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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7950 matches for " children. "
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Play and Preschool Children Who Are Deaf: A Review of the Literature  [PDF]
Millicent Musyoka
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.912130
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide a narrative review of the literature of studies on deaf children play. Electronic searches of databases including EBSCOhost, ERIC, Deaf Education related journals, and Google Scholar were undertaken using terms such as deaf play, deaf play and literacy, deaf play and school and deaf play and language, deaf play and cognition. Relevant articles on the deaf children play extracted were synthesized narratively. The results of the analysis were interpreted using descriptive analysis, percentages, frequencies and emerging themes. The data showed most of the studies focused on comparing deaf children play behaviors to those of the hearing peers. Findings on deaf children social and cognitive play were inconsistent. Several issues in this analysis point to implications for future research, teacher preparation and teacher intentionality in the implementation of play in early childhood education (ECE) classrooms.
School Backyard Drawings by Kindergarten Students: An Interdisciplinary Experience in the South of Brazil  [PDF]
Ana Gabriela Rocha, Simara Rodrigues Gheno, Jer?nimo de Oliveira Loureiro, Rossano André Dal-Farra
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.620217
Abstract: The recent urbanization and increasing distance between children and nature have had negative impact both in learning and in the maintenance of healthy life in the natural environment. The development and application of transdisciplinary teaching practices in sciences and visual arts afford to materialize highly relevant strategies in environmental education. Based on these principles, the present study analyzed the possible contributions of transdisciplinary efforts to children’s drawings of the environment they live in. Fifteen elementary school children were requested to draw 1) what they remembered of the school backyard; 2) what they remembered of the “nature” in the school backyard; and 3) what they saw during a visit to the backyard. In addition, semi-structured interviews were carried out to collect the children’s impressions of their drawings. The results indicate that, in addition to the grass growing in the area, playground features and other toys were consistently represented in drawings, indicating that the backyard is strongly correlated with students’ leisure and game activities. When prompted to draw nature elements, trees and some arthropods were drawn, such as insect larvae and bees. For such reasons, it is necessary to improve the students’ ties with the natural environment looking for more significant educational practices in relation to the nature in the surroundings where they inhabit.
Teachers’ Perceptions about the Use of Play to Facilitate Development and Teach Prosocial Skills  [PDF]
Michelle Haney, Victor Bissonnette
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.21006
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions about the use of play to promote social, emotional, and cognitive skills to support planning for a school program aimed at increasing inclusive play for young children. This research was inspired by Vivian Gussin Paley’s book, You Can’t Say You Can’t Play (1992). Participants included undergraduate students and graduate education students in the Teacher Education Program at a small liberal arts college, as well as practicing elementary school teachers. The results indicated that graduate students and practicing teachers had a more accurate understanding about the developmental benefits of incorporating play into the classroom and a greater willingness to embrace the “you can’t say you can’t play” rule to promote inclusive play and acceptance. Implications for designing a preventative program for inclusive play in young children are discussed.
Respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus in acute lower respiratory infections in hospitalized infants and children  [PDF]
Salvatore Barberi, Mario Barreto, Francesco La Penna, Bernardina Mazzarella, Maria-Elena Liverani, Ottavia De Luca, Maurizio Simmaco, Maria Pia Villa
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.21004
Abstract: Background: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a main cause of hospitalization in infants and children. These patients’ nasopharyngeal swabs more frequently contain respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) than human adenovirus (HAdV) in cold seasons; recent data suggest that oropharyngeal swabs more frequently contain HAdV than RSV. Knowing more about virus detection with oropharyngeal swabs, seasonal fluctuations and age-related distribution of RSV and HAdV would help treat children hospitalized for LRTI more effectively. We investigated the seasonal virus-related frequency (as assessed by oropharyngeal swabs) and environmental and clinical features in infants and children hospitalized for LRTI from autumn to spring. Methods: We studied 98 subjects hospitalized for LRTI in our Pediatric Unit, from November 2006 to May 2007. RSV and HAdV in oropharyngeal swabs were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results: PCR assays more frequently detected HAdV (29.6% of patients) than RSV (25.5%). The seasonal incidence also differed (RSV, narrow peak in December and HAdV, wide peak from April to May). Most patients infected with RSV were aged 2 yrs or younger (23/25: 88%); no difference was found in age between subjects who tested HAdV-positive (13/29: 45%) or undetectable-virus (23/44: 52%). Bronchiolitis was more frequently associated with RSV than HAdV or undetectable-virus oropharyngeal swabs. No difference was found in risk factors (school attendance, atopic parents, exposure to cigarette smoking, home dampness or exposure to animals) or clinical features (vital parameters or duration of hospital stay) among the three viral groups. Conclusions: Our findings show a high frequency of HAdV-positive oropharyngeal swabs during acute LRTIs in infants and children and differences in the seasonal distribution of RSV and HAdV in Rome.
Common Movement Disorders in Children: Diagnosis, Pathogenesis and Management  [PDF]
Isabelle Korn-Lubetzki, Israel Steiner
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.31014
Abstract: Movement disorders in childhood are a heterogeneous group of diseases with presentations that vary according to etiopathogenesis and age of onset. While sharing certain characteristics with the conditions that affect adults, they also have unique features that are determined by the metabolic, physiological and environmental distinctiveness of the developing brain. This context makes the nervous system of children vulnerable to various insults such as birth trauma, infections and toxicity. Some inborn errors of metabolism and genetic conditions selectively affect the young brain and psychological adaptation may also contribute to the occurrence and severity of certain conditions at this age group. The present review outlines the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and course, diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders in children. We also emphasize, when available, preventive and prophylactic measures and conclude by suggesting several avenues for future research in aspects that are currently not well understood.
Epidemiology of exercise-related injuries among children  [PDF]
Ches Jones, Bart Hammig
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.49098
Abstract: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of injuries from exercise not involving equipment among children 18 and under. Methods included a retrospective review of data for children birth to 18 years old from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance (NEISS) system of the US consumer Product Safety Commission for the years 2005-2009. A total of 5093 cases were identified and would result in an estimated 175,000 injuries in the US. The most common type of injury was a sprain/strain to the ankle (20%). Four out of five injuries were among children between 10 and 18. Injuries occurring at school accounted for 40% of the injuries. Exercise-related injuries are common among older children and often occur in schools or recreational environments but are usually minor. School officials and athletic personnel should make efforts to provide proper instruction on exercise activities and have resources to provide emergency care for injuries.
Airway Foreign Body in Children  [PDF]
Hui Sing Chew, Henry Kun Kiaang Tan
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.37117

