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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2823 matches for " common bean "
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Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Phaseolus vulgaris Plants from Non-Cryopreserved and Cryopre-served Seeds  [PDF]
Inaudis Cejas, Roberto Méndez, Ariel Villalobos, Felix Palau, Carlos Aragón, Florent Engelmann, Domenico Carputo, Riccardo Aversano, Marcos Edel Martínez, José Carlos Lorenzo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.44103
Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate if cryostorage of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds induced variations in regenerated plants at the phenotypic and molecular levels. A series of agricultural traits was measured on plants grown from control, non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved seeds, and the genetic stability of plants of the second generation was analysed at selected microsatellite loci. The phenotype of the second generation plants was evaluated as well. No statistically significant phenotypic differences were observed for the parameters measured, neither in the first nor in the second generations. Averaging both treatments, about 76% of the seeds had germinated 10 days after sowing. At harvest we recorded plants with about 73 cm in height, 13 stem internodes, 25 fruits, 103 grains and 4 grains per fruit. One hundred seeds weighted about 26 g. The genetic analyses performed on the second generation plants using six nuclear Simple Sequences Repeats (SSR) markers revealed no changes in microsatellite length between control and cryopreserved samples, implying that there was no effect of seed liquid nitrogen exposure on genome integrity. The phenotypic and molecular results reported here confirm that cryostorage is an efficient and reliable technique to conserve P. vulgaris seeds and regenerate true-to-type

Phenolic Compound Profiles of Two Common Beans Consumed by Rwandans  [PDF]
Owino Joseph, Mukashyaka Phelomene, Ndayisaba Helene, Habimana Valens, Ongol Martin Patrick, Dil Thavarajah, Pushparajah Thavarajah
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520310
Abstract: Legumes are high-protein, medium-energy and micronutrient-rich food consumed in many parts of the world including Africa. This study evaluated the levels of specific phenolic compounds in three legumes. Two varieties of the common bean, (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.) from Rwanda were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The phenolic compounds were identified by comparison to the chromatographic retention times and UV spectra of known reference compounds. This study results clearly shows the presence of 11 different phenolic compounds in common beans: gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (–)-epicatechin, caffeic acid, o-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, 4-hydrobenzoic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid and vanillic acid. The concentration ranged from 0.59 to 2.27 mg/kg for epicatechin. High levels of catechin (13.5 to 57.9 mg/kg) ferulic acid (26.1 to 47.6 mg/kg) were also observed. Therefore, the results of this study show that Rwandan common beans are a good source of phenolic acids in particular catechins and ferulic acid.
Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Selection with Fungus Filtrate (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) on the in Vitro Culture of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)  [PDF]
Laura Y. Solís-Ramos, Marta Valdez-Melara, Ricardo Alvarado-Barrantes, Floribeth Mora-Uma?a, Eduardo Hernández-Jiménez, Natalia Barboza-Vargas, Pilar Ramírez-Fonseca
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.616269
Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of gamma irradiation (dose from 10 to 100 Gy) and in vitro selection with fungus filtrate as selecting agent (concentration from 20% to 100%) on the susceptibility of the common bean to Rhizoctonia solani. The best results were found with a dose of 20 Gy or a concentration of 20% of fungus filtrate applied separately. These conditions were used to evaluate the combined effect of both approaches in a second experiment. The combined effect of irradiation and then selection adversely affected growth (height and roots) and survival of the in vitro plants. It may not be necessary to combine the variation generated by irradiation with the selection technique. For future assays we propose the application of: 1) gamma radiation, thereby inducing not only mutants with pathogen resistance, but also with other agronomic traits of interest. Later in the subculture MV4 potential fungus-resistant mutants will be evaluated in the field; or 2) selection pressure using fungus filtrate during three subcultures, which may be sufficient to induce the variation necessary to obtain in vitro plants resistant to fungus.
