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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 795 matches for " constraints. "
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On the Concavity of the Consumption Function with a Quadratic Utility under Liquidity Constraints  [PDF]
Shin-Ichi Nishiyama, Ryo Kato
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25104
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the concavity of the consumption function of infinitely living households under liquidity constraints who are not prudent—i.e. with a quadratic utility. The concavity of the consumption function is closely related to the 3-convexity of the value function.


Assessment of commercial feedlot finishing practices at eastern Shoa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tsegay Teklebrhan, Mengistu Urge
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.34041
Abstract: This study was conducted to characterize and identify husbandry practice and major constraints of commercial feedlot industries in the study area. Forty eight commercial feedlot farms were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that, livestock species such as cattle, shoat and camels were used in commercial fattening though significant variation in demand among species. Cattle had got the highest acceptance in feedlot industries followed by shoat, however, camel and swine had least preference. All cattle breeds were granted equal requirement by domestic market. However, there is variation in demand among cattle breeds for export market. Boran was the most preferred cattle breed compared to the rest of cattle by the importers. Uncastrated bull demanded for export market however, castrated and female cattle were not used for export markets. Pastoralists were the potential supplier of feeder livestock followed by small holders to feedlot industries. Teff straw was predominantly used roughage feed in most of commercial feedlot farms and agro-industrial by-products as a source of concentrate. However, sorghum and maize grains were utilized by very few farms. Vitamin and mineral supplementation were not often available except common salt in all feedlot rations. Market was noted as the most potential constraints followed by feed and type of livestock coming to the markets in the commercial feedlot industries. The study suggested that, government and other development partners should provide and improve all services to pastoralists or producers in an organized way at their localities to ensure sustainable supply of livestock to the market.
The Influence of the Combination of “Industrial and Financial” on the Investment Efficiency and Financial Constraints of Listed Companies
—A Research Based on Holding Non-Listed Financial Institution of Listing Corporations in China
 [PDF]