Introduction: Foreign body aspiration is not uncommon in children. It can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine and analyze the characteristics of local pediatrics airway foreign body (FB) aspiration. Methods: A retrospective study of medical records from KK hospital (1997-2010) is done. Patient demographics, clinical/investigative findings, duration of hospitalization and complications are analyzed. Results: The sample consisted of 26 patients (eight months - 13 years of age), who underwent rigid bronchoscopy for FB removal over the last 13 years. Seventy-seven percent were three years of age or younger. Peak incidence (61.6%) was at one to two years of age. Nineteen were males and seven were females. The top three clinical presentations were: cough (61.5%), choking (46.2%) and wheezing (42.3%). Decreased air entry (34.6%), tachypnea (26.9%) and no significant findings (23.1%) were the most common features on physical examination. The most common radiographic findings were consolidation (30.8%), presence of a foreign body (23.1%) and no abnormality (23.1%). Aspiration was primarily into the right main bronchus (38.5%), and 61.5% of the FB was organic in nature [principally peanuts (38.5%)]. Mean hospitalization duration was three days. Delayed diagnose in three cases were secondary to mis-diagnoses as croup (n = two) and respiratory tract infection (n = one). Complications were noted in eight cases (30.8%). There was no mortality. Conclusion: High index of suspicion is required in diagnosing airway FB. Physician’s diagnostic acumen is vital in prompt successful treatment. Heightening public’s awareness is the key to prevention of pediatrics FB aspiration.

