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biological behavior of breast cancer of female dog represent one of the biggest
challenges facing the Veterinarian in recent years. Due to its exponential
growth and the degree of aggressiveness, the exact cause of this tumor is
probably multifactorial and it is believed that may suffer influence from
environmental factors. Among the suspected environmental contaminants are the
pyrethroids. Aiming to investigate the participation of pyrethroids in tumorigenesis
in female dogs, a study was conducted using 50 female dogs, 22 were positive
for simple breast carcinoma (Group I), 18 with a diagnosis of complex breast
carcinoma (Group II) and 10 negative (Group III) for breast cancer. In order to detect DNA damage, the
Comet assay was performed on mammary samples of these animals, which also had
samples submitted to the technique of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), which aimed to quantify the
concentration of pyrethroids. The results of HPLC of each animal were compared
with those obtained by the Comet assay analysis of variance and the means were
compared by the test groups “Student T” at the significance level of p ￡ 0.05. Despite presenting correlation
between the amount of DNA damage and tumor aggressiveness, no statistical differences
were found in the DNA damage of different histologic types of breast carcinoma.
As for pyrethroids, even these were detected in 22% of tumor tissues and
peritumoral fat, there was no difference in DNA damage between cells exposed
and not exposed to environmental contaminant.
The sufficient estimation of the natural period of vibration constitutes an essential step in earthquake design and assessment and its role in the development of seismic damage is investigated in the current research. The fundamental period is estimated for typical reinforced concrete building types, representative of the building stock of Southern Europe, according to existing relationships. The building typologies also represent groups of 180,945 existing damaged buildings of an observational database created after the Athens (7-9-1999) near field earthquake. The estimated fundamental periods are correlated to several degrees of the recorded damage. Important conclusions are drawn on the parameters (height, structural type, etc.) that influence the seismic response and the development of damage based on the wide database. After conducting a correlation analysis, noticeable is the difference between the seismic demand of the elastic spectrum of the first (1959), the contemporary (2003) Greek Seismic Code and the values of peak ground accelerations of several Athens earthquake records. Moreover, PGAs in most records are often between the lower and the upper bound of the estimated fundamental periods for RC buildings with regular infills (n-normal) and with ground levels without infill panels (p-pilotis) regardless the height. A disparity is noticed when the estimated fundamental period is based on EC8 provisions for the considered as “high” buildings in S. Europe regarding the referring earthquake. The majority of buildings that developed several degree, type and extent of damage are considered of “low” height with estimated fundamental periods close to the PGA values of Athens earthquake ground motions. However, the developed damage was the result of the combination of parameters based on geological, tectonic and morphological characteristics of the affected area. In addition, a damage scale for the measurable recording, beyond the qualitative characterization of seismic damage in Greek post-earthquake surveys, is presented wherein the performance levels are defined according to the physical description of the seismic damage and, as well, in terms of structural and economic damage index.