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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1211 matches for " conserved forage "
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Consumo de Morera (Morus alba) fresca mezclada con ensilaje de maíz por el ganado Jersey en crecimiento
Agronomía Mesoamericana , 2010,
Abstract: intake of fresh mulberry (morus alba) and corn silage by jersey steers. in order to determine the consumption of mulberry in combination with corn silage at different levels of inclusion in growing jersey heifers, a study was carried out at the experimental station alfredo volio mata, of the university of costa rica, located in ochomogo, cartago, costa rica, during year 2007. three different mixtures of fresh mulberry with corn silage were offered in proportions (mulberry:silaje) of 36:64, 46:54 and 56:44, respectively. nine jersey steers between 200 and 311 kg were used. samples of the offered and rejected materials were collected to analyze the dry material, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total ashes. there were no significant differences in consumption by animals between treatments or between bromatological levels regardless of the proportion of inclusion of the mulberry.
Degrada o ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com silagem de sorgo contendo tanino suplementado com concentrado ou uréia = Ruminal degradability and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed sorghum silages with tannin supplemented with concentrate or urea
Simone Gisele de Oliveira,Telma Teresinha Berchielli,Márcio dos Santos Pedreira,Juliano José de Resende Fernandes
Acta Scientiarum : Animal Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Determinaram-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS) e a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e a eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana em animais que consomem dietas contendo silagem de sorgo com diferentes teores de tanino. A degrada o in situfoi avaliada por meio da incuba o ruminal de silagens de sorgo contendo nível 1 (N1) e nível 2 (N2) de tanino por 0, 6, 24, 48 e 96h. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino4 x 4 duplicado. Os valores de degradabilidade potencial (DP) da MS foram semelhantes entre as silagens, enquanto a degradabilidade efetiva (DE) nas silagens foi reduzida ao adicionar concentradoà dieta. O fluxo de nitrogênio microbiano e a eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana n o foram afetados pela fonte de volumoso. Houve maior eficiência de síntese, expressa em rela o à matériaorganica e energia bruta digeridas no rúmen, nas dietas com silagem N1, quando as dietas foram suplementadas com concentrado. N o foi possível estabelecer rela o consistente entre a presen a de taninos e os parametros de degrada o ruminal. This work aimed to determine ruminal parameters of dry mater (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and protein synthesis in the rumen of animals fed diets based on sorghum with different tannin levels. In situ degradation was evaluated by rumen incubation of level 1 (L1) and level 2 (L2) sorghum silages during 0, 6, 24, 48 and 96 hours. A duplicated 4 x 4 Latin Square was used. Potential degradability (PD) of DM was similar among silages, whereas the effectivedegradability (ED) decreased when the diets were supplemented with concentrate. Microbial nitrogen flux and microbial synthesis efficiency were not affected by roughage source. The synthesis efficiency, expressed in organic matter and crude protein digested inrumen, was higher in L1 tannin diets supplemented with concentrate. There was not relationship between the presence of tannins and the parameters of ruminal degradation.
Produ o e qualidade do leite de vacas da ra a Holandesa alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst) = Production and quality of milk from Holstein cows fed stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst)
Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior,Clóves Cabreira Jobim,Daniele Cristina da Silva,Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom
Acta Scientiarum : Animal Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade do leite produzido por vacas da ra a Holandesa no ter o final da lacta o, alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela com aplica o de inoculante ou uréia em rela o à silagem de milho. Foram avaliadas silagens de grama estrela com aplica o de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano na dosagem de 80 g deinoculante/tonelada, uréia na dosagem de 7 kg t-1 e silagem de milho. Para avalia o do desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade foram utilizadas seis vacas da ra a Holandesas com peso médio de 480 kg distribuídas em delineamento (duplo) quadrado latino (3 x 3). Asdigestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram maiores para a silagem de milho. O fornecimento de silagens de grama estrela com aditivo e com uréia n o interferiu na produ o e qualidade do leite, mostrando-se como alternativa para sistemas de produ o animal com base emvolumosos conservados mediante a análise econ mica da substitui o da silagem de milho. The study aimed to evaluate animal performance and quality of milk from Holstein cows during the final third period of lactation fed stargrass silages supplied with inoculant or urea in relation to corn silage. Stargrass silages with enzymatic-bacterial inoculant (80 g of additive/ton of silage), urea supply (7 kg t-1) and corn silage were evaluated. Six Holstein cows with an average body weight of 480 kg were allocated in a double Latin square design (3 x 3). Corn silagepresented the highest values of DM, CP and NDF digestibility when compared to stargrass silages. Supplying Holstein cows with stargrass silages with additive and urea did not promote any effect on production and milk quality. Thus, it can be an alternative in animalproduction systems based on conserved roughage, depending on economical analysis for the replacement of corn silage.
