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Investigating the Local Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  [PDF]
Mohamed Nacer Guetteche, Abdesselam Zergua, Samia Hannachi
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2012.21002
Abstract: The promotion of blast furnaces slag in construction industry aims at protecting the environment, fighting against the nuisance such as waste dumps and promoting local products. The use of granulated slag as a part replacement of Portland cement or in the production of clinker free binder constitutes a valuable outlet for this product. The aim of this study is the characterization of local granular slag using various techniques such as chemical analysis, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectrometry, and conductimetry. These methods provide a clearer understanding of the vitreous structure of this type of slag and also provide clues as to the nature of its hydraulic reactivity. Mechanical tests have been carried out using 4 × 4 × 16 cm3 prismatic mortars using a composition activated by the clinker, varying the fineness of slag, its content and the nature of clinkers. Results obtained show that this type of slag is reactive, the evolution of its mechanical resistance depends on its fineness, and that long-term mechanical performance is of great interest.
Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil Using A Limestone Based Catalyst  [PDF]
Jolius Gimbun, Shahid Ali, Chitra Charan Suri Charan Kanwal, Liyana Amer Shah, Nurul Hidayah Muhamad Ghazali, Chin Kui Cheng, Said Nurdin
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2012.24B036

This paper presents the potential of limestone based catalyst for transesterification of high free fatty acid (FFA) rubber seed oil (RSO). Pre-calcinated limestone known as clinker was activated using methanol and transesterification was performed under reflux with constant stirring. Mineral composition of the catalyst was analysed using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) with in build x-ray diffraction (XRD). The rubber seed oil was obtained using both microwave and soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. FFA content and fatty acid methyl ester content were determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed an efficient conversion (up to 96.9%) of high FFA rubber seed oil to biodiesel. The results suggest that the catalyst employed in this work is not negatively affected by moisture and free fatty acids and can be recycled very easily without significant loss in its activity. The highest conversion of 96.9% was achieved from catalyst activated at 700°C, with catalyst loading of 5 wt. %; methanol to oil molar ratio of 5:1; reaction temperature of 65°C and reaction time of 4 hours. The biodiesel produced in this work is within the limits of specification described by American standard test method (ASTM D6751).

Efeito das impurezas dos clínqueres coprocessados sobre sua quebra em Drop Weigth Tester (DWT)
Souza, Vládia Cristina G. de;Koppe, Jair Carlos;Costa, Jo?o Felipe Coimbra Leite;
Rem: Revista Escola de Minas , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0370-44672010000400020
Abstract: in this study, the possible correlation between impurities presented in the crystalline compounds of the coprocessed clinkers and their breakage strength (determined by drop weigth tester-dwt) is verified. this latter is used to predict the grindability of these materials by providing the impact parameter (a.b). the higher the impact parameter is, the lower the breakage strength is. for the tested clinkers, the average content (wt. %) of impurities in the crystallized phases, including alkalies, barium, strontium, manganese and titanium was determined. for this, microanalysis with an edx (energy dispersive x-ray) system coupled to the sem (scanning electron microscopy) was used. the statiscal analysis of the chemical results suggests a strong correlation between the impurities and impact parameter.
Correlation of input and output parameters in laboratory kiln cement clinker production
?eljko Poga?nik
Geologija , 2002,
Abstract: The microscopical modal analysis give us a lot of information about clinker and consecutively cement performance The aim of this work was to construct a mathematical model to be in agreement with microscopical modal analysis. The results reveal us thepossibility to predict quality control information of Portland cement clinker.By the combination of the right composition of siliceus and carbonate rocks we get the basic manufacture of Portland cement clinker. The influence of raw mix quality does not consists only of the chemical and mineral compositions of rocks but also by their texturesand structures, specially in the laboratory simulation of industrial process. The flysch rocks which are used to prepare raw mix have very heterogeneous structure. This is the reason for their changeable mineralogical and consequently chemical composition. Preparingthe representative sample of raw mix present one of the primary target in the laboratory simulation.
Synthesis and Characterization of a Red Clay Based New Composite Ceramic Material  [PDF]
Youness Rakhila, Amine Ezzahi, Abdellah Elmchaouri, Allal Mestari
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2018.87020
Abstract: In this study, a new composite ceramic material using a red clay matrix with different amount of clinker from the cement industry has been developed. The aim is to valorize some natural resources such as red clay and sub-products from the cement industry as clinker in order to develop new materials for industrial and/or catalytic uses. Raw materials were grounded in order to reduce the particle size and obtain a homogeneous slip. The samples were mixed and compressed into pellets and undergo a heat treatment up to 1100℃. Geotechnical characterization has been carried out. Firing proprieties (shrinkage, water absorption, and mechanical resistance to the inflection) were measured. The composition of the ceramic material was investigated by X-ray diffraction, XRF, SEM and EDS methods. The incorporation of clinker in the ceramic composite material up to 50 wt% exhibits good behaviors (physical and mechanical proprieties) and can be used as a ceramic product.
