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Contraception Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Adolescents at Risk of Pregnancy in Northeastern Brazil  [PDF]
Gilka Paiva Oliveira Costa, Giulia Paiva Oliveira Costa, M?nica de Paula Farias, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes de Araújo
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.46046
Abstract:

Background: Contraceptive methods (CM) are important resources in the prevention of adolescent pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate adolescent knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Study Design: A cross-sectional and exploratory study was conducted with 7th to 9th grade adolescents in northeastern Brazil. Their knowledge, attitudes, and contraceptive method use were analysed by gender, age and sexual initiation groups. Results: A sexual debut had been experienced by 21% (n = 120) of all respondents (n = 570). The majority of the respondents who had experienced a sexual debut were male (73.3%, n = 88), their mean age was 15 years (SD = 1.46), and 49.3% (n = 59) never used any CM. The participants displayed low knowledge and unfavourable and ambivalent attitudes concerning contraception. Conclusion: Adolescents initiate sexual intercourse with knowledge and attitudes that limit the use of CM, which makes them more at risk of pregnancy. Further research that will be representative of the specific population in need of interventions is necessary.

Hormonal Contraception and Hypertension at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yalgado Ouédraogo Teaching Hospital: Epidemiological, Clinical and Therapeutic Patterns  [PDF]
Hyacinthe Zamané, Georges Millogo, Charlemagne Marie Ouédraogo, Yobi Alexis Sawadogo, Edmond Nongkouni, Sibraogo Kiemtoré, Sibraogo Kiemtoré, Dantola Paul Ka?n, Yirbar Kambiré, Jean Lankoandé
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.66049
Abstract: Context: The use of hormonal contraceptives could lead to a rise in blood pressure with an onset of hypertension. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic patterns of hypertension occurring in women on hormonal contraception. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out over a period of 5 years. It involved clients on hormonal contraception who developed hypertension during follow-up at the Family Planning Unit of the Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital in Burkina Faso. Results: The global frequency of hypertension in clients on hormonal contraception was 1.8%; it varied depending on the type of methods of contraception used; it was 4.2% for clients on oral combined pills, 1% for implant users and 0.97% for women on injectable. The mean age of patients was 35.6 ± 8.4 years. Sixty-seven patients (84.8%) had mild to moderate hypertension. The mean time to onset of hypertension was respectively seventeen (17), thirty six (36) and thirty eight (38) months for patients on OCPs, CIP, and implants. After the discovery of hypertension, the contraception methods have been changed in 75.9% of cases, stopped in 5.2% of cases and the same contraception method was continued in 8.9% of cases. None of the patients who continued the same contraceptive method had obtained a normalization of blood pressure. Blood pressure was normalized in 48.6% of patients who have changed contraceptive methods. The average time of normalization of the blood pressure varied from three to five months, depending on the method that induces the hypertension. Conclusion: Hypertension on hormonal contraception is not uncommon. It is important to assess the risk factors for its occurrence at the initiation of contraception.
Knowledge and Utilisation of Emergency Contraception Pills among Female Undergraduate Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Mwaniki Grace Nyambura, James N. Kiarie, Omenge Orang’o, Okubatsion Tekeste Okube
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.79100
Abstract: Background: Emergency Contraception (EC) is used after unprotected sexual intercourse, following sexual abuse, misuse of regular contraception or non-use of contraception. Seventeen percent of pregnancies in Kenya are unintended, potentially leading to unsafe abortion that contributes to the high maternal mortality rate in Country. According to 2016 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), the maternal mortality ratio was 362 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Female students in University or College are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and illegal abortions resulting in mortality, morbidity and psychosocial problems. Knowledge on EC is very important for students as they are not in stable relationships and not using regular contraception. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and use of Emergency Contraception among female undergraduate students in the University of Nairobi. Materials and Methods: We used an institution-based cross sectional, quantitative study to sample was employed among 383 female undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi. The University of Nairobi has six colleges and systematic random sampling was used to select study participants from each college. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS Version 16. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine sample characteristics significantly associated with knowledge and utilisation of Emergency Contraception. Results: Most (53%) of the respondents were sexually active, and only 20% of the sexually active female students had ever used Emergency Contraception. Emergency Contraception awareness was high at 86.4%. However, based on a predefined criterion, accurate knowledge of Emergency Contraception was low at 42.6%.The majority (82.5%) of the
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to Contraceptive Use among Teenagers in High Schools and Colleges in Dakar, Senegal  [PDF]
Ndèye Marème Sougou, Oumar Bassoum, Ndèye Yacine Seck, Mbathio Diop, Jean Baptiste Diouf, Mamadou Makhtar Mbacké Lèye, Anta Tal-Dia
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2019.93003
Abstract: Introduction: In Senegal, adolescents aged 10 to 19 years represent 22.9% of the total population. The unmet need for contraception in this part of the population remains high despite the health interventions implemented to promote their sexual health. The aim of this study is to analyze the practice of modern contraception in schools in Dakar high schools in Senegal during the year 2018. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in high schools and colleges in Dakar from March 1 to April 30, 2018. This study involved 452 students. This was a self-administration of the questionnaires. After univaried and bivaried analyses, a multivariate logistic analysis identified the factors associated with students’ use of modern contraception. Results: The prevalence of modern contraceptive use among students is 8.84%. Factors associated with the use of modern contraceptive methods among students were age over 18 years (AR: 4.7, 95% CI [1.02 - 22.5]), male sex (AR: 27.8, 95% CI [6.8 - 100.0]), secondary school level (AR: 10.6, 95% CI [2.1 - 53.0]), access to a youth socio-educational home (AR: 3.9, 95% CI [1.1 - 14.9]) and having a child (AR: 25.6, 95% CI [2.2 - 100.0]). Conclusion: Our results concluded that modern contraceptive needs were better met among older male students, those who had an unfortunate experience of unwanted pregnancy and those attending school’s youth socio-educational homes. This suggests shortcomings in the promotion of sexual health among younger students, particularly those in the secondary grades.
