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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3285 matches for " damage "
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Red Blood Cell Mechanical Stability  [PDF]
Oguz K. Baskurt
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410B003
Abstract: It has been well documented that shear forces effective above a certain magnitude under flow conditions causes damage in blood cells. This damage ranges from slight morphological alteration to the destruction of red blood cells (RBC). The hemolytic trauma to RBC can easily be detected by measuring free hemoglobin level in plasma, however there are no standardized protocols to quantitate subhemolytic trauma. Ektacytometry has been used to study the alterations in RBC mechanical properties induced by the application of shear stress at various levels. Additionally, a protocol for measuring the hemolytic threshold as an indicator of subhemolytic damage to RBC has been developed based on ektacytometry. These standardized protocols may find applications in the pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of artificial organs and biomedical devices contacting with blood.
Comparison of the Punitive Damage with Compensatory, Symbolic, Indirect and Aggravated Damages
Ebrahim Taghizadeh
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The punitive damage is a kind of damage that should be compensated by the defendant for his/her conduct in applying damage tinted with insolence and malice to the plaintiff. The origin of this law institution was in Common Law especially in England which has been developed in other countries quickly. Some conditions should be provided for demanding the punitive damage. The conduct specified in the verdict of punitive damage is the behavior tinted with insolence committed by the defendant; on the other hand, occurrence of loss is one of the conditions required for demanding the compensation of punitive damage; while in other kinds of damages, the required conditions for claiming the indemnity are different.
Isotropic Elastoplasticity Fully Coupled with Non-Local Damage  [PDF]
M. Almansba, K. Saanouni, N. E. Hannachi
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.26055
Abstract: This paper presents a simple damage-gradient based elastoplastic model with non linear isotropic hardening in order to regularize the associated initial and boundary value problem (IBVP). Using the total energy equivalence hypothesis, fully coupled constitutive equations are used to describe the non local damage induced softening leading to a mesh independent solution. An additional partial differential equation governing the evolution of the non local isotropic damage is added to the classical equilibrium equations and associated weak forms derived. This leads to discretized IBVP governed by two algebric systems. The first one, associated with equilibrium equations, is highly non linear and can be solved by an iterative Newton Raphson method. The second one, related to the non local damage, is a linear algebric system and can be solved directly to compute the non local damage variable at each load increment. Two fields, linear interpolation triangular element with additional degree of freedom is terms of the non local damage variable is constructed. The non local damage variable is then transferred from mesh nodes to the quadrature (or Gauss) points to affect strongly the elastoplastic behavior. Two simple 2D examples are worked out in order to investigate the ability of proposed approach to deliver a mesh independent solution in the softening stage.
Identification of Damage Parameters for Intralaminar Damage Modeling in Laminated Composites Considering Transverse Stress Effects  [PDF]
Rehs T. Gerrit, Shun Kokubo, Tomohiro Yokozeki
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2017.74012
Abstract: The aim of this study is to develop an appropriate modeling methodology for the simulation of intralaminar damage in laminated composites under complex loadings. The intralaminar damages are modeled by stiffness reduction controlled by thermodynamic forces as defined in continuum damage mechanics model proposed by Ladevèze. The original method neglected transverse stress in elementary plies during the tensile tests of [45/?45]mS laminates, resulting in variations of the identified damage parameters of Ladevèze model. This study compared the identified damage parameters considering transverse stress effects with those based on the original method. The effect of transverse stress in the identification process on the damage modeling is discussed, and it is found that one of damage coupling parameters and the damage master curves significantly depend on consideration of transverse stress effects. Finally, it is demonstrated that experimental stiffness degradation is well simulated by the prediction using the identified parameters considering transverse stress effects.
Spontaneous Mammary Carcinomas in Female Dogs: Association between the Immunohistochemical Degree of Aggressiveness of Tumors, Intensity of DNA Damage and Residues of Pyrethroids  [PDF]
Yara de Oliveira Brand?o, Marcia Moleta Colodel, Glenda Nicioli da Silva, Stephane Cássia Vexenat, Isabelle Ferreira, Yamê Fabres Robaina Sancler da Silva, Camilo Bulla, Noeme Sousa Rocha
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2013.33025

Diagnosis and biological behavior of breast cancer of female dog represent one of the biggest challenges facing the Veterinarian in recent years. Due to its exponential growth and the degree of aggressiveness, the exact cause of this tumor is probably multifactorial and it is believed that may suffer influence from environmental factors. Among the suspected environmental contaminants are the pyrethroids. Aiming to investigate the participation of pyrethroids in tumorigenesis in female dogs, a study was conducted using 50 female dogs, 22 were positive for simple breast carcinoma (Group I), 18 with a diagnosis of complex breast carcinoma (Group II) and 10 negative (Group III) for breast cancer. In order to detect DNA damage, the Comet assay was performed on mammary samples of these animals, which also had samples submitted to the technique of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), which aimed to quantify the concentration of pyrethroids. The results of HPLC of each animal were compared with those obtained by the Comet assay analysis of variance and the means were compared by the test groups Student T at the significance level of p 0.05. Despite presenting correlation between the amount of DNA damage and tumor aggressiveness, no statistical differences were found in the DNA damage of different histologic types of breast carcinoma. As for pyrethroids, even these were detected in 22% of tumor tissues and peritumoral fat, there was no difference in DNA damage between cells exposed and not exposed to environmental contaminant.