Silagem de cereais de inverno submetidos ao manejo de duplo propósito
Meinerz, Gilmar Roberto;Olivo, Clair Jorge;Viégas, Julio;N?rnberg, José Laerte;Agnolin, Carlos Alberto;Scheibler, Rudolf Brand;Horst, Tiago;Fontaneli, Renato Serena;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011001000005
Abstract: the objective of this research was to evaluate the silage of 12 genotypes of six species of double purpose winter cereals (forage and grains) submitted to harvest at depress?o central region of rio grande do sul state. species and genotypes tested were: brs 277, brs guatambu, brs tarum? and brs umbu wheat; agro zebu, upfa 21 - moreninha and commom black-oat; upf 18 white oat; br 1 and brs serrano rye; brs marciana barley; and brs 148 triticale. genotypes were submitted to tree harvests with the objective to simulate grazing, according to double purpose management. after the third harvest, the development of cultures was permitted for silage production. the genotypes were distributed in 36 experimental plots in a completely randomized experimental design with 12 treatments (genotypes) and three replications (plots). silages were made in pvc experimental silos when forages achieved phenological stage of soft dough. fermentative parameters, dry matter production, structural and botanical composition of ensilage material and nutritive value of silages were determined. br 1 rye and upf 18 white oat presented the highest dry matter yield. brs umbu wheat produced silage with higher grain participation and better nutritive value. all genotypes presented satisfactory conditions for ensilage
Predi??o dos fracionamentos de proteínas de Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu utilizando RNA
Brennecke,K.; Tech,A.R.B.; Arce,A.I.C.; Luz,P.H.C.; Herling,V.R.; Costa,E.J.X.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011,
Abstract: this paper aims to connect morphogenetic variables of forage and climatic data, with protein fractions (a, b1, b2, b3 and c) through the artificial neural networks known as multi-layer perceptron, with three layers and algorithm training based on back-propagation of error gradient, in order to create a model to predict the protein fractions of fodder from their morphogenetic characteristics and climate. the data used for training and the test were collected in an experiment that was conducted on a 25.2 ha experimental area, located at 47o26'w, 21o59's, and with pasture composed of brachiaria brizantha cv marandu, in a completely randomized block, with four replicates and a forage allowance of 5% (5 kg of dry matter per 100 kg animal.day-1). each block was divided into four experimental units of 1.575 ha, with five paddocks of 0.315 ha each. samples were taken two days before the entry of animals, protein was analysed at laboratory to subsequently be compared with the values estimated by the network. thus, by comparing the output of the network and those obtained by laboratory analysis, it was possible to calculate the average error for fractions a, b1, b2, b3 and c proteins and, thus, can be concluded that the model mlp is able to efficiently predict protein fractions of brachiaria brizantha.
Evaluation of presenting conserved foods
Asl Soleimani H,Poor Reza A,Nafisee Gh,Maani S
Tehran University Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.
