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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10750 matches for " diagnosis "
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A consistency contribution based bayesian network model for medical diagnosis  [PDF]
Yan-Ping Yang
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.35068
Abstract: This paper presents an effective Bayesian network model for medical diagnosis. The proposed approach consists of two stages. In the first stage, a novel feature selection algorithm with consideration of feature interaction is used to get an undirected network to construct the skeleton of BN as small as possible. In the second stage for greedy search, several methods are integrated together to enhance searching performance by either pruning search space or overcoming the optima of search algorithm. In the experiments, six disease datasets from UCI machine learning database were chosen and six off-the-shelf classification algorithms were used for comparison. The result showed that the proposed approach has better classification accuracy and AUC. The proposed method was also applied in a real world case for hypertension prediction. And it presented good capability of finding high risk factors for hypertension, which is useful for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Compared with other methods, the proposed method has the better performance.
Hepatic Lipoma: Radiological Imaging Findings  [PDF]
Mustafa Koplay, Alper Hacioglu, Mustafa Cem Algin
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.27079
Abstract: Hemangiomas and hepatic metastases are the leading reasons of echogenic masses on ultrasound (US) evaluation of the liver. Lipomas of the liver are extremely rare and have been sporadically reported in the literature during the last century. The present report describes a patient with hepatic lipoma together with liver metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma. A 54 years old woman was refered to our department because of abdominal pain. Patient has been operated for gastric adenocarcinoma 3 months ago she was evaluated with US, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).The abdominal US revealed a 12 × 10 mm echogenic mass with smooth borders in 7th segment of the liver. CT scan showed a hypodense lesion in the same hepatic segment with fat dencity and no contrast involvement. MRI demonstrated the same lesion on T1 and T2 weighted images as hyperintence mass. The final radiographic diagnosis was he-patic lipoma. However, there was metastas in the liver of patient. Patient died 4 months later due to metas-tatic gastric adenocarcinoma. Hepatic lipoma should be kept in mind in echogenic masses on US evaluation of the liver.
Proteomic progress in studying tuberculosis from 2010 to 2011  [PDF]
Lijun Zhang, Douglas Lowrie, Honghao Zhou
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2011.24045
Abstract: It is well accepted that rapid and early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and understanding the mechanism of microbiologyhost interaction. Herein, we review the recently published papers related to TB proteomics from 2010 to 2011, including new technologies used in TB proteome research, diagnosis biomarkers of TB-associated diseases, disease pathogenesis and antigens for drug development. Through this review, we wish to offer some help for TB diagnosis and treatment.
A Focus on the Diagnosis of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis  [PDF]
Marta Olivieri, Maria Chiara Gerardi, Francesca Romana Spinelli, Manuela Di Franco
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.37116

Nowadays it is worldwide accepted that early diagnosis and early treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) can improve the prognosis in most of patients. In this way, the 2010 ACR/EULAR Rheumatoid Arthritis classification criteria have shown to be more sensitive than the ACR 1987 criteria and include better patients with early RA. Other important point to focus on is to identify predictive factors for outcome, in order to propose a more aggressive treatment for early RA patients who could develop a persistent and/or erosive disease. The presence of Rheumatoid Factors (RF) and Anti- citrullinated peptides antibobies (ACPA), as well as the duration of the disease at the time of diagnosis, are independent risk factors for the development of erosive RA. As for imaging, both traditional X-ray and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) highlight respectively the Rapid Radiological Progression (RRP) and the presence of bone edema which are associated to a more aggressive disease. In the last years, the musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) has emerged as a useful imaging technique since it allows to identify synovitis and bone alteration earlier than the radiological examination. Interating clinical, serological and imaging data the clinician can define the effective disease activity of each patient.

