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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1178 matches for " dependence "
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Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise Conditionally Negatively Dependent Random Variables  [PDF]
Ronald Patterson, Tamika Royal-Thomas, Wanda Patterson
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.37081

Let {Xnk} be an array of rowwise conditionally negative dependent random variables. Complete convergence of \"\" to 0 is obtained by using various conditions on the moments and conditional means.

Temperature and Doping Dependencies of the Transport Properties within GaN and GaAs  [PDF]
F. M. Abou El-Ela, A. Z. Mohamed
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.211164
Abstract: Temperature and doping dependencies of the transport properties have been calculated using an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. We consider the polar optical phonon, acoustic phonons, piezoelectric, intervalley scatterings and Charged impurity scattering model of Ridley; furthermore, a non nonparabolic three-valley model is used. Our simulation results have shown that the electron velocity in GaN is less sensitive to changes in temperature than that associated with GaAs. Also it is found that GaN exhibits high peak drift velocity at room temperature, 2.8 × 105m/s, at doping concentration of 1 × 1020 m–3and the electron drift velocity relaxes to the saturation value of 1.3 × 105 m/s which is much larger than that of GaAs. The weakening of the phonon emission rate at low temperature explains the extremely high low field mobility. Our results suggest that the transport characteristics of GaN are superior to that of GaAs, over a wide range of temperatures, from 100 K to 700 K, and doping concentrations, up to 1 × 1025 m–3
Rainbows, Time Zones, and Other Mind-Dependent Objects: Making Sense of the Relevant Notions of “Mind-Dependence” in the Debate between Metaphysical Realists and Antirealists  [PDF]
Deborah C. Smith
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.21006
Abstract: In a recent article, Sam Page distinguishes four kinds of mind-(in)dependence: ontological, causal, structural, and individuative. He argues that, despite the fact that the metaphysical realism/antirealism debate has been frequently characterized as a debate between those who accept and those who deny that the world is causally and/or structurally dependent on minds, many antirealists are primarily interested in defending the claim that the world is individuatively mind-dependent. In this article, I critically examine these differing senses of “mind-dependence” highlighting ways in which they remain ambiguous and identifying various entailment relations between them. I argue that there is reason to believe that ontological dependence, structural dependence, and the only sort of individuative dependence that is relevant to the metaphysical debate are coextensive notions. As such, any argument that succeeds in establishing that it is incoherent to suppose that everything is ontologically and/or structurally dependent thereby establishes the incoherence of metaphysical antirealism.
Factors associated with relapse and remission of alcohol dependent persons after community based treatment  [PDF]
Mary Wangari Kuria
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32025

Knowledge of factors associated with relapse and remission after treatment for alcohol dependence enables the clinician to offer better individualized treatment. It also enables the clinician to predict which patients are likely to relapse and therefore offer appropriate and effective treatment to prevent relapse. Objective: This study sought to determine the factors associated with remission and relapse in a group of alcohol dependent persons undergoing Community Based Detoxification and Rehabilitation of alcohol dependent persons. Method: One hundred and eighty eight (188) persons with Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) positive were subjected to outpatient detoxification for 10 days using a pair of ampoules of high potency Vitamin B and C intravenously daily for 3 consecutive days, diazepam 5 mg and carbamazepine 200 mg for 5 and 10 consecutive nights respectively on an outpatient basis. The participants were visited twice a week (at home) by the community based health workers and reviewed once a week by the principal investigator and attended a bimonthly group therapy session conducted in groups of 20 s as part of the rehabilitation process. The groups were converted to self-help groups after 4 months to generate income for the participants. Results: Factors significantly associated with relapse to alcohol use included severity of alcohol use and craving for alcohol at intake and the age of onset of alcohol drinking. Further there was a statistically significant predictive value in the mean score of alcohol related problems in the community based group (health, social, financial and legal). Conclusion: Identifying factors that are associated with relapse after alcohol dependence treatment is likely to improve the effectiveness of treatment and prevent relapse in persons at risk.