Growth, Yield and Quality Performance of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum americanum L.)  [PDF]
Mahmood Ul Hassan, Azraf-ul-Haq Ahmad, Shahid Ibni Zamir, Ihtishamul Haq, Farhan Khalid, Tassadduq Rasool, Adil Hussain
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.515235

Livestock industry of Pakistan is expanding day by day. To meet its growing demand high fodder yielding and nutritious varieties of fodder crops are needed. Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) is an excellent choice for this purpose. In order to explore the possibility of the better yield potential varieties of pearl millet performed in a good manner under agro ecological conditions of Faisalabad during the year 2012. A field experiment was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications; the net plot size was 1.8 m × 6 m. The experiment was comprised of nine millet varieties named Cholistani Bajra, Barani Bajra, MB-87, Sargodha Bajra 2011, 18-BY, Super Bajra-1, PARC-MS-2, 86-M-52 and FB-822. All other agronomic practices were kept normal and constant. Data on yield and yield components were recorded by standard procedure. Significant results were recorded among the varieties for forage growth and yield. The variety 86-M-52 produced maximum forage and dry matter yield because of more number of leaves (14), leaf area (3540.1 cm2) followed by Sargodha Bajra-2011. All cultivars have statistically significant differences in respect of quality characteristics. However, non-significant differences were observed among cultivars regarding ash

Nutrient Composition of Pastures in Kayunga District, Uganda: A Preliminary Investigation with Implications for Seasonal Supplementation in Grazing Ruminants  [PDF]
Ellen S. Dierenfeld, Ben Lukuyu, David Nyagaka
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.57111

Proximate nutrient composition (crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, crude fiber, and ash), fiber fractions (neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin), and both macro (calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), and sulfur (S)) and trace (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn)) mineral profiles were quantified in mixed pasture samples collected during the wet (n = 8) and dry (n = 15) seasons in north central Uganda. Metabolizable and Net Energy values for dairy production were estimated based on standard calculations, and samples were compared seasonally. Crude fat (p = 0.05) and lignin (p = 0.01) values were lower in the dry compared with the wet season, linked with reduced plant growth. Crude protein (13.0% of dry matter (DM)), fiber fractions, and calculated energy content did not vary seasonally in this data set, and reflected chemical components of a grass-dominated system that appeared energetically limiting for production livestock. Mineral constituents varied more dramatically by season, with Ca, Mg, Cu, and Mn lower (all < 0.05) and K higher in the dry season. Sodium was deficient in these pastures, whereas Ca, P, Mg, S, Cu, and Zn concentrations may have been only marginally sufficient, particularly to meet needs for lactation, dependent on season. These limited data suggest that a high-energy mineral supplement may prove beneficial in meeting nutritional and production needs of multiple grazing ruminant species in this region, particularly during dry seasons.

Validation of a Technique for Estimating Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Biomass from Canopy Volume  [PDF]
Christopher G. Misar, Lan Xu, Arvid Boe, Roger N. Gates, Patricia S. Johnson, Andrew E. Olson
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.71023
Abstract: Determining biomass production of individual alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants in space planted evaluation studies is generally not feasible. Clipping plants is time consuming, expensive, and often not possible if the plants are subjected to grazing. A regression function (B′ = 0.72558 + 0.11638 × V′) was developed from spaced plants growing on rangeland in northwestern South Dakota near Buffalo to nondestructively estimate individual plant biomass (B) from canopy volume (V). However, external validation is necessary to effectively apply the model to other environments. In the summer of 2015, new data to validate the model were collected from spaced plants near Brookings, South Dakota. Canopy volume and clipped plant biomass were obtained from ten alfalfa populations varying in genetic background, growth habit, and growth stage. Fitted models for the model-building and validation data sets had similar estimated regression coefficients and attributes. Mean squared prediction errors (MSPR) were similar to or smaller than error mean square (MSE) of the model-building regression model, indicating reasonable predictive ability. Validation results indicated that the model reliably estimated biomass of plants in another environment. However, the technique should not be utilized where individual plants are not easily distinguished, such as alfalfa monocultures. Estimating biomass from canopy volume values that are extrapolations (>2.077 × 106 cm3) of the model-building data set is not recommended.
Mothbean: A Potential Summer Crop for the Southern Great Plains  [PDF]
Gurjinder S. Baath, Brian K. Northup, Prasanna H. Gowda, Kenneth E. Turner, Alex C. Rocateli
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.97101
Low nutritive value of available warm-season grasses during July through September limits the production of yearling stocker cattle in the southern Great Plains (SGP). There has been a continual exploration of species with the capacity to provide high quality forage during summer. Mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia [Jacq.] Marechal), a short-duration, drought tolerant crop is a promising choice for the SGP. This preliminary study evaluated the potential of mothbean as a summer crop for forage, grain or green manure. Results of this study with 10 mothbean lines from a range of geographic locations suggested that crop could be harvested 100 days after planting with dry biomass yield range of 7.3 - 18.1 Mg·ha-1. Mothbean forage contained 10.8% - 14.6% crude protein (CP), 32.0% - 41.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 20.7% - 29.6% acid detergent fiber (ADF), and 73% - 84% in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) at maturity. Grain yield of the 10 mothbean lines varied from 91 to 1040 kg·ha-1. The 10 tested lines generated a high amount of nitrogen (N) rich biomass at maturity with total accumulated N of 163 - 316 kg·ha-1 and a C:N ratio of 16:1 to 22:1. Overall, performance indicators suggested that mothbean has considerable potential as an alternative crop for production of forage, grain, or green manure when grown as summer crop in rotation with winter wheat. Future research should focus on evaluating mothbean within different crop settings to define its capacity as green manure or summer forage to support production of stocker cattle in the SGP.
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