combination of Phyllatus emblica, Ocimum sanctum, Withania, somnifera, Mangefira indica and Shilajit species. The Ayurvedic drug is used as anti-stress, immunomodulator, adaptogen and performance enhancer in poultry management. with outstanding results. The toxicological effects of prolonged administration of Stresroak in grower Cockerels was evaluated using haematological parameters and serum biochemical assay. Sixty growing Cockerels were used in this study. The birds were randomly but equally divided into 5 groups. Birds in groups A, B, C and D were administered with 109.8mg 292.8mg, 585.6mg and 951.6mg of the drug dissolved in 2 litres of distilled water, daily for 60 days respectively. While the dose of group A was recommended by the drug manufacturer, the birds in group E were administered with 0.9% Physiological saline. The haematological parameters analyzed were total red blood cell (RBC) count, total white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb), platelets count and heterophil/lymphocytes ratio. Plasma enzymes and proteins analyzed were total proteins (T.P), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO), fibrinogen (FIB), total bilirubin (T.Bil), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT). Stresroak generally improved haematological parameters in chicken administered with the drug when compared with the chicken in the control group. The significant (P< 0.05) increase in total RBC and WBC counts and MCH both at 30 and 60 days post-administration especially for the therapeutic dose, show that Stresroak probably enhances erythropoiesis. Lower heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was observed for the groups that received the highest doses of Stresroak and this was consistent throughout the course of the experiment, which implies that the herbal preparation improved the immunity of the chicken. The plasma levels of total protein, globulin, albumin and fibrinogen increased dose-dependently both at 30 and 60 days post- Stresroak administration. The plasma levels of ALP and AST were significantly lowered while non-significant changes were observed for plasma levels of ALT and GGT at 30 days post- Stresroak administration. Conversely, by 60 days post- Stresroak administration, the plasma levels of ALT and GGT were significantly (P< 0.05) elevated except in cockerels in group A that received the recommended therapeutic dosage; where the plasma levels was observed to be lower for ALP (P< 0.05) and AST (P>0.05). Histopathological finding
Nutritional Quality of Olives and Olive oil Produced in the Serra Da Mantiqueira from Brazil  [PDF]
?ngelo Albérico Alvarenga, Joyce Ludimila da Cruz, Adelson Francisco de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando de Oliveira da Silva, Emerson Dias Gon?alves, Paulo Márcio Norberto
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.87039
Abstract: The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest fruits grown by man. Its fruit can be processed into olive oil or treated properly and serve directly for the in natura consumption in the form of olives. Extracted from the olive, the olive oil is highly valued in the market, for its nutritional benefits and also for its unique and delicate flavor. Brazil is the second largest importer of olive oil in the world, but technology is already available and the expansion of the crop has been taking place in the south-southeast regions, where the climate is favorable, in order to serve this market. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical qualities of the olives and characterize, sensorially and chemically, olive oils from different olive cultivars planted in the Region of Serra da Mantiqueira. The olives and olive oils produced from the cultivars Arbequina, Arbosana, Grapolo 541, Koroneiki and Maria da Fé were evaluated at the EPAMIG Experimental Field of Maria da Fé, Minas Gerais, and Brazil. In the first experiment the olives harvested in February of 2015 were analyzed in terms of weight, volume, transverse and longitudinal diameter of the fruit and the lump and the relation of the olive/lump and the chemical (protein, lipid, moisture and ashes). In the second experiment the olives were processed by the grinding, beating and centrifugation method to obtain the oils. The olive oils were analyzed for acidity, peroxide index and absorbance in the ultraviolet region at 274 nm, 270 nm, 266 nm and 232 nm. After this characterization the olive oils produced in the Serra da Mantiqueira were then submitted to sensorial analysis. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. The interpretation of the data from the sensorial analysis was done using the software sensomaker. Differences were observed between olives and olive oils produced by different cultivars in the Serra da Mantiqueira. The cultivar Grappolo 541 produces larger fruits, indicated for the preparation of olives and in natura consumption. Due to the small size of the fruit, the cultivar Maria da Fé is more suitable for olive oil production. The oils of all cultivars are within the parameters established by the Brazilian legislation in force, being classified as Extra Virgin Olive Oil. The oils of all cultivars were well accepted by consumers, especially the cultivars Maria da Fé and Grappolo 541.
Consuming Passions and Patterns of Consumption, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research and Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, 20th September 1997
Louise Martin
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1998, DOI: 10.5334/pia.121
First methodological-experimental contribution to the study of the diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes
Roberto Pilli,Renzo De Battisti
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2000, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-11.2-4154
Abstract: The aims of this study were: to devise an easy method for the evaluation of the differences in the diet between two or more samples of fox scats collected along transects; to elucidate seasonal and local variations in the consumption of mammals. The study area (2000 ha) is located in the Prealps of the province of Belluno (municipality of Ponte nelle Alpi). Before our analysis of the scats, we evaluated the laboratory procedures used by previous Authors (Reynolds and Aebischer, 1991). We suggest a "semi-quantitative" method that allows us to obtain more information than with "qualitative" methods alone.
Diet in dermatology
Hanumanthappa H
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2001,
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