Hydrodynamic Modelling, Thermodynamic and Textural Variations during Common Beans Soaking  [PDF]
E. M. Kwofie, O. I. Mba, M. Ngadi
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2019.91003
Abstract: Hydrodynamic characteristics and its associated thermodynamic and textural variation of three common Malawian beans varieties (Boma, Sugar and Mandondo) during soaking were evaluated at four temperature regimes (25°C, 35°C, 45°C and 55°C). The equilibrium water uptake of 127% ± 5% was reached in 10, 6, and 4 hours respectively, for 25°C, 35°C and 45°C. Not much variation was observed between 45°C and 55°C except for sugar beans where equilibrium water uptake was reached within two hours of soaking at 55°C. Three models namely Peleg, two-parameter Mitscherlich model and viscoelastic model were used to evaluate the comparative predicting capabilities of the bean hydrodynamic characteristics. All models predicted the water absorption accurately (R2 > 0.903, RMSE < 4.95). In addition, the viscoelastic model gave a good prediction for the two water absorption phases. The impact of temperature and time on moisture transfer rate and bean hardness showed the activation kinetic parameters to be between 25 - 65 kJ/mol. Sugar beans were found to be the least hard. At room temperature, its hardness reduced by 58% within 2 hours of soaking. At higher temperature (55°C) hardness values were reduced to
Alternative procedures for parent choice in a breeding program for the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Oliveira, L.B.;Ramalho, M.A.P.;Abreu, A. de F.B.;Ferreira, D.F.;
Brazilian Journal of Genetics , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84551996000400014
Abstract: six common bean cultivars were crossed in diallel and the segregant populations were assessed in the f2 and f3 generations to compare methodologies for parental selection in a breeding program based on hybridization. the cultivars involved in the diallel were a 114, a 77, esal 686, milionário, carioca, and flor de mayo. the segregant f2 and f3 generations were assessed on the experimental campus of the universidade federal de larvas, in july 1994. it was found that the cultivars differed in their general combining ability (gca). flor de mayo, which belongs to the durango race, had the largest positive gca estimate for grain field, and the cultivars from the mesoamerican race, milionário and a 114, the smallest gca estimates. for flowering, the cultivar that most contributed to reduced plant cycle was esal 686. there was agreement among the results obtained from the diallel and the estimates of the parameter m + a of the populations. however, it was evident that the estimate of genetic variance of the populations should be considered as a condition to identify the hybrid population that will produce a line with high performance.
Quantifica??o de Polifenóis e Digestibilidade Protéica de Famílias de Feijoeiro Comum
Mendon?a, Carla Viviane C. Egg;Abreu, Celeste M. Patto de;Corrêa, Angelita Duarte;Santos, Custódio Donizete dos;Morais, Augusto Ramalho de;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542003000400018
Abstract: common beans are one of the most important food crops in brazil and are cultivated in almost all brazilian states. it is an important protein source for brazilian people in both rural and urban areas. the present work performed the quantification of phenolic compounds and in vitro protein digestibility of one hundred common bean lines (phaseolus vulgaris l.) obtained by crossing the genotypes "amarelinho" and ci 107. the results suggested that the phenolic compounds affected bean cooking traits and quality through darkening and hardening of the seed coat. phenolic compounds also influenced the in vitro protein digestibility. it was observed that all 13 lines presented low levels of phenolic compounds and good in vitro protein digestibility and, as a result, must be incorporated in the breeding programs for this important crop.
Exposure of Common Bean Seeds to Liquid Nitrogen Modifies Mineral Composition of Young Plantlet Leaves  [PDF]
Inaudis Cejas, Annekathrin Rumlow, Ariel Turcios, Florent Engelmann, Marcos Edel Martínez, Lourdes Yabor, Jutta Papenbrock, José Carlos Lorenzo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.712152
Abstract: Many publications describe cryopreservation techniques but only a few studies have focused on the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in plants regenerated from seeds exposed to liquid nitrogen. This paper aims at describing the effect of common bean seed cryostorage on mineral nutrition of young plantlets. The following elements were measured on leaves of 10-day-old plantlets from non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved seeds: Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S, Se, Sr and Zn. At 10 days after sowing, both treatments (control and cryopreserved seeds) showed 100% seed germination without any visual phenotypic difference. However, contents of several elements in the leaves were different. Exposure of seeds to liquid nitrogen decreased Cu, Cd and Na uptake and increased absorption of B and Al. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between seed exposure to liquid nitrogen and mineral nutrition during the early stages of plantlet growth.
