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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2014 matches for " chemotherapy "
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Occult Hepatitis B Flare-up after Chemotherapy Treatment in HBsAg Negative Patient  [PDF]
Shoaib Ahmad, Vu Le, Tauseef Ali
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.25103
Abstract: Reactivation of Hepatitis B virus causing liver damage is a concern in patients with chronic HBV infections who receive immunosuppressive or cytotoxic treatments. HBV screening should be considered for all patients going to receive immunosuppressive regimens which have the potential to induce reactivation of HBV infection. We discuss here a case of occult Hepatitis B flare after chemotherapy in a patient who had negative acute hepatitis profile including HBsAg prior to therapy and baseline serum AST, ALT, INR, albumin, bilirubin and serum creatinine were within normal limits.
Chemotherapy-Knowledge and Handling Practice of Nurses Working in a Medical University of Nepal  [PDF]
Ramanand Chaudhary, Basant Kumar Karn
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.31014
Abstract: Background: Many antineoplastic agents are known to be teratogenic and mutagenic to humans. Nurses are the main groups that are exposed to these drugs in hospital setting. Generally, the occupational activities that pose to greatest risk of exposure are the preparation and administration of antineoplastic agents, cleaning of chemotherapy spills, and handling of patient excreta. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of nurse regarding the way of exposure of Cytotoxic Drugs (CDs) and to determine the current patterns of use of personal protective equipments while handling antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agents. Methods: An analytic cross sectional study was carried out at BPKIHS Dharan. The study was carried out on 125 nurses. The random sampling technique was used to select the study subjects using structured and semi-structured questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: More than 92% of participants reported usually wearing gloves during chemotherapy handling; 6% reported using laboratory coats as protective garments. Usual use of face and respiratory protection was less than 5%. Chemotherapy was reported to be prepared in nursing station where there are no laminar airflow hoods in 100% of work settings. None of the subjects have reportedly provided any type of medical monitoring. Conclusion: Use and availability of gloves have increased but personal protective equipment like protective garments, face and respiratory protective, when handling chemotherapy have decreased and medical monitoring of exposed employees still is neither widely practiced nor consistent with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines.
The Use of Neupogen (Filgrastim) or Neulasta (Pegfilgrastim) during Pregnancy When Chemotherapy Is Indicated for Maternal Cancer Treatment  [PDF]
Elyce Cardonick, Farhana Irfan, Natalie Torres
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.32021
Abstract: Introduction: Little is known about the effects stem cell mobilizers (GCSF) such as neulasta (pegfilgrastim) or neupogen (filgrastim) during pregnancy, and these are often withheld from women undergoing chemotherapy during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Women receiving chemotherapy during pregnancy were identified from the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry maintained at Cooper University Hospital, Cooper Medical School at Rowan. 176 pregnant women who received chemotherapy were identified. Their oncologists were asked if neupogen or neulasta were “prescribed when necessary;” “were not necessary;” or “were held due to pregnancy.” Birth outcomes, white blood count at birth and pediatric health were compared between the group receiving Neupogen/Neulasta (exposed) and a control group (unexposed), i.e. chemotherapy without neupogen/neulasta). Independent T Test or Pearson Chi Square were implemented for statistical comparisons. Results: The mean gestational age at delivery was not significantly different between the exposed (35.4 ± 2.8 weeks) and unexposed groups (35.9 ± 2.8 weeks) p = 0.465. The mean birth weights were not significantly different, 2433 ± 567 g (exposed) compared with 2673 ± 723g in unexposed group, p = 0.07. Nor was there a difference in congenital malformations: 11.7% versus 4.8%. p = 0.22. The incidence of non-iatrogenic preterm births or complications was not statistically different between groups. Mean WBC count in the exposed group was 13.04 ± 5.0 cells per cubic millimeter of blood and in the unexposed group was 14.6 ± 7.2, p = 0.24. Conclusion: We did not find a statistically significant difference in gestational age at birth, congenital anomalies, or birth weight, incidence of long term medical issues, mean WBC or neutropenia at birth between the newborns exposed to Neupogen/ Neulasta with chemotherapy and newborns exposed to chemotherapy alone.
Evaluation of Adherence to Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Guidelines. An Observational Study  [PDF]
Saja Almazrou, Lamya Alnaim
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.35078
Abstract: Objective: To describe the prescribing trends of antiemetics in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), assess adherence to American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidelines, and evaluate the effectiveness of prescribed antiemetics. Additionally, we also sought to explore barriers that hinder clinical practice guideline (CPG) implementation. Methods: One hundred fifty-five patients between the ages of 18 and 60 who were admitted to the haematology/oncology department/clinic to receive intravenous chemotherapy, either as in-patients or outpatients, were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Relevant patient demographic data, chemotherapy protocols and antiemetics were collected. Chemotherapies were classified according to their emetogenic potential. This information was used to assess whether the antiemetic prescribed matched the emetogenic risk of treatment. The analysis of outcomes was performed using the MASCC antiemetic assessment tool. Key Findings: The results showed that 95% of antiemetic prescription pre-chemotherapy regimens did not adhere to the guidelines. The findings were use of twice the recommended dose of granisetron (87.7%), overuse granisetron (16%) and metoclopramide (62.6%), and underuse dexamethasone (27%) and corticosteroid duplication (7.7%). With respect to post-chemotherapy antiemetic prescriptions, 91% of prescriptions were not adherent to guidelines, with overuse of granisetron (81.9%) and metoclpramide (34.2%) and underuse of dexamethasone (66.5%) being the most frequently reported trends. Conclusion: This study shows a lack of conformity to antiemetic guidelines, resulting mainly in overtreatment. Although vomiting was well-managed, nausea remains under controlled and requires additional medical attention. The lack of knowledge and motivation are considered barriers to CPG implementation.
First Cycle Neutrophil Count and Subsequent Chemotherapy Dose Delivery in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy  [PDF]
Ahmed Ashour, Gamal El-Husseiny, Amr Abdel Aziz, Waleed O. Arafat
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.52021