Houhui Lv
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.94039
Abstract: This paper conducts an empirical analysis based on the unbalanced panel data of China’s A-share non-financial listed companies in 2011-2016, and uses Richarson’s residual error measurement model to study the influence of the integration of industrial and financial on investment efficiency. To explore the mechanism of the integration of industrial and financial on investment efficiency, this paper further uses a cash-cash flow sensitivity model to study the influence of the integration of industrial and financial on financing constraints. Results show that the integration of industrial and financial can improve the investment efficiency of listed companies. The integration of industrial and financial can mitigate underinvestment by mitigating financing constraints.
Challenges and Constraints in Irrigation and Drainage Development: A World-Wide View  [PDF]
Marco Medici, Daniele De Wrachien
Voice of the Publisher (VP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/vp.2016.22002
Abstract: In order to increase food production it is necessary to better understand all the factors underlying short term operations and long term strategies that lead to improve food security. In this regard any good effect deriving from agricultural research is strictly connected to a more accurate estimation of crops resources requirements, to major improvements in the use of irrigation and drainage systems, to a better understand of climatic variability. All the variables involved show strong dependency on both place and time. The failing of past, present and future systems can be essentially attributed to poor agricultural research planning, to incorrect agricultural systems design and resource allocation and to a not complete capacity to cope with short and long-term global climatic behavior.
Entrepreneurial Orientation and Financial Resources Availability as Determinants of Firms’ Growth  [PDF]
Mario Mustilli, Eugenio D’Angelo, Francesco Campanella, Domenico Graziano
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.82021
Abstract: The purpose of this empirical paper is to investigate the determinants of firms’ growth during different financial cycles. In particular, we analyze the relationship between firms’ growth and their entrepreneurial orientation. In addition, we investigate how firms’ financial constraints moderate the relation between entrepreneurial orientation and growth before and during financial crisis. We test our hypotheses with an OLS regression model run on a sample of 382 European listed firms between 2003 and 2012. We found that entrepreneurial orientation is a determinant of firms’ growth and that during the period of crisis this relation is slightly exacerbated. Furthermore, we found that financial constraints only slightly attenuate the entrepreneurial orientation prediction of growth, which may mean that when firm is more financial constraint could be forced to increase its entrepreneurial orientation in order to maintain a higher growth rate.
CONSTRAINTS FACED BY WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS
Ms. Meenakshi
International Journal of Management (IJM) ,
Abstract: Entrepreneurship is the core of economic development. It is a multi dimensional task and essentially a creative activity. Entrepreneurship is the back bone of the economy. Women entrepreneurship is a recent phenomena and the process has to face various problems. Therefore, this study was conducted on 100 women entrepreneurs selected through random sampling technique from Sonipat and Rohtak, Haryana. Nursing homes, boutiques, beauty parlous, utensil store, training and education institution, general stores, jewelry shops and tailor shops were the enterprises selected for study. The objectives of the end over were to ascertain the financial, marketing, social, domestic and production constraints by women in their enterpris
Study on Delaunay Triangulation with the Islets Constraints  [PDF]
Dong Wei, Xinghua Liu
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2010.26045
Abstract: Aiming at Delaunay triangulation with islets constrains in terrain simulation. A general Delaunay triangulation algorithm for constrained data set with islets is proposed. The algorithm firstly constructs Constrained Delaunay Triangulation with constraint polygons which are inner boundary of islets, then according to topological relations within edge, surface, arc segment, applies bidirectional search to find the triangle in islet, lastly it carries on certain corresponding processing to complete the Delaunay triangulation algorithm with islets. The analyses show the algorithm simple, fast speed. The algorithm can be used in 3-D terrain vision.
Competency and constraints of higher education and research institutions for rural transformation in the Amhara region, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Getachew Alemayehu, Sisay Yehuala, Yonas Worku, Zerihun Nigussie, Girmachew Seraw
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.35092
Abstract: Ethiopia is an agrarian country and agriculture is the backbone of its economy. Consequently, the government of Ethiopia has devised Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) as the country’s overall economic development policy. For the last 15 years, public investment towards the expansion of higher education, research and extension in agriculture has been so enormous. In reality, however, these higher education and research institutions were not sufficiently responsive to rural transformation. Thus, to evaluate the role of higher education and research institutions in stimulating rural transformation and to identify main training constraints accountable for their poor performances in institutional learning and rural transformation is of paramount importance. To this effect focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted. Stratified and purposive sampling technique was dominantly employed during the survey studies. The result of the study has shown that higher education and research institutions were less responsive to address the actual problems of small-scale farmers and they were limited by a number of constraints/challenges to address the actual problems of farmers. The major constraints were, to list some, limited involvement in research and extension works by the university staff, students limited practical attachments of the training programmes with farming communities, limited infrastructures and facilities and limited availability of contextualized learning resources. In addressing the aforesaid constraints/challenges, the university staff should proportionally allocate time in the research and extension activities on top of practical teaching supported by local research results and experience; involving students on practical attachments both in their academic and vacation time; giving emphasis on basic training preparation like fulfilling libraries, laboratories, demonstration fields and transportation facilities; and lastly to revise the existing curriculum in to the direction of solving the real problems of the Amhara region then the country Ethiopia.
Credit Constraints and Decisions in Exports: Theory under Asymmetric Information  [PDF]
Xin Zhang
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2012.23026
Abstract: This paper examines why credit constraints for domestic and exporting firms arise in a setting where banks do not observe firms’ productivities. To maintain incentive-compatibility, banks lend below the amount needed for first-best production. The longer time needed for export shipments induces a tighter credit constraint on exporters than on purely domestic firms, even in the exporters’ home market. Greater risk faced by exporters also affects the credit extended by banks. Extra fixed costs reduce exports on the extensive margin, but can be offset by collateral held by exporting firms.
Financial Crisis in Retrospect: Bad Luck or Bad Policies?  [PDF]
Gregory M. Dempster, Justin P. Isaacs
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.41013
Abstract:

It is generally acknowledged that many recent financial crises, in both emerging and mature markets, are characterized by large scale coordination problems with common origins. Despite minimal consensus on their primary causes, most prominent theories suggest that these financial crises can be classified as either the result of bad policies or bad luck. In this paper, we attempt to outline the sources of coordination failure in financial markets due to the “soft budget constraints” produced by time-inconsistent policies in combination with elastic expectations on the part of financial investors. Thus, in our framework, financial crisis is conceived as the result of both bad policies and bad luck. That is, it results from a mismatch of institutional arrangements to the realities of human behavior.

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