Thermal dependence of the properties of cubic boron nitride crystal  [PDF]
Zainelabideen Y. Mijbil, Mudar A. Abdulsattar, Ahmed M. Abdul-Lettif
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.32022
Abstract: Lattice constant, total energy, cohesive energy, bulk modulus, speed of sound (υ), plasmon energy (Epl), valence charge distribution and energy bands of cubic boron nitride crystal have been calculated and studied as a function of temperature using self-consistent field tight binding method with complete neglect of differential overlap version 2 using 8-atom large unit cell approach. Our results illustrate that the increase of temperature leads to an increase of lattice constant, cohesive energy, and valence charge distribution at the atoms, whereas a decrease is obtained for bulk modulus, energy band widths, valence charge distribution in the intratomic distance, speed of sound, and the plasmon energy. The comparison with experimental and other theoretical results has showed an excellent agreement for the lattice constant, bulk modulus, cohesive energy, speed of sound, plasmon energy value and the valence band, whereas remarkable differences in charge distribution values, and the band gap are found. These differences are common in the results that depend on this type of calculation. Values for conduction band and speed of sound have not been found for comparison. Our relation for Epl-T fails but the υ-T relation is successful.
Temperature Dependency of Photosynthesis of Sphagnum spp. Distributed in the Warm-Temperate and the Cool-Temperate Mires of Japan  [PDF]
Akira Haraguchi, Nanae Yamada
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.25086
Abstract: We investigated the temperature dependency of photosynthetic rates for five Sphagnum species: Sphagnum palustre, S. fimbriatum in the Tadewara mire (south-western Japan in a warm-temperate zone) and S. papillosum, S. fuscum, S. fallax in the East Ochiishi mire (north-eastern Japan in a cool-temperate zone) measuring photosynthetic light response within a temperature range between 5 and 40C. The maximum photosynthetic rate was obtained at T = 35C for S. palustre, S. fuscum and S. papillosum, and at T = 30C for S. fimbriatum and S. fallax. Photosynthetic rates of all these species showed a maximum at 300 - 500 μmol·m-2·s-1 of PPFD and it decreased at higher PPFD (>500 μmol·m-2·s-1) under low temperature (5C - 10C). These results imply that Sphagnum species are not fully physiologically adapted to low temperature environments, although Sphagnum species distribute mostly in the circumpolar region.
Attenuation of P, S and Coda Waves in the NW-Himalayas, India  [PDF]
Imtiyaz A. Parvez, Preeti Yadav, K. Nagaraj
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.31020
Abstract: The frequency-dependent characteristics of P- and S-wave attenuation in the upper crust of NW Himalayas have been estimated using local earthquakes for a frequency range of 1.5 to 18 Hz. A total of 43 local events of magnitude 2.1 - 4.8, mostly from the vicinity of Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Central Thrust (MCT) have been used in the analysis. The extended coda normalization methods were applied to estimate the quality factors for P- waves (QP) and S-waves (QS) and the single back-scattering model has been used earlier (Kumar et al. [1]) to determine the quality factor for coda waves (QC). The observed quality factors QP and QS is strongly frequency dependent and the estimated average frequency dependent relation is given by QP = (97 ± 3)f (1.06 ± 0.06) and QS = (127 ± 6)f (0.96±0.06) respectively for P- and S-waves. A comparison of QS estimated in this study and QC previously reported shows that QC > QS for entire frequency range. This indicates the enrichment of coda waves and the importance of scattering attenuation to the attenuation of S-waves in the study region infested with faults and fractures. The ratio QS/QP is found to be greater than unity for the entire frequency range indicating that the body waves from source to station paths crossed a crustal volume with dry and rigid rocks. The frequency dependent relations developed in this study can be very useful to ground motion modeling which in turn is required in the seismic hazard assessment of the region.
Risk Factors Associated with the Abuse of Video Games in Adolescents  [PDF]
Ricardo A. Tejeiro, Jorge L. Gómez-Vallecillo, Manuel Pelegrina, Agustín Wallace, Enrique Emberley
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.34044
Abstract: Several studies have revealed the existence of a maladaptive pattern of video game use whose symptoms are quite similar to those of the disorder referred to as “abuse” in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000). The aim of this paper is to examine the psychosocial characteristics of the adolescent video game abusers and to compare them with the risk factors that the literature associates with substance dependence. For this pur- pose, two groups (“problem” and “social” players) were formed with 236 Spanish adolescents aged be- tween 12 and 17 years, by means of the Problem Video Game Playing questionnaire (PVP; Tejeiro & Bersabe, 2002), and their psychosocial characteristics were then analyzed by means of a wide battery of tests. Only 37.3% of the problem players showed a psychosocial pattern similar to the risk factors for de- pendence; an integral model of maladaptive behavior is discussed as explanation for these persons’ video game abuse. The other 69.6% of “problem players” only differed from the “social players” in their over- use of video games (but not in other psychosocial factors); the social learning approach is suggested for these adolescents’ behavior.
Toward an integrative model for alcohol use and dependence  [PDF]
Serge Combaluzier
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.24044
Abstract: Background: If the alcohol use and dependence disorders are differentiated by the pharmaco-dependence, they share complex relationships with other clinical disorders and personality disorders. The purpose of this paper is to produce a model that reflects its relations both among users than among addicts. Method: Data from questionnaires measuring key variables selected for this study have been collected from people with alcohol misuse (n = 83) and alcohol-dependent (n = 81) in rehab. A model of drug dependence has been produced from these data that gives complete satisfaction to the criteria of SEM. Discussion: This model reflects the shift from abuse to a dependent consumption by the presence of feedbacks involving pharmaco-dependence, disturbance of the alcohol consumption by psychological distress and depressive traits. To further guarantee its validity, however it should be tested by collecting data from other surveys.
Tail Dependence Study of SSE Composite Index and SZSE Component Index Based on the Copula  [PDF]
Guohua Sun, Hongliu Su, Guoqiang Tang
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.47145

With the rapid development of financial industry, copula methods are more and more widely used for the study of financial fields. By selecting the appropriate copulas, the tail dependence of financial variables can be measured easily. Using the nonparametric estimation method to select A12 copula from Archimedean copulas, and do tail dependence study of SSE composite index and SESE component index. The results show that the SSE composite index and SESE component index simultaneously have the upper tail dependence and lower tail dependence, and the upper tail dependence coefficient is less than the lower tail dependence coefficient, which is consistent with the real financial market rule.

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