Contraception and Venous Thromboembolism: Risk Factors and Clinical Considerations  [PDF]
Ashley Waddington, Carrie Ferguson, Robert L. Reid
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.71003
Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a known risk with some forms of hormonal contraception, and should be considered by health care providers when counselling patients about their contraceptive options. Various other risk factors exist for VTE, including family history of VTE and a personal history of VTE or thrombophilia. This article will summarize various known risk factors for VTE, as well as what is known about the VTE risk imparted by the use of different contraceptives.
Post Abortion Choice and Acceptance of Contraception
Ashis Shrestha,P Sharma
Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/njog.v8i1.8854
Abstract: Aims: This study was conducted to find out choice and acceptance of contraceptives in clients coming for first trimester abortion. Methods : This was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out from the records of clients who received comprehensive abortion care service in first trimester at Kasthamandap health care centre from June 2008 to June 2010. Results : Total 707 clients came for abortion who fulfilled inclusion criteria. Contraceptive acceptance was 49.5%. Most frequently used contraceptives were injectable (depot medroxyprogesterone) 22.8%, oral contraceptive pills 19.6%, condom 6.1%, intra-uterine contraceptive device 0.8% and norplant 0.3%. Conclusions: This study showed a low acceptance rate of contraception. This suggests the need for reviewing the policy of post abortion contraception. The study also highlighted that depot provera was the most accepted contraception. Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology / Vol 8 / No. 1 / Issue 15 / Jan- June, 2013 / 14-17 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njog.v8i1.8854
Estudio descriptivo sobre el uso de la anticoncepción de emergencia en Catalu?a: comparación entre una zona rural y una urbana
Ros,Clara; Miret,Marta; Rué,Montse;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112009000600002
Abstract: objective: in the last few years, the number of unplanned pregnancies has increased, especially in young women. among other measures, emergency contraception (ec) was introduced by the health department to reduce unwanted pregnancies. the aim of this study was to analyze ec use in catalonia, and to compare a rural with an urban area (lleida province and the metropolitan area of barcelona). methods: we performed a descriptive study that included 17,149 women of fertile age who sought access to the ec pill between october 2004 and august 2007. data were provided by the maternal/infant health program of the public health department. results: ec was used primarily by women between 16 and 24 years of age, usually on the weekends. most of these women (78.5%) had used ec twice and only 1.8% had used this medication once. consumption was higher in lleida, with a comparative utilization figure and 95% confidence interval of 1.42 (1.35-1.50) with respect to barcelona. conclusions: the finding that ec use was higher in younger women coincides with the goal of distributing this medication. ec seems not to be associated with a decrease in voluntary pregnancy terminations. more reproductive information is required from all the actors involved in policies and health interventions, encouraging healthier sexual behavior.
CONTRACEPCION DE EMERGENCIA: EFECTO POSTFERTILIZACION DEL LEVONORGESTREL
Busquets C.,Maritza;
Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-75262003000200012
Abstract: for patients and physicians who believe that human life begins at fertilization, a method of birth control that has the potential for interrupting development after fertilization may not be acceptable. doctors must be informed to answer the patient's question: does emergency contraception act by destroying a recently formed embryo? to assess this possibility in regard to levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive we present a brief abstract and critic analysis of each of those papers that are actually -up to july 2002- considered in the discussion about the mechanisms of action of levonorgestrel. we included three aditional papers about clinical effectiveness in regard to levonorgestrel and yuzpe regimen that we considered important to help the physicians in making their own decision. we concluded a postfertilization effect cannot be excluded with certainty
Anticoncepción en la adolescencia
Cruz Hernández,Jeddú; Yanes Quesada,Marelis; Isla Valdés,Ariadna; Hernández García,Pilar; Velasco Boza,Alejandro;
Revista Cubana de Endocrinolog?-a , 2007,
Abstract: at the present time, two of more important medical-social problem affecting youth is the non-desirable pregnancy and sexual communicable diseases, and use of contraceptive methods may be a solution for both. altough adolescents know many of these contraceptive methods most dont use it because of a lack of proper information, by shame, and lack of health services and advise assuring them the necessesary privacy and confidentiality. in our practice we performed a review of contraceptive methods available at presente time, emphasizing on it use during adolescence, its advantages and disadvantages, with regard to its use in this life stage.
SAFETY OF IUCD (COPPER -T )
ROBINA ALI
The Professional Medical Journal , 2002,
Abstract: The role of family planning in preventing maternal deaths and improving the quality of women’s lives is one of the key380 strategies of the safe, motherhood initiative. OBJECTIVES: To study the safety and efficacy of IUCD (copper T ) asa contraceptive device. DESIGN: Prospective study. PERIOD: 18 months from 1 January 1994 to 31 June 1995. st stSETTING: DHQ Hospital Faisalabad. PATIENTS & METHODS: 500 women were selected for IUCD insertion.Insertions were performed on healthy sexually active women who had requested contraception and had no contraindicationfor the fitting of an IUCD. Clinical follow up was scheduled. RESULTS: IUCD especially the last generation of copper380 releasing device i.e. copper T , seems to be one of the most appropriate contraceptive method for a developing country likePakistan. CONCLUSION: IUCD is a highly effective method of contraception with patient acceptances as good as forother reversible methods such as the pill.
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