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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1419 matches for " cytokines "
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Citocinas e anestesia
Garcia, Jo?o Batista Santos;Issy, Adriana Machado;Sakata, Rioko Kimiko;
Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-70942002000100011
Abstract: background and objectives: cytokines can be stimulated and released by surgical injury, trauma, infection, inflammation and cancer. high cytokine circulating levels may lead to complications and delay of postoperative recovery. this study review and summarizes available information on cytokines. contents: cytokines are polypeptide molecules produced by a wide variety of cells, which seem not to play a role in homeostasis under normal conditions. these mediators are responsible for local or systemic responses and produce immune, metabolic, hemodynamic, endocrine and neural changes. they may activate beneficial biologic responses, such as antimicrobial function stimulation, wound healing, myelostimulation and substrate mobilization. however, abundant cytokine secretion is associated to deleterious effects, such as hypotension, organ failure and death. conclusions: in closing this review, it is clear that cytokines have a fundamental role as metabolic, hormonal, immune and hematological response mediators; that there is a therapeutic potential for their expression block; and that anesthesia may interfere in their activation. however, several questions are still to be answered and further studies are needed to explain cytokine actions not only for experimental, but also for clinical purposes.
The Production of Interleukin-8 is Increased in Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Fatigue  [PDF]
Matthew Sorenson, Leonard Jason, Athena Lerch, Nicole Porter, Jonna Peterson, Herbert Mathews
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.31007
Abstract: Background and Objective: Previous research has speculated on the role of pro- and inflammatory immune mediators in the etiologic process of fatigue, with contrasting findings. The preponderance of the evidence supports the role of inflammatory mediators in the disease process of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production of interleukin (IL)-8 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from individuals with chronic fatigue. A secondary objective was to determine if there was a significant relationship between IL-8 production and plasma cortisol level. Materials and Methodology: Data was collected from three groups, a sample of individuals with CFS (n = 15), a comparison sample of individuals with fatigue that did not meet criteria for CFS (n = 30) and a group of putatively health normative controls (n = 23). Peripheral blood was drawn and plasma samples derived. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with a mitogenic protocol and levels of IL8 in unstimulated and stimulated bulk supernatant determined. Results: Both fatigue groups displayed significantly higher levels of IL8 than the control group. The CFS group demonstrated higher levels of IL8 in plasma than the fatigue comparison group. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate a clear association between fatigue and IL8. The ability to identify an inflammatory marker in association with fatigue could provide a means of identifying those who may be at risk for the development of this disorder.
The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

Effects of Carnosine and Beta-Alanine Ingestion on Anaerobic Sprint Performance and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Interleukin-6 and -10 Gene Expression  [PDF]
Pietro Luigi Invernizzi, Bruno Venerando, Francesco Di Pierro, Sandro Saronni, Nadia Papini
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.34032
Abstract: Chronic administration of β-alanine has been shown to increase muscle carnosine content and improve anaerobic performance. It is not clear whether acute ingestion of carnosine and beta alanine may have the same effects. With a view to investigating acute effects of carnosine and β-alanine ingestion on anaerobic intermittent running performance and on the responses of Interleukin-6 and -10 to exercise, twelve healthy, young, active participants (age: 21 ± 4 years) underwent the running-based anaerobic test (RAST) twice (with 30 min recovery in between) on two separate occasions (randomized, crossover design). The test consisted of 6 × 35-m sprints interspersed with 10 s rests after acute ingestion (4 hours before the test) of either 2 g L-carnosine + 2 g β-alanine or placebo. The overall performance decreased (RAST1 vs RAST2, carnosine + β-alanine: 32.8 ± 1.3 s, 33.4 ± 1.2 s; Placebo: 32.9 ± 1.0 s, 33.6 ± 1.2 s), pain after RASTs increased (RAST1 vs RAST2, carnosine + β-alanine: 3.0 ± 2.1 a.u., 4.2 ± 1.9 a.u.; Placebo: 3.0 ± 1.8 a.u., 3.4 ± 1.2 a.u.) almost in the same way in both groups, and RPE did not show any difference. IL6 and IL10 gene expression increased and decreased respectively in response to exercise in the same fashion in both conditions. During RAST 2 we found a potentially increased performance in the carnosine + β-alanine group (main effect of condition, p < 0.05). In conclusion these findings suggest that acute administration of carnosine + β-alanine does not influence the cytokine response to exercise but might have a very small enhancing effect on anaerobic sprint performance.
Age and Gender Differences in Cytokine Profile of Lymph and Blood Serum  [PDF]
Alexandr Poveshchenko, Nikolai Orlov, Oleg Kazakov, Olga Poveshchenko, Irina Kim, Natali Bondarenko, Tatjana Miller, Dmitri Strunkin, Alexei Kabakov, Tatjana Reiter, Vladimir Konenkov
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.33030

We studied the cytokine profile (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, interferon-γ, TNFα,) of the lymph, blood serum and conditioned medium of the lymph cells of Wistar rats. It was found that the concentration of cytokines investigated in the lymph of Wistar rats was significantly higher compared to the serum. Age and gender differences between the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lymph and blood serum were found. The concentration of the cytokines was determined using the test system “Bio-Rad”.