Correlation of Structural Seismic Damage with Fundamental Period of RC Buildings  [PDF]
Anastasia K. Eleftheriadou, Athanasios I. Karabinis
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2013.31006

The sufficient estimation of the natural period of vibration constitutes an essential step in earthquake design and assessment and its role in the development of seismic damage is investigated in the current research. The fundamental period is estimated for typical reinforced concrete building types, representative of the building stock of Southern Europe, according to existing relationships. The building typologies also represent groups of 180,945 existing damaged buildings of an observational database created after the Athens (7-9-1999) near field earthquake. The estimated fundamental periods are correlated to several degrees of the recorded damage. Important conclusions are drawn on the parameters (height, structural type, etc.) that influence the seismic response and the development of damage based on the wide database. After conducting a correlation analysis, noticeable is the difference between the seismic demand of the elastic spectrum of the first (1959), the contemporary (2003) Greek Seismic Code and the values of peak ground accelerations of several Athens earthquake records. Moreover, PGAs in most records are often between the lower and the upper bound of the estimated fundamental periods for RC buildings with regular infills (n-normal) and with ground levels without infill panels (p-pilotis) regardless the height. A disparity is noticed when the estimated fundamental period is based on EC8 provisions for the considered as “high” buildings in S. Europe regarding the referring earthquake. The majority of buildings that developed several degree, type and extent of damage are considered of “low” height with estimated fundamental periods close to the PGA values of Athens earthquake ground motions. However, the developed damage was the result of the combination of parameters based on geological, tectonic and morphological characteristics of the affected area. In addition, a damage scale for the measurable recording, beyond the qualitative characterization of seismic damage in Greek post-earthquake surveys, is presented wherein the performance levels are defined according to the physical description of the seismic damage and, as well, in terms of structural and economic damage index.

Novel approaches to the control of salt damage
Alison Sawdy,Clifford Price
Archaeology International , 2004, DOI: 10.5334/ai.0815
Abstract: Conservation scientists at the Institute of Archaeology have a longstanding interest in how the growth of salt crystals damages ancient buildings, wall paintings and objects in museums. They are now participating in a European research consortium that is investigating novel methods of reducing salt damage. The Institute's role in the project is to assess how environmental conditions affect the process of salt damage and to examine how salt crystallization might be inhibited.
Las acciones civiles derivadas del da?o ambiental en la ley no 19.300
Vidal Olivares,álvaro;
Revista de derecho (Valparaíso) , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-68512007000100003
Abstract: environmental damage may directly and immediately result in civil damage that, in turn, will give rise to environmental liability and ordinary compensation actions. a basic regime of common application for both aforementioned actions, excluding the norms of common law, is stipulated in act no. 19.300. people or companies that have sustained environmental damage are among the active legitimated parties to take environmental action, object of which is material restoration as far as possible. however, according to this law, when said material restoration is not possible, damage compensation rises as an equivalent compensation.
Normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage in wistar rat  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Hu, Qin Li, Bo Li, Rong-Ji Dai, Li-Na Geng, Yu-Lin Deng
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.28092
Abstract: The biochemical indicators of wistar rat under low oxygen concentration, such as brain water content, necrosis, lactic acid and Na+-K+-ATPase, was detected to evaluate normobaric hypoxia-induced brain damage and to investigate the mechanism of wistar rat brain injury. Histopathological changes in brain tissue induced by hypoxia were investigated via hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE). Hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in brain was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the level of lactic acid was positively correlated with the degree of hypoxia, while concentration-dependent decrease in total Na+-K+-ATPase activity was observed. Compared with the control group, hypoxia group had a significant difference on brain water content under severe hypoxic conditions, the rate of brain necrosis increased obviously, followed by the increase of lactic acid level and the decrease of Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Histopathological analysis of brain confirmed that there was neuronal cell death in hippocampal gyrus. HIF-1α expression enhanced the hypoxia adaptation capability of the rat model through regulating the expressions of multiple genes. Lactic acid, Na+-K+-ATPase and HIF- 1α played an important role in brain injury as a possible mechanism.
Uniaxial Modelling of Behavior of the Concrete in Fast Dynamics: Approach to Seismic Behavior  [PDF]
Abdelhak Baraka, Mohammed Benali Benmansour, Yazid Abdelaziz, Fakhreddine Djeddi
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.36066
Abstract: The advantages of the computer enable us to simulate of complex structures subjected to dynamic loading. To come up to the necessity to know the real behavior of such material, we exploit these advantages basing on experimental data available in the literature. Since the response of the material depends on stress velocity, so it is essential to provide a computational code with dynamic behavior. To perform such simulations, we have elaborated a behavior law governed by loading velocity effect on concrete and their attitudes cyclic non elastic, for an approach of seismic behavior. This paper shows the processes we have followed to formulate this viscous damage law whose aim is behavior prediction for concrete under dynamic stresses. Then, the model is validated with experimental results and simulations of some available tests on Hopkinson’s bar.
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