Prospective Bioactive Compounds from Vernonia amygdalina, Lippia javanica, Dysphania ambrosioides and Tithonia diversifolia in Controlling Legume Insect Pests  [PDF]
Regina W. Mwanauta, Kelvin A. Mtei, Patrick A. Ndakidemi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.512123
Abstract: Synthetic insecticides are widely known to control insect pest, but due to high operational cost, environmental pollution, toxicity to humans, harmful effect on non-target organisms and the development of insect resistance to this products, have created the need for developing alternative such as those involving the use of botanical pesticides to control insect pest. Bioactive compounds derived from plant could be an alternative source for insect pest control because they constitute a rich source of natural chemicals. This review aims to explore the potential of plant bioactive compounds from Vernonia amygdalina, Lippia javanica, Dysphania ambrosioides and Tithonia diversifolia as a low-cost, safe and environmentally friendly means of controlling insect pests in legumes.
Modified Bean Seed Protein Phaseolin Did Not Accumulate Stably in Transgenic Tobacco Seeds after Methionine Enhancement Mutations  [PDF]
Eric Lasserre, T. S. Ko, John M. Dyer, Norimoto Murai
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.65069
Abstract: The major seed storage protein phaseolin of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is deficient in methionine, an essential amino acid for human and animal health. To improve the nutritional quality of common bean, we designed methionine enhancement of phaseolin based on the three-dimensional structure of protein, de novo design principles and genetic information. Amino acid substitution and loop insertion were targeted to the interior and exterior, respectively, of the protein’s β-barrels. First, we introduced the methionine enhancement mutations into phaseolin cDNA, expressed cDNA in Escherichia coli and purified monomeric non-glycosylated proteins. Biophysical analysis of E. coli-expressed proteins demonstrated a similar structural stability of wild-type and mutant phaseolin monomers. Here, we attempted to test the structural stability of the methionine-enhanced phaseolin by introducing phaseolin cDNA to tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of leaf disks, regenerating transgenic tobacco plants, and examining the accumulation of phaseolin protein in mature transgenic tobacco seeds. We used seven constructs containing different extents of methionine enhancement, ranging from the original 3 to maximum 33 methionines per 397 amino acid residues. ELISA analyses indicated that the methionine-enhanced phaseolins did not accumulate as stably in mature transgenic tobacco seeds as the wild-type phaseolin. It seems likely that the methionine-enhanced phaseolin proteins were under the stringent scrutiny of the protein quality control mechanism in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex and/or vacuolar protein bodies. The protein degradation is probably to occur in the vacuolar protein bodies due to the instability of the trimer assembly caused by the methionine enhancement mutations targeting either amino-acids substitutions or/and loop insertions to the interior β-sheets and tum/loop regions, respectively, of N- and C-barrel structures.
Caracteriza??o de um isolado do Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) de Minas Gerais e estimativa de perdas em feijoeiro em infec??o simples ou em conjunto com o BCMV
Castillo-Urquiza, Gloria P.;Maia, Felipe G.M.;Carvalho, Murilo G.;Pinto, Cleide M.F.;Zerbini, F. Murilo;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582006000500004
Abstract: bean plants of the cultivar novirex, showing an atypical pod curling symptom without mosaic or leaf distortion, were collected in 2002 at cordisburgo, mg. previous studies identified the virus as an isolate of bean rugose mosaic virus (brmv). this work reports on the characterization of the isolate, including its purification and production of a polyclonal antiserum, determination of a partial host range, vector transmission, and an estimate of yield losses due to single or mixed infection with bean common mosaic virus (bcmv). the protocol adopted for virus purification led to purified preparations with high yield, and the antisera obtained reacted with the maximum dilution tested (1:70.000) in indirect elisa. from the 22 plant species tested as hosts, chenopodium quinoa reacted with chlorotic local lesions, which evolved to mosaic and leaf distortion in non-inoculated leaves. bean and soybean cultivars reacted with mosaic and leaf distortion of varying intensity, as expected for brmv. the isolate was transmitted by cerotoma arcuata to 33.3% of the inoculated plants. single infection of 'ouro negro' and 'novirex' beans caused a reduction in the total weight of pods per plant of 3.4% and 84.9%, respectively. mixed infection with bcmv caused a reduction of pod weight per plant of up to 70.1% in 'novirex' and up to 90.8% in 'ouro negro'.
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