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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1761 matches for " dEVELOPING COUNTRIES "
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Roles of Subsidiaries to Parent and Motivations Justifying Their Presence in Developing Countries (DCs): Synthesis of Literature  [PDF]
Alexis Abodohoui, Bolarinwa Osunlalu, Nie Guihua
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.53B026
Abstract:

This paper reviews different policies and looks in some detail at the factors influencing the choice of development of subsidiaries in developing countries. It shows also that the subsidiaries play an important role to the MNC units. We review in this paper some of motives for international transfer, control, coordination, investment, and development of new capability. This research highlights the peculiarities in African business world and improves the strategies about the optimization of the investment in developing countries.

Breast Cancer Survival in Cameroon: Analysis of a Cohort of 404 Patients at the Yaoundé General Hospital  [PDF]
Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Marie Kasia, Jean Yomi, Achille Nkigoum Nana, Anny Ngassam, Irenée Domkam, Zacharie Sando, Paul Ndom
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2015.42005
Abstract:

This study aimed to estimate the survival rate of breast cancer in a group of patients followed up at the Yaoundé General Hospital in Cameroon. A retrospective review of records of patients managed for breast cancer between 1995 and 2007 was carried out at the Yaoundé General Hospital. Survival analysis was carried out with survival defined as the time between the date of unequivocal diagnosis of cancer and the date of last follow-up or death. Survival curves were plotted in R.3.1.1 software. Mean age of the patients was 47.5 ± 12.36 years. Most of the patients (67.9%) presented with advanced breast cancer disease (stage III and IV). Overall patient survival rate was 30% at 5 years and 13.2% at 10 years. Median overall survival time was 2 (1.9 - 3) years. There was a correlation between survival and the stage of disease. The highest survival rates were recorded in stages I and II while the lowest rates were recorded in stage IV. There was no statistically significant difference in survival among the age groups (p = 0.15). Overall survival rates of breast cancer are 30% at 5 years and 13.2% at 10 years among Cameroonian patients and are lower compared with 90% and 82% respectively at 5 years and 10 years in some developed countries.

