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Determinación de alcoholes grasos en el ingrediente activo D004 por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas Determination of fatty alcohols in D-004 active ingredient by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
David Marrero Delange,Eduardo Antonio Rodríguez Leyes,Víctor Luis González Canavaciolo,Yuliamny Adames Fajardo
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales , 2012,
Abstract: Introducción: el D004, nuevo extracto lipídico purificado a partir de los frutos de la palma real cubana (Roystonea regia [Kunth] F. Cook), ha mostrado ser efectivo en modelos experimentales de hiperplasia prostática, y ha mostrado efectos antioxidantes y antiiflamatorios. Objetivos: identificar los alcoholes que pudieran estar presentes en el ingrediente activo D004 utilizando la cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masa. Métodos: muestras de 9 lotes de D004 se sometieron a saponificación con una disolución de KOH/EtOH y las fracciones insaponificables fueron extraídas con n-hexano. Los alcoholes se analizaron como derivados trimetilsilil, obtenidos por reacción con N-metil, N-trimetilsilil trifluoroacetamida. La cuantificación se basó en el empleo de 1-eicosanol como patrón interno. Resultados: el D004 presenta un contenido total de alcoholes entre 0,18 y 5,10 %. Esta fracción está compuesta principalmente por 1-octacosanol (52,94 %), 1-triacontanol (25,91 %) y 1-hexacosanol (14,40 %); y presenta como componentes minoritarios: 1-docosanol, 1-tricosanol, 1-tetracosanol, 1-pentacosanol, 1-heptacosanol, 1-nonacosanol, 1-dotriacontanol, 1-tetratriacontanol, 1-tetradecanol, 1-pentadecanol, 1-hexadecanol, 1-octadecanol y 1-eicosanol, los seis últimos en niveles de trazas. Conclusiones: se identificaron y se cuantificaron mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masa los alcoholes grasos en el ingrediente activo D004. Los componentes mayoritarios fueron 1-octacosanol, 1-triacontanol y 1-hexacosanol. Introduction: D004, a new lipid extract purified from the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia [Kunth] F. Cook) fruits, has been shown to be effective in experimental models of prostate hyperplasia, and to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives: to identify the fatty alcohols that could be present in D004 active ingredient using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methods: samples of nine batches of D004 were submitted to saponification with KOH/EtOH solution and the unsaponifiable fractions were extracted with n-hexane. The alcohols were analyzed as trimetilsilil derivatives, which were obtained by reaction with MSTFA. The quantification was carried out by the internal standard method using 1-eicosanol. Results: the total content of alcohols in D004 ranged from 0.18 to 5.10 %. This fraction was mainly composed of 1-octacosanol (52.94 %), 1-triacontanol (25.91 %), and 1-hexacosanol (14.40 %); whereas the minority components were 1-docosanol, 1-tricosanol, 1-tetracosanol, 1-pentacosanol, 1-heptacosanol, 1-no
Determinación de alcoholes grasos en el ingrediente activo D004 por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas
Marrero Delange,David; Rodríguez Leyes,Eduardo Antonio; González Canavaciolo,Víctor Luis; Adames Fajardo,Yuliamny; Vicente Murillo,Roxana;
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales , 2012,
Abstract: introduction: d004, a new lipid extract purified from the cuban royal palm (roystonea regia [kunth] f. cook) fruits, has been shown to be effective in experimental models of prostate hyperplasia, and to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. objectives: to identify the fatty alcohols that could be present in d004 active ingredient using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. methods: samples of nine batches of d004 were submitted to saponification with koh/etoh solution and the unsaponifiable fractions were extracted with n-hexane. the alcohols were analyzed as trimetilsilil derivatives, which were obtained by reaction with mstfa. the quantification was carried out by the internal standard method using 1-eicosanol. results: the total content of alcohols in d004 ranged from 0.18 to 5.10 %. this fraction was mainly composed of 1-octacosanol (52.94 %), 1-triacontanol (25.91 %), and 1-hexacosanol (14.40 %); whereas the minority components were 1-docosanol, 1-tricosanol, 1-tetracosanol, 1-pentacosanol, 1-heptacosanol, 1-nonacosanol, 1-dotriacontanol 1-tetratriacontanol, 1-tetradecanol, 1-pentadecanol, 1-hexadecanol, 1-octadecanol and 1-eicosanol were minor components, being the last six alcohols present in trace levels. conclusions: fatty alcohols were identified and quantified in d004 active ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the major components were 1-octacosanol, 1-triacontanol and 1-hexacosanol.