DYNA , 2007,
Abstract: the bogue?s equations were created to calculate the clínker minerals phases percentage, but these were created assuming that raw materials had a 100% purity and that the reactions are complete, this had made that cement factories to overvalue or sub-value these percentages during many years. the clinker produced from a colombian cement factory during eight months was monitoring in their two main kilns, the mineralogical phases were count to obtain quantitative information by volumetric estimation with a reflected light microscope. in same time, the mineralogical percentages were calculated by the bogue′s equations which are traditional methods. a systematic comparison of obtained results was made and it was found that the chemical method (bogue) underestimates the clinker mineral production in this factory up to 5%. based on the original equations a modification of these is presented, especially in their coefficients. a set of equations was obtained for the produced materials in each kiln and then each and everyone were validated with the contrary kiln data. this procedure allowed establishing which equation set had the best statistical adjustment.
Estudo por microscopia óptica e lupa das características mineralógicas e microestruturais do clínquer aplicado ao processo de moagem e qualidade do cimento
Souza, Vládia Cristina Gon?alves;Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann;Tavares, Luis Marcelo Marques;
Rem: Revista Escola de Minas , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0370-44672002000200010
Abstract: have been widely studied influence clinker's micro structural and mineralogical characteristics on its grinding behaviour, due to high cost of this stage at the end of the fabrication process and the requirements of market quality. in this work, one used the optical microscope and the magnifying glass to describe and analyze the samples of particles of various sizes of clinker, deriving from a factory at south of brazil. through this study, it was evidenced, in the samples collected, the occurrence of a high degree of corrosion the minerals of alite and belite. it was even observed that the size of particles do not influence the quantity of microcracks, because that is of physical-chemical origin and it do not mechanical. therefore, it was concluded that corrosion lead to formation of a large quantity of pores and many channels, make easy the formation of microcracks, that increase, in turn, the grinding behaviour of cement clinker, but at expenses of a considerable reduction in the cement quality.
The influence of mechanical activation on the process of reaction sintering of Portland cement clinker
?ivanovi? Branka D.,Sre?kovi? Tatjana V.,Komljenovi? M.
Science of Sintering , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/sos0201095z
Abstract: In this paper, results of an investigation of the influence of mechanical activation of a raw material mixture on processes of synthesis and reaction sintering of Portland cement clinker are given. Activation was performed in a vibro mill with rings for 30 minutes in a continual regime in air. It has been established that mechanical activation of the starting raw material mixture increases general activity, which is mostly reflected in reduction of temperatures at which relevant chemical reactions and sintering occur. This is very significant from the viewpoint of the increasingly necessary efficiency and cheaper production, i.e. energy savings during synthesis of Portland cement clinker and indicates that further investigation of the influence of mechanical activation is more than justified.
Basalt mine-tailings as raw-materials for Portland clinker
Andrade, F. R. D;Pecchio, M;Bendoraitis, D. P;Montanheiro, T. J;Kihara, Y;
Ceramica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0366-69132010000100007
Abstract: large volumes of waste materials are produced by crushing of basaltic rocks for aggregate production, which is widely used in regions that lack rocks of granitic or gneissic composition. two types of waste materials are produced (a) quarry fines, which are in part used as fine aggregates in concrete and (b) vesicular basalt, a porous variety of basalt that is useless as aggregate. this paper presents a procedure to use basaltic mine-tailings as raw-mixtures for portland cement by adjusting the proportion of the other raw-materials (limestone, clay, iron ore). it is demonstrated that there is no need for additional fluxes to the basalt-bearing raw-mixtures, since the setting of the chemical parameters is enough to guarantee clinker formation. two series of experimental clinkers were synthesized with raw-mixtures containing residues from a basalt quarry that produces aggregates for concrete. experimental clinkers were produced from raw-mixtures with similar lime saturation factors, silica and alumina modules, which were set by adjusting the proportions of limestone, clay and iron ore to the varying proportions of basaltic materials added to them. one series of clinkers was made with basalt quarry fines, which are in part used as fine aggregate, but also accumulate as mine-tailings. other series was made using vesicular (porous) basalt, a variety not resistant enough to be used as aggregate. it is demonstrated that the basaltic composition is fully compatible with clinker production, and no addition of fluxes or other additions is required. composition of the raw-mixtures was checked by chemical analysis. quantitative phase analysis of the clinkers was made by optical microscopy point counting, together with qualitative x-ray diffraction. all mixtures produced clinkers with acceptable proportions of major and minor crystalline phases, inside the range of common industrial portland clinkers.
A correlation between Bogue's equations and Taylor's procedure for the evaluation of crystalline phases in special class Portland oilwell cement clinker
Bezerra, U. T.;Martinelli, A. E.;Melo, D. M. A.;Melo, M. A. F.;Lima, F. M.;
Ceramica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0366-69132011000100016
Abstract: the crystalline composition of portland cement clinker is commonly established by bogue's equations, which are based on a series of assumptions that seldom apply to oilwell cements. this is probably due to the presence of additional oxides and phase reconversion upon cooling of the clinker from the calcination temperature. important differences are therefore observed between the numerical values yielded by the mathematical equations and image analysis quantification. in this study, the concentration of crystalline phases in oilwell cement was determined using taylor's procedure, which consists in a system of linear equations corresponding to each one of the four main clinker phases. the results revealed an adequate relationship between this method and phase quantification by optical micrography, especially concerning the contents of aluminate and ferrite.
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