Intraoperative Diagnosis and Use of Glidescopetm Video Laryngoscope for Cephalic Tetanus  [PDF]
Steven Shulman, Yana Yasyulyanets, Patricia Kloser
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.31008

This case report describes the clinical characteristics and management of a 38-year-old man with cephalic tetanus. He presented with a massive facial infection after a dental procedure. After induction of anesthesia, cephalic tetanus was clinically diagnosed during induction based on the presence of a new facial nerve palsy and nuchal rigidity even after the administration of succinylcholine. The first attempt at intubation was unsuccessful with a Macintosh laryngoscope due to persistent nuchal rigidity and lockjaw despite the use of succinylcholine. Consistent with other reports, intubation was remarkably uncomplicated when the video laryngoscope was used. Postoperatively, the Clostridium tetani infection progressed to generalized tetanus and responded to supportive care. This case highlights the difficulties of diagnosis, and supports the utility of the Glidescopetm video laryngoscope in this unusual pathological condition.

Infratentorial Tuberculoma Mimics Tumor in Immunocompetent Adults: An Analysis of 11 Patients  [PDF]
Ning Guo, Fan Huang, Xi Chen, Minying Zheng, Dexia Zhong, Yanqing Feng
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2013.33008

Backgrounds: Tuberculoma is a granulomatous inflammatory process mimicking a neoplasm, both clinically and radiologically. Although those with an infratentorial origin are rare, this disease is still a diagnostic challenge using conventional workup. However, this disease should not be overlooked because it is essentially curable with proper diagnosis and therapy, usually, a Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) DNA test is performed. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical presentations, CSF results, and images of 11 MTB DNA positive and clinically cured cases of infratentorial tuberculoma. Results: Infratentorial tuberculoma usually deteriorated before antituberculosis treatment (ATT). Magnetic resonance imaging showed space-occupying lesions without specific features, 4 within the cerebellum and 7 within the brainstem. Evidence of systemic tuberculosis was found in only 1 case. Clinical manifestations included various combinations of focal signs and symptoms in the brain stem and cerebellum. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were also nonspecific. The diagnoses of these cases were based on the positive tests of a nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) assay. Trial therapy with antituberculous drugs resulted in clinical improvement, as documented by MRI in all patients. Conclusions: Infratentorial tuberculoma should be suspected in patients with infratentorial space-occupying lesions who live in geographic areas where tuberculosis is endemic.

Diagnosis of HIV Delay: Lost Opportunities  [PDF]
P. Jiménez-Aguilar, A. Romero Palacios, G. García-Dominguez, J. Borrallo-Torrejon, E. Vergara-Moragues, E. Cruz-Rosales, A. Vergara de Campos
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.33026

The diagnosis delay in new cases of HIV infection is a frequent fact. Our objective was to detect and analyse the lost opportunities and describe the characteristics of these patients. Method: The search was done by a revision of personal histories of new diagnosis of HIV infection from 1st January to 31st December 2011 in the database of VACH. We selected those that had consulted a doctor in the previous year in the Emergency area, Primary Care and Specialised Consultations in the database of the histories of the Public Health Service. We called low attendance if they came 1 - 3 times and high if over 3. We grouped patients into those that fulfilled criteria of diagnosis delay by count of CD4s. We called no diagnosis delay to those that had count of CD4 over 350, diagnosis delay under 350 and advanced disease under 200. Results: There were 107 new cases. The global percentage of DD was 61.7% of cases. From these, 45.38% fulfilled criteria of AD. It was possible to find information about the existence of previous sanitary attendance in 59 patients. From these 58% were diagnosed with delay, fulfilling criteria of AD in 27%. The predominant means of infection was sexual. 35 patients attended a healthcare level, 19 two and 5 three. 47.5% consulted over 3 times. They requested a total of 274 consultations. Discussion: The diagnosis delay is a reality. It took our attention that from 59 patients having requested previous medical assistance 58% were diagnosed with delay and 27% fulfilled criteria of AD. We found that almost half of them had been attended in 4 and up to 14 times, in some occasions with suggestive symptoms of HIV infection. Facing this discovery we think that some interventions should be undertaken to get an early diagnosis and the control of the outbreak.