苹果火疫解淀粉欧文氏usaw004菌株harpineausaw004基因的克隆和高效表达
郭鲁宏,吴彦,吴伯骥
应用与环境生物学报 , 2013, DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1145.2013.00986
Abstract: 从感染火疫病的苹果幼芽中分离纯化解淀粉欧文氏erwiniaamylovora菌株usaw004.该菌株能引起非寄主植物烟草叶片过敏反应.通过构建usaw004基因组文库和菌落原位杂交方法,从usaw004基因组文库中成功筛选到harpineausaw004基因的阳性克隆,并将其亚克隆到pbluescript-iisk(+).测定阳性克隆片段核苷酸序列harpineausaw004基因的orf长度为1212bp,转录产物harpineausaw004由403个氨基酸残基组成.将harpineausaw004基因克隆到表达载体pet28a(+)的t7启动子下,成功构建了高效表达质粒pt7-harpineausaw004,在大肠杆菌jm109中,经异丙基硫代-β-d半乳糖苷(iptg)诱导harpineausaw004基因高效表达,其表达产物可以诱导烟草叶片产生典型过敏反应症状.
Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “PETUK SSP” for production of recycled post-consumer PET for use in food contact materials
EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)
EFSA Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2826
Abstract: This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the recycling process PETUK SSP, EC register number RECYC004. Through this process, washed PET flakes are dried, extruded into pellets then fed to a solid state polymerisation (SSP) reactor where high temperature and long residence time are applied under vacuum. After having examined the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the SSP is the critical step that determines the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of this critical step are the temperature, the pressure and the residence time. It was demonstrated, by means of the challenge test, that the recycling process under evaluation is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below a conservatively modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food. Therefore, the Panel considered that the recycling process PETUK SSP is able to reduce any foreseeable accidental contamination of the post-consumer food contact PET to a concentration that does not give rise to concern for a risk to human health if: it is operated under conditions that are at least as severe as those obtained from the challenge test used to measure the decontamination efficiency of the processes and the input is washed and dried post-consumer PET flakes originating from materials and articles that have been manufactured in accordance with the Community legislation on food contact materials containing no more than 5% of PET from non-food consumer applications. The Panel concluded that the recycled PET obtained from the process PETUK SSP intended for the manufacture of materials and articles for contact with all types of foodstuffs for long term storage at room temperature, with or without hotfill is not considered of safety concern.
The Effect of Short Term Vitamin D Supplementation on the Inflammatory and Oxidative Mediators of Arterial Stiffness  [PDF]
David Martins, Yuan-Xiang Meng, Naureen Tareen, Jorge Artaza, Jae Eun Lee, Caroline Farodolu, Gary Gibbons, Keith Norris
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.612185
Abstract: Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The high rate of vitamin D deficiency (<30 ng/ml) exhibited by African Americans may account for some of the excess prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable US population. Vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by ameliorating the onset and progression of arterial stiffness, a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality, usually assessed by pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Very few prospective studies have evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators of arterial stiffness. Method: In a double blind randomized placebo controlled study we evaluated the effect of a monthly dose of 100,000IU of vitamin D3 for three months on the level of serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary isoprostane, adipocyte cytokine expression and arterial stiffness among 130 overweight and obese (BMI > 25) African Americans with elevated blood pressure (130 - 150/85 - 100 mmHg) and low serum vitamin D level (10 - 25 ng/ml). Results: There was a significant increase in the serum 25(OH)D levels to a mean level of 34.5 ng/ml (SD = 7.1) with the intervention (p < 0.001). The increase in 25(OH)D levels was associated with a significant decrease in the serum level of intact PTH (p = 0.02), mean urinary isoprostane (p = 0.02) and adipocyte cytokine expression. Although the increase in the 25(OH)D levels was not associated with any significant change in the Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) in the overall study sample, it was associated with a significant decrease in the augmentation index among the participants with the highest tertile of urinary isoprostane (p = 0.007). Conclusion: We concluded that vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D levels, decreased intact PTH level and the levels of select inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators of arterial stiffness. Longer term prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of high dose vitamin D supplementation on arterial stiffness.
Cr+3 Distribution in Al1 and Al2 Sites of Alexandrite (BeAl2O4: Cr3+) Induced by Annealing, Investigated by Optical Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Neilo M. TRINDADE, Rosa M. F. SCALVI, Luis V. A. SCALVI
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2010.21004
Abstract: In order to investigate optical properties of alexandrite, the present work deals with the influence of thermal annealing on optical absorption and luminescence spectra of natural samples. The exposure time to heat treatment at 1000oC is taken into account. Possible migration of Cr3+ ions from Al1 (inversion site) to Al2 (reflection site) is detected. Sample composition is obtained through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements and points to a rearrangement of Cr+3 and Fe3+ ions in the alexandrite crystalline structure, un-der thermal annealing influence. This feature may be used to control the optical properties of natural alexan-drite, which can be associated to the observed laser emission effect.