Level of Cytokines at Teenagers against the Background of Lambliasis Invasia  [PDF]
T. I. Ryabichenko, A. N. Trunov, G. A. Skosyreva, E. P. Timofeeva, T. V. Kartseva, T. G. Kosianova
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2014.42007
Abstract: The cytokines’ levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity, levels of lactoferrin, of the circulating immune complexes and the level of antibodies to antigens of the native deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are investigated. The purpose of investigation was to study the pathogenic features of clinical course of chronic lambliasis invasia at teenagers. The statistically significant hypercitokinemia owing to the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines with the highest concentration of IL-1β, IL-4, the high level of lactoferrin-protein of acute phase, the occurrence of markers of cellular damage, the high level of immune complexes and the stimulation of humoral link of immune system, the high level of antibodies to the antigen of native DNA, are registered. The obtained data may be used as additional diagnostic criteria of lambliasis invasia at teenagers.
Predictive Models of Clinical Improvement in Rituximab-Treated Myositis Patients Using Clinical Features, Autoantibodies, and Biomarkers  [PDF]
Jeannette M. Olazagasti, Cynthia S. Crowson, Molly S. Hein, Consuelo Lopez de Padilla, Rohit Aggarwal, Chester V. Oddis, Ann M. Reed
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2015.53012
Abstract: Background: Response to rituximab so far is unpredictable in patients with refractory myositis. Predictive models of clinical improvement are developed using clinical, laboratory, and gene expression/cytokine/chemokine variables in rituximab-treated refractory myositis patients. Methods: We analyzed data for 200 myositis patients (76 with adult polymyositis (PM), 76 with adult dermatomyositis (DM), and 48 with juvenile (DM)) in the rituximab in myositis trial. Clinical improvement is defined as the change from baseline to 24 weeks in Physician Global Visual Analog Scale (VAS). We analyze the association of baseline variables with improvements: demographics, myositis subtype, clinical and laboratory parameters, autoantibody status, and interferon (IFN)- regulated chemokines. Multivariable linear regression models are developed by using stepwise variable selection methods. Results: A “base” multivariable model to predict improvement with clinical and laboratory variablesonly is built with modest predictive ability (adjusted R2 = 0.21). This model includes two significant factors at baseline: Physician Global VAS and Muscle Disease Activity VAS. A “final” multivariable model to predict improvement including non-standard laboratory measures is developed and demonstrated better predictive ability (adjusted R2 = 0.32). This model includes Physician Global VAS, IFN chemokine score and IL-2 levels. The “final” model explained 11% more variability than the “base” model. Conclusions: Changes in disease activity over time following treatment with rituximab in refractory myositis can be predicted. These models can be clinically useful to optimize treatment selection in myositis.
Cytokines and endothelial adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1) in preeclampsia  [PDF]
Aleksandr Trunov, Olga Obukhova, Olga Gorbenko, Alya Shvayk, Lilia Trunova
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.43046

In the purpose of studing the pathogenetic features of the pathological process there were investigated cytokine levels with proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity, and also the indicators of endothelial dysfunction in blood serum women with moderate and severe preeclampsia. There were found high concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, and vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), which correlated with the severity of the process. Also a significant decrease in concentrations TGF-β2 and IL-10 insevere preeclampsia was indicated, which may testify the exhaustion of adaptive mechanisms and, apparently, can be an additional diagnostic criterion for the prediction and assessment of the severity of the pathological process.

Cytokines and T Helper Cells in Diabetic Nephropathy Pathogenesis  [PDF]
Liliane Silvano Araújo, Marcos Vinícius da Silva, Crislaine Aparecida da Silva, Maria Luiza Reis Monteiro, Lívia Helena de Morais Pereira, Laura Penna Rocha, Rosana Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Marlene Ant?nia Reis, Juliana Reis Machado
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.64025
Abstract: Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is considered the main cause of end stage kidney disease around the world. However, its pathogenesis is not completely established. More than just a direct consequence of chronic glycemic changes, recent studies had suggested Diabetic Nephropathy could be considered an inflammatory disease. It has been shown that concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-33, IFN-γ and TNF-α actively participate in development and progression of DN, and thus, are involved in pathogenesis. Besides, changes in acquired immune response, especially the presence of cellular immune response profiles of pro-inflammatory and effector nature, mainly Th1 and Th17, as the imbalance between interaction of cytokines and T regulatory cells, foment the onset and progression of DN. Here we summarize the main evidences that support the critical role of the immune system in this condition. These new conceptual advances in DN understanding are essential for development of new the rapeutical strategies and prognostic factors, which could be protagonists or adjuvants to the current ones, leading ultimately to a better clinical management of DN patients.
The Importance of Serum Cytokine Levels in Febrile Neutropenia
Nuray Buyukberber,H. Mehmet Turk
Arsiv Kaynak Tarama Dergisi , 2003,
Abstract: The most important evaluation of the neutropenic patients is to determine the risk group. The desired approach to patients with low risks should be either not to hospitalize or to hospitalize for a short period of time which both decreases the cost and exposure to the resistant flora. The early diagnosis of sepsis in patients with high risk may be life saving. Recently, the determination of low and high-risk groups only by the clinical variables is not found to be a reliable method. The laboratory parameters supported by the clinical variables may be more practical. The determination of serum cytokines levels in febrile neutropenia may be helpful for the early risk diagnosis, new treatment approaches, and prognosis. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(1.000): 12-19]
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