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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1915 matches for " circumstancial ad hominem "
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L’argument ad hominem dans les débats présidentiels Bush/Kerry Ad hominem Argument in the Bush/Kerry Presidential Debates
Michael Leff
Argumentation et Analyse du Discours , 2011,
Abstract: Croyez-vous que vous pourriez faire mieux que le Président Bush pour éviter une nouvelle attaque du 11 septembre sur les Etats-Unis ? C’est par cette question, adressée au sénateur Kerry, que le journaliste animateur Jim Lehrer ouvrit les débats présidentiels de 2004. La sécurité étant devenue, depuis le 11 septembre, une préoccupation de premier plan dans le discours politique américain, la référence à ce thème pourrait sembler normale et quelconque. Cependant, la formulation même de la ...
Perelman, argument ad hominem et ethos rhétorique Perelman, ad Hominem Argument, and Rhetorical Ethos
Michael Leff
Argumentation et Analyse du Discours , 2009,
Abstract: La conception de Perelman sur le r le des personnes dans l’argumentation est l’une des marques les plus caractéristiques de sa rupture avec les hypothèses cartésiennes sur le raisonnement. Alors que le paradigme rationaliste cherchait à minimiser ou à éliminer les considérations personnelles comme étant dilatoires et non pertinentes dans ce cadre, Perelman insiste sur le fait que l’argumentation met inévitablement l’accent sur les personnes spécifiques impliquées dans l’argumentation et que la relation entre le locuteur et ce qui est dit est toujours pertinente et importante. En adoptant cette position, Perelman ressuscite implicitement la conception classique de la preuve par le caractère (argument par l’ethos ou ethotique ). Mais, bien que la Nouvelle Rhétorique consacre une large place au débat sur l’acte et la personne dans l’argumentation, elle n’accorde pas beaucoup de réflexion au concept classique et mélange différentes approches à l’intérieur de la tradition. Le résultat est que Perelman traite le r le du locuteur dans l’argumentation uniquement en référence à des techniques abstraites et ne prend pas en compte l’importance de l’examen des cas particuliers pour éclairer la compréhension du fonctionnement de l’argument ethotique en situation dans le contexte complexe de son utilisation effective. Par conséquent, la prise en compte par Perelman du r le de la personne dans l’argumentation doit être complétée par la référence à des études de cas et c’est dans ce but que j’étudie l’argument ethotique dans le célèbre essai de W. E. B. DuBois Sur M. Booker T. Washington et autres . Perelman’s view of the role of persons in argument is one of the most distinctive features of his break with Cartesian assumptions about reasoning. Whereas the Rationalist paradigm sought to minimize or eliminate personal considerations by dismissing them as distracting and irrelevant, Perelman insists that argumentation inevitably does and ought to place stress on the specific persons engaged in an argument and that the relationship between speaker and what is spoken is always relevant and important. In taking this position, Perelman implicitly revives the classical conception of proof by character (ethos or “ethotic” argument), but despite an extended discussion of act and person in argument, The New Rhetoric does not give much consideration to the classical concept and confuses differing approaches to it within the tradition. The result is that Perelman treats the role of the speaker in argument only by reference to abstract techniques and does not recognize the im
Transcender les différends : une réaction possible aux situations de désaccord profond The Appeal for Transcendence: A Possible Response to Cases of Deep Disagreement
David Zarefsky
Argumentation et Analyse du Discours , 2012,
Abstract: Le désaccord profond est une situation dans laquelle le conflit est tellement fondamental qu’il ne semble exister à aucun niveau d’accord sous-jacent partagé. Il est généralement admis qu’aucun débat productif n'est possible dans de pareils cas. Tout argument avancé par l’une des parties pourra être contesté par l’autre dans un processus de régression potentiellement infini, car à aucun moment les interlocuteurs ne sont obligés d’accepter un quelconque point de vue en vertu de leurs prises de positions antérieures. Surmonter un désaccord profond exige de dépasser l’impasse sur laquelle achoppe le débat, en envisageant la controverse sous un jour différent. Cet article identifie quatre couples de stratégies rhétoriques permettant de réaménager le désaccord et de transformer le débat. Il présente également deux études de cas pour illustrer ces stratégies : dans l’une, on parvient à dépasser le désaccord, alors que l’autre se solde par un échec. Deep disagreement is a situation in which a conflict is so fundamental that there appears to be no underlying shared agreement by the arguers at any level. It is generally held that in such a case productive argument is not possible. Any claim the one party makes can be challenged by the other party in a potentially infinite regress, because there is no moment at which the interlocutor, by virtue of his or her prior commitments, is obligated to accept any standpoint. Overcoming deep disagreement requires transcending the impasse in the argument, seeing the controversy in a different light. This essay identifies four pairs of strategies that involve rhetorical moves to reset the disagreement and reshape the argument. In addition, two case studies are presented to illustrate these strategies, one a case of successful transcendence and the other a case of failure.