Conversion of U-238 and Th-232 Using a Fusion Neutron Source  [PDF]
Xianjun Zheng, Baiquan Deng, Wei Ou, Fujun Gou
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2014.44028
Abstract: This article proposes a general framework for the conversion of U-238 and Th-232 utilizing fusion-produced neutrons. This recognizes that emerging fusion technologies may not produce sufficient net energy output to justify stand-alone applications, yet may be commercially viable for breeder transmutation or hybrid fusion-fission reactor concepts proposed herein to dispose of nuclear wastes and long life high radioactive fission products remaining in shutdown nuclear power plants. Results show that this could be achievable within a decade, given an appropriate fusion source. However, if 20% beryllium of nuclei density is added to the convertor blanket, the efficiency of the conversion process can be significantly increased. Also, the neutron energy spectrum resulting from dense D-D plasma core fusion is much softer than D-T fusion neutron source, hence the probability of (n, p) (n, α) backward decay reaction paths will be smaller and the conversion efficiency will be elevated.
Severe Thyrotoxicosis Does Not Accelerate 1a-Hydroxylation of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 in Dogs. Experimental Study  [PDF]
Christos Georgiou Velentzas
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.412093
Abstract:

Two healthy dogs weighing 18 kg and 13 kg each received an intravenous injection of 7 μg/kg 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). Subsequently, they were blood-sampled in order to determine the plasma levels of 25(OH)D3 over 4-hourly time intervals and for a time period of 24 hours. After a period of 18 days since the last blood sampling, the animals were brought to a hyperthyroid state and the intravenous injection of 7 μg/kg 25OHD3 was repeated. Blood sampling was performed every 4 hours and over a time period of 24 hours in order to determine the levels of 25OHD3. The graphic plotting of plasma levels of 25OHD3 in the euthyroid state did not differ from that in the hyperthyroid state. This finding in dog animal experimentation is indicative that the increased levels of thyroid hormones did not affect the activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 enzymes that are related to the catabolism of 25OHD3 over a minimum of 24 hours period.

Necessity for Vitamin D Screening among Urban Bedouin Women of Childbearing Age  [PDF]
Inna Rudoy, Ilia Volkov
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.75066
Abstract: Vitamin D (Vit D) plays multiple roles in bodily functions. Vit D deficiency is a common, but often under-diagnosed condition with possible serious complications. According to some research, Vit D is important particularly among women and children. No data were found concerning the Vit D status among urban Bedouin women of childbearing age. The research study is retrospective and descriptive. We analyzed 202 medical histories of patients undergoing blood tests for Vit D level for various reasons. The main objectives of the research were: 1) determining the prevalence of the Vit D deficiency among the Bedouin women of childbearing age; 2) identifying the causes for the physicians’ reasons for suspecting Vit D deficiency: the complaints or symptoms which cause the doctor to test for Vit D level. As a result, in 80.7% of those tested for Vit D, levels were less than 10 ng/ml, and in 19.3%, levels of 10 to 20 ng/ml were found. In lieu of our findings and in order to prevent serious health problems, Vit D screening plan should be seriously considered and discussed in the Bedouin population with high risk of deficiency.
Vitamin D Status in Primary Hypothyroid Subjects Attending a Specialized Endocrine Center of Bangladesh  [PDF]
Ajit Kumar Paul, A. B. M. Kamrul-Hasan, Indrajit Prasad
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2019.95006
Abstract: Background: Association between vitamin D deficiency and hypothyroidism has been reported by many authors though the study results are mixed. Objective: The study was conducted to observe vitamin D status among primary hypothyroid subjects. Materials/Methods: In this single-center cross-sectional study, 356 subjects with primary hypothyroidism (either new or previously diagnosed) were evaluated for serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and 25(OH) vitamin D levels. 25(OH)D levels were classified as normal (≥30 ng/ml), insufficient (>20 to 29.9 ng/ml), and deficient (≤20 ng/ml). Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 36.33 (±12.44) years; majority of them were female (89.9%), homemaker (79.8%), residing in urban or suburban areas (64%), and literate (85.7%); almost half (48%) of them were obese. Their median TSH was 6.17 μIU/ml and mean 25(OH)D was 25.16 (±12.18) ng/ml. The frequencies of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were 39.6% and 34.3% respectively. No statistical differences were observed in 25(OH)D levels between males and females, obese and non-obese, new cases and previously diagnosed cases, new cases with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, the previously diagnosed cases with controlled and uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and among subjects living in urban, suburban and rural areas. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D level showed no correlations with age, body mass index (BMI) and TSH levels of the study subjects. Conclusion: The observed frequency of hypovitaminosis D (deficiency and insufficiency) was high (73.9%) in primary hypothyroid subjects from Bangladesh.
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