Use of Telemedicine in Postgraduate Pathology Education  [PDF]
Asaranti Kar, Tushar Kar, Priyadarshini Biswal, Kaumudee Pattanaik, Pallavi Bhuyan, Rajashree Mallick, B. N. Mohanty
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.46053

Objective: Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication for medical diagnosis, treatment, health education and research. Telepathology is diagnostic pathology at a distance. It functions with images viewed on a video monitor rather than directly through a microscope. Many years have passed since the evolution of telepathology. But no study has yet been done to evaluate the benefits postgraduates got through this. Therefore this study is undertaken to analyse the different impacts of telepathology on the postgraduate learning. Material and Methods: The study was done in Telemedicine Center of S. C. B. Medical College, Cuttack over a period of 9 years. The telepathology service was carried out by store and forward method using a CCD, a large computer server and a huge bandwidth network service (VSAT). The sessions with SGPGI, Lucknow were analysed and the benefits of postgraduates were studied. Results: The number of sessions held was 95. Out of which 92 sessions were with SGPGI. It included 202 cases transmitted from Lucknow and 186 cases from S. C. B. Medical College, Cuttack. The postgraduates had a chance to exposure to rare cases in renal pathology, dermatopathology and hepatopathology. The overall concordance rate with glass slide diagnosis was 87%. Conclusion: The diagnostic expertise through light microscopy and tele-images are not the same. But the telepathology system increased the ability of image analysis, histopathologic diagnosis of our postgraduates and also exposed them to many rare and interesting cases.

Diagnosis of occult fractures of the ischiopubic rami  [PDF]
Koji Suzuki
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.63A049
Introduction: Recently, the diagnosis of occult frac- tures has been facilitated due to increased availability and utilization of MRI. Diagnosing a fracture of the ischiopubic rami from a proximal femoral fracture, in particular, is difficult using physical exam alone and can be facilitated by having access to an MRI. Here we report both physical exam findings and MRI findings that help in differentiating occult fractures of the iliopubic rami. Materials and Methods: From April 2010 to December 2012, we identified 30 pa- tients (5 male and 25 female; aged 43 - 93 years old). We recorded if a traumatic episode occurred, ambu- latory status at the initial visit (bed ridden, standing up with an aid, walking with an aid). We also re- corded if imaging was used in determining the final diagnosis (radiographs, MRI or CT). Results: Twenty- one patients had a fracture as a result of a traumatic episode. In the remaining 9 cases, no trauma oc- curred and therefore the fractures were insufficiency fractures. Ten patients were bed ridden at the initial visit, eight patients were able to stand only with a walking aid, and the remaining twelve patients were able to walk with an aid. Occasional radiographs were used to confirm the presence of a fracture in 4 cases, MRI in 11 cases, and CT scan in 15 cases. Dis- cussion and Conclusions: Occult fractures of the is- chiopubic rami can occur without trauma and it can be difficult to differentiate these fractures from occult proximal femoral fractures. In these cases, MRI is useful to definitively obtain a diagnosis. In cases of pacemaker, bullet implantation or artificial hip joints, CT or occasional radiographs are also useful to diag- nose occult fractures of the ischiopubic rami.
Concordance between Clinical and Histopathological Diagnoses at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital Oral and Maxillofacial Unit  [PDF]
Alexander Acheampong Oti, Peter Donkor, Solomon Obiri-Yeboah, Michael Yelibora
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.43039

Background: Accurate diagnosis of orofacial tumours is important as this determines the treatment options as well as the eventual treatment outcome. Agreement between clinical and histopathological diagnosis becomes important in this regard. Aims: The aim was to determine the level of agreement between clinical and histopathology diagnosis of orofacial lesions. Method: This is a retrospective study of all histopathology reports seen at KATH maxillofacial unit. Thedata collected included, clinical diagnosis and histological diagnosis. Results: A total of 567 histopathology reports were evaluated. The percentage of agreement between clinical and histopathological diagnosis was 62.8%. Conclusion: The agreement between clinical and histopathological diagnosis was high. However clinicians cannot rely on only the clinical diagnosis in managing patients.

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