L’argomento “ad hominem”: riflessioni sulle funzioni della violenza verbale
Ruth Amossy,Adriana Colombini Mantovani (traduzione a cura di)
Altre Modernità , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to argue that the attack against someone else, as a kind of argument ad hominem, has a civic utility when it gives issue to polemic antagonism. Verbal violence can therefore be seen as functional: a way to express dissension within society and to regulate it. In opposition to the rhetorical search for common agreement, the ad hominem can nevertheless be studied as a discourse strategy attacking someone in order to force him to an antagonist point of view. As a public discussion, the success of this sort of argument relies on the agreement of the group and then on its adequacy to formal rules of social interaction, no matter how manipulated the polemic argument could be. The ethical perspective is thus the very question to be considered in analysing the ad hominem strategy. Its utility as a regulation of violence through its moving on the ground of verbal confrontation couldn't in any way legitimate the fact that polemic expression turns into physical violence or even suggests it, disrupting the thin space where violence can be expressed, by argumentation, as a passionate but regulated antagonism.
Alzheimer’s Disease: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Review
Luísa Alves,Ana Sofia A. Correia,Rita Miguel,Paulo Bugalho
Frontiers in Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00063
Abstract: Investigation in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the commonest cause of dementia, has been very active in recent years and it may be difficult for the clinician to keep up with all the innovations and to be aware of the implications they have in clinical practice. The authors, thus, reviewed recent literature on the theme in order to provide the clinician with an updated overview, intended to support decision-making on aspects of diagnosis and management. This article begins to focus on the concept of AD and on its pathogenesis. Afterward, epidemiology and non-genetic risk factors are approached. Genetics, including genetic risk factors and guidelines for genetic testing, are mentioned next. Recommendations for diagnosis of AD, including recently proposed criteria, are then reviewed. Data on the variants of AD is presented. First approach to the patient is dealt with next, followed by neuropsychological evaluation. Biomarkers, namely magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography, FDG PET, PiB PET, CSF tau, and Aβ analysis, as well as available data on their diagnostic accuracy, are also discussed. Factors predicting rate of disease progression are briefly mentioned. Finally, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including established and emerging drugs, are addressed.
Research on Survivability of Mobile Ad-hoc Network  [PDF]
Yuan Zhou, Chunhe Xia, Haiquan Wang, Jianzhong Qi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2009.21008
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the survivability of Mobile Ad Hoc Network systemically and give a detailed description of the survivability issues related to the MANET. We begin our work with analyzing the requirements of survivability of ad hoc network, and then we classify the impacts that affect survivability into three categories: dynamic topology, faults and attacks. The impacts of these factors are analyzed individually. A simulation environment for the MANET towards survivability is designed and implemented as well. Experiments that under the requirements and the impacts we de-clared are done based on this environment.