Fertigation for Environmentally Friendly Fertilizers Application: Constraints and Opportunities for Its Application in Developing Countries  [PDF]
Michel Kabirigi, Shrestha Om Prakash, Boejharat Varsha Prescella, Crissy Niamwiza, Serrano Pitti Quintin, Israel Anyisile Mwamjengwa, Abeykoon Mudiyanselage Jayantha, Mary Logunu Apula Keji, Chenglin Zhang
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.84021
Abstract:
There is an increasing concern about agriculture’s role in polluting the environment which makes farmers feel guilty about using fertilizers. Fertigation is proposed as a panacea to this dilemma, which by this practice reaffirms the principles of 4Rs which are the right source, at the right rate, right time and right place. The aim of this study was to explore constraints and opportunities for its application in developing countries for environmentally friendly fertilizers application. It is a review of literature from government reports, legislature and published material on fertilization and irrigation initiatives of developing countries which include Rwanda, Nepal, Suriname, Zambia, Panama, Tanzania, Sri Lanka and South Sudan in addition to the case presented of China during the “2016 Environmentally Friendly Fertilizer Production, Application and Demonstration from Developing Countries” training course. The study found that in developing countries there is potential to apply fertigation as a way of environmentally friendly fertilizers application as it has been adopted in China. These opportunities include the following: Abundant natural resources like land and water, less polluted environment, conducive agricultural policies, zero duties levied on imported irrigation equipment. However, a number of limitations also are highlighted including: Lack of investment, lack of infrastructure, lack of information, requires expertise on plant nutrition and management of fertigation system, require soil analysis and proper interpretation which is done by experts. This study provides relevant information for fertigation planning and application in respective developing countries.
Surgical and Anaesthesiology Management of Esophageal Atresia: What Are the Mortality Factors in a Developing Country?  [PDF]
Adjoba Manuela Ehua, Martial Olivier Moulot, Privat Desire Ango, Kouame Soroboua Agbara, Jean- Marie Konan, Ibrahim Traore, Lohourou Franck Grah, Robert Boulleys, Alphamoye Haidara, Paule- Christine Ekobo, Sanni Roumanatou Bankole
Surgical Science (SS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2018.912057
Abstract: Esophageal atresia is an extreme neonatal surgical emergency whose mortality remains high in our country. We report 8 cases collected over 7 years in a tertiary hospital in Abidjan, C?te d’Ivoire. The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of surgical and anaesthesiological man-agement in our department that influences mortality.
Attrition in Longitudinal Household Survey Data
Alderman Harold,Behrman Jere,Kohler Hans-Peter,Maluccio John A.
Demographic Research , 2001,
Abstract: Longitudinal household data can have considerable advantages over much more widely used cross-sectional data for capturing dynamic demographic relationships. Because the collection of longitudinal data may be difficult and expensive, analysts need to assess the magnitude of the particular problems associated with longitudinal but not with cross-sectional data. One problem that has concerned many analysts is that sample attrition may make the interpretation of estimates problematic. Such attrition may be particularly severe in areas where there is considerable migration between rural and urban areas. Many analysts share the intuition that attrition is likely to be selective on characteristics such as schooling and thus that high attrition is likely to bias estimates. This paper considers the extent and implications of attrition for three longitudinal household surveys from Bolivia, Kenya, and South Africa that report very high per-year attrition rates between survey rounds. Our estimates indicate that: (a) the means for a number of critical outcome and family background variables differ significantly between those who are lost to follow-up and those who are re-interviewed; (b) a number of family background variables are significant predictors of attrition; but (c) nevertheless, the coefficient estimates for standard family background variables in regressions and probit equations for the majority of the outcome variables in all three data sets are not affected significantly by attrition. Therefore, attrition apparently is not a general problem for obtaining consistent estimates of the coefficients of interest for most of these outcomes. These results, which are very similar to those for developed countries, suggest that multivariate estimates of behavioral relations may not be biased due to attrition and thus support the collection of longitudinal data.
Creativity and Education  [PDF]
Robina Shaheen
Creative Education (CE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2010.13026
Abstract: This paper starts with a brief background of the link between creativity and education, including the beginning of the most recent interest in the two. There is a short summary of the reasons for this renewed interest. This is followed by a discussion into the dissatisfactions over current education and its changing role in the light of increasing importance being accorded to creativity. Lastly, evidence in educational policy documents from around the world is presented to show the steps being taken for implementation of creativity in education.
Biodiesel for Sustainable Energy Provision in Developing Countries  [PDF]
Moses Tunde Oladiran, Jerekias Gandure
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.23017
Abstract: Consumption of fossil fuel resources has been growing over the years and it is the kernel of economic development. However combustion which takes place principally in automobiles, power generation and industrial plants produces greenhouse gases (GHG) that are harmful to the environment. The release of GHG such as carbon dioxide is contributing to global warming. Biofuels can lower carbon footprint, reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels and increase energy security. Integrating biofuels into the national energy mix also has good socio-economic and sustainability potential. Therefore this paper discusses factors for successful diffusion of biodiesel technology in developing economies.
Antenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of A Case of Alobar Holoprosencephaly: A Case Report  [PDF]
Rizwan Ahmad Khan, Manjari Thapa, Shagufta Wahab
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.35080
Abstract: Holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. Herein we report an antenatal case of such patient. Patient was evaluated and because of the magnitude of the problem induction was done which led to a still born baby.
Challenges of Improving Intensive Care Medicine in Eritrea: Impact of an Italian Cooperative Project of Educational and Clinical Support  [PDF]
Valentina Anichini,Giovanni Zagli,Hagos Goitom,Giovanni Cianchi
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.37069
Abstract: Intensive care in Africa is available only in teaching or referral hospitals. Here we report the experience of a multidisciplinary collaboration between physicians and nurses of the Emergency Department (First Aid and Intensive Care Unit) of a tertiary referral hospital (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, IT) and physicians and nurses of Orotta National referral Hospital in Asmara, Eritrea. The project was aimed at performing clinical assistance and training on the job to the local staff to improve the standard of care in the local Emergency Department. The duration of the project was initially planned to be 30 months, but unfortunately it was interrupted after 18 months because of lack of funds. The Italian staff was composed of two physicians and two nurses per period. To monitor local ICU activity, a retrospective survey of 36 months was performed. During the 36 months of data collection, 1169 patients were admitted to the ICU. Intra-ICU mortality rate resulted comparable before, during, and after Italian presence. On the contrary, the 28-day mortality resulted significantly lower bo th during and after the Italian stay. After project interruption, the Italian staff maintained contact with the Eritrean ICU personnel, who were invited to attend the Italian ICU for one month per year, and collected information about Orotta ICU activities.
Challenges of Improving Intensive Care Medicine in Eritrea: Impact of an Italian Cooperative Project of Educational and Clinical Support  [PDF]
Valentina Anichini, Giovanni Zagli, Hagos Goitom, Giovanni Cianchi, Andrea Cecchi, Lucia Perretta, Emanuele Bigazzi, Barbara Gazzini, Simone Proietti, Alessandro Di Filippo, Simone Toccafondi, Gianfranco Gensini, Giancarlo Berni, Adriano Peris
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.37069
Abstract:

Intensive care in Africa is available only in teaching or referral hospitals. Here we report the experience of a multidisciplinary collaboration between physicians and nurses of the Emergency Department (First Aid and Intensive Care Unit) of a tertiary referral hospital (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, IT) and physicians and nurses of Orotta National referral Hospital in Asmara, Eritrea. The project was aimed at performing clinical assistance and training on the job to the local staff to improve the standard of care in the local Emergency Department. The duration of the project was initially planned to be 30 months, but unfortunately it was interrupted after 18 months because of lack of funds. The Italian staff was composed of two physicians and two nurses per period. To monitor local ICU activity, a retrospective survey of 36 months was performed. During the 36 months of data collection, 1169 patients were admitted to the ICU. Intra-ICU mortality rate resulted comparable before, during, and after Italian presence. On the contrary, the 28-day mortality resulted significantly lower bo th during and after the Italian stay. After project interruption, the Italian staff maintained contact with the Eritrean ICU personnel, who were invited to attend the Italian ICU for one month per year, and collected information about Orotta ICU activities.

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