Importance of a Proper Planning of Surgical Procedures in Pediatric Laparoscopy. Theater Checklist  [PDF]
Antonio Marte, Lucia Pintozzi, Micaela Borrelli, Pio Parmeggiani
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.312113
Abstract: Aims: Ergonomics and proper planning of surgical procedures are the basis of success for laparoscopy in children. The successful execution of a laparoscopic procedure requires a great familiarity with the equipment and the positioning of the operators. This is to avoid unnecessary surgical team fatigue that affects the duration and effectiveness of the intervention. We conducted a study on our laparoscopic procedures to determine the effectiveness and usefulness of the application of ergonomics and a regular use of a preoperative checklist. Materials and Methods: We studied the laparoscopic operations performed by a single operator between January 2008 and July 2011. These factors were considered: the position and orientation of equipment, crew and patient discomfort, and the problems encountered by the operators. We used as evaluation criteria the diagrams proposed by Lenoir and Steinbrecher and an appropriate preoperative checklist. Results: Of the 49 measures considered, only 22 procedures were useful and met the evaluation criteria. No correlation, referring to the physical measures, were detected in operations lasting <60 minutes. The fatigue of the operating team grew, even if non-exponentially, after the first hour of operation. In the 22 procedures considered, there were 71 “adverse” episodes that delayed or complicated the procedure; most of these were related to inadequate preparation of the operating room, instruments, or operators (malfunction of synthesis equipment, unavailability of instruments, insufficient number of principals, malposition of trocars, or unavailability of image intensifier). After the adoption of checklist, verified in the subsequent 18 procedures, only 10 adverse episodes occurred. Conclusions: Our study seems to confirm that simple steps related to proper planning of laparoscopic procedures were directly linked to the effectiveness of surgical performance and duration of the intervention. The preoperative checklist we set, in our experience, resulted as very useful in preventing intra-operative problems.
Saliva Cortisol and Heart Rate Variability as Biomarkers in Understanding Emotional Reaction and Regulation of Young Children—A Review  [PDF]
Ishien Li, Shu-Mei Chwo, Ciwas Pawan
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.46A2004

Cortisol and heart rate variability (HRV) are good indicators for the non-invasive assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in response to psychophysiological stress respectively. Emerging evidence from previous studies suggests a link between cortisol and HRV response to stress and social experiences during early development. However, research in this area has been constrained by a number of conceptual and methodological challenges. Time is a crucial variable that needs to be taken into account in study designs since stress-sensitive physiological systems change over time in response to changing intrinsic and extrinsic states. In this review, our focus is on the HPA axis and HRV responses as an allostatic system with young children’s individual differences in temperament, social regulation, and environmental sources of influence taken into account. The conclusions include: 1) cortisol levels are related to various time courses, ranging from moment-to-moment changes to changes occurring over the course of days, months, and years in consideration of individual differences in state and trait emotions; 2) it is necessary to take individual characteristics, multi-faceted constructs related to early development, and developmental changes into account in studies of reactivity and regulation patterns of the cortisol and HRV in young children; and 3) prospective examination is needed on the long-term outcomes of various individual characteristics and environmental influences (e.g., attachment quality, family and daycare environment, and environmental control of the child) in early experience that are related to reactivity differences in HRV and atypical cortisol patterns.

Delivery and evaluation of a pilot obesity prevention project for urban Appalachian children  [PDF]
Laura Nabors, Michelle Burbage, Jordan Pangallo, Amy Bernard, Amanda Strong, Sarah Gardocki, Phyllis Shelton, Donna Jones
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.34054

Prevention of childhood obesity is a national concern and there is a need for interventions that can be implemented in community programs and are brief in nature. This pilot project was developed to evaluate the impact of the Children’s Healthy Eating and Exercise Program, which was adapted from the Traffic Light Diet. Participants were urban Appalachian children and adolescents who were enrolled in one of two community-based summer programs. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine children’s impressions of the program and to assess what they learned during implementation of the program. Results indicated that younger children reported consuming fewer French fries or chips and older children reported eating more vegetables at the end of the program. Knowledge of two categories of Traffic Light foods appeared good; however, participants showed lower knowledge about one of the food categories. Future studies should involve parents as well as incorporate a more rigorous evaluation design with a comparison group to examine the impact of this new program.

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