A Preamble-Based Broadcasting Technique for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Arun Kumar, Kai-Juan Wong
Communications and Network (CN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2011.32010
Abstract: Broadcasting is a fundamental operation in any wireless networks, more so in wireless ad hoc sensor networks, where each sensor node has limited transmission range as well as battery power. Although broadcasting in wireless ad hoc sensor networks has many advantages but it can cause serious problems like-broadcast storm, which could cause a lot of contention, redundant retransmission, collision and most importantly, drain immense amount of energy from limited battery powered sensor nodes. In this work, our objective is to reduce the number of retransmission and energy consumption of sensor nodes by using the duty cycle property of wireless ad hoc sensor networks. We propose a preamble-based broadcasting technique for wireless ad hoc sensor networks. We show that in dense wireless ad hoc sensor networks a small size preamble can give maximum network-wide data dissemination rather than using the large preamble, which will only consume immense amount of energy during packet reception.
The Research on QoS Model Design in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Yun Zhang
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.511075
Abstract: Wireless Ad Hoc Networks is a special kind of wireless communication network. With the great development of multimedia applications, how to provide QoS guarantee in the MAC layer is the hot topic in wireless ad hoc network (MANET). This paper designed a QoS model in MANET. The feasibility and reliability of this model is analyzed and verified. Compared with the traditional model, the proposed approach is improved in MAC layer in order to achieve high control rate of low-priority transactions.
Survey of Clustering Schemes in Mobile Ad hoc Networks  [PDF]
Abdelhak Bentaleb, Abdelhak Boubetra, Saad Harous
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.52B002
Abstract: Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are a specific kind of wireless networks that can be quickly deployed without pre- existing infrastructures. They are used in different contexts such as collaborative, medical, military or embedded applications. However, MANETs raise new challenges when they are used in large scale network that contain a large number of nodes. Subsequently, many clustering algorithms have emerged. In fact, these clustering algorithms allow the structuring of the network into groups of entities called clusters creating a hierarchical structure. Each cluster contains a particular node called cluster head elected as cluster head according to a specific metric or a combination of metrics such as identity, degree, mobility, weight, density, etc. MANETs has drawbacks due to both the characteristics of the transmission medium (transmission medium sharing, low bandwidth, etc.) and the routing protocols (information diffusion, path finding, etc.). Clustering in mobile ad hoc networks plays a vital role in improving resource management and network performance (routing delay, bandwidth consumption and throughput). In this paper, we present a study and analyze of some existing clustering approaches for MANETs that recently appeared in literature, which we classify as: Identifier Neighbor based clustering, Topology based clustering, Mobility based clustering, Energy based clustering, and Weight based clustering. We also include clustering definition, review existing clustering approaches, evaluate their performance and cost, discuss their advantages, disadvantages, features and suggest a best clustering approach.
Design and Analysis of an OSA-BR MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Hassan Al-Mahdi, Mohamed Wahed, Safa Abd El-Aziz
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.77024
Abstract:

Cognitive Radio (CR) is a new communication network paradigm introduced to solve the problems of spectrum scarcity and inefficient spectrum usage. Basically, it allows the Secondary Users (SUs) to utilize the Licensed Channels (LCs) of the Primary Users (PUs) in an opportunistic manner without causing any harmful interference to the PUs. However, there are many challenges associated with cognitive radio networks, such as the CR Medium Access Control (CR-MAC) protocols. An important issue for CR-MAC protocols is to identify whether the spectrum is licensed or unlicensed. In addition, the sudden appearance of the PU is the most important feature of the distributed CR-MAC protocols. In this paper, a multichannel CR-MAC protocol, which reacts efficiently to the appearance of the PUs, is developed. The proposed protocol is named Opportunistic Spectrum Access with backup channel and Buffered data with Resume (OSA-BR). The OSA-BR is an unaided rendezvous, asynchronous, and contention-based MAC protocol. The proposed protocol operates in heterogeneous environment, where the SUs utilize both LCs and unlicensed channel (ULs) and the activities of the Classical Users (CUs) are taken into consideration. In addition, the concept of the backup channel and the buffer with resume are introduced. The simulation results show that OSA-BR accomplishes 35% throughput gain over the SWITCH protocol and 55% over other CR-MAC protocols.

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