Background: Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a major dose-limiting toxicity of systemic cancer chemotherapy, and it is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs. The ability to predict the group of patients who are at high risk for neutropenic complications might help to reduce the morbidity due to febrile neutropenia and increase the likelihood of delivering full chemotherapy dose on time. In addition, hematopoietic growth factors could be administered to patients who need them and allow more efficient use of medical resources. Methods: The study included 120 female patients with breast cancer, treated in adjuvant setting with FAC chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy was delayed if the ANC was less than 1500 cells/μL on the planned first day of the cycle. Dose delays would be for 1 week. The chemotherapy dose was reduced if the patient experienced an episode of febrile neutropenia. Dose reductions usually consist of a 20% reduction in dosage of all chemotherapy drugs. Results: Out of the 120 patients in the study, 58 patients experienced neutropenic complications (febrile neutropenia or dose delayed) accounting for 48.3% of total sample size. In univariate analysis, there was statistically significant association between first cycle ANC nadir and neutropenic complication (p = 0.0001). There was also statistically significant association between pretreatment first cycle ANC (p = 0.001), pretreatment platelets count (p =

The Outcome of the Chemotherapy and Oncothermia for Far Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Lung: Case Reports of Four Patients  [PDF]
Doo Yun Lee, Joon Seok Park, Hae Chul Jung, Eun Seol Byun, Seok Jin Haam, Sung Soo Lee
Advances in Lung Cancer (ALC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/alc.2015.41001

Lung cancer is one of the most aggressive and lethal form of cancers. Patients with far advanced lung cancer are treated by chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. However, median survival of these patients is less than 6 months. To increase survival and quality of life for these patients, various forms of complementary treatments have been tried in clinical practices, and oncothermia is supposed to be one of the promising candidates. From May 2008 to November 2013, 4 patients with far advanced lung adenocarcinoma (stages IIIB and IV) were treated with oncothermia in addition to conventional chemotherapy at Gangnam Severance Hospital and Bundang CHA Hospital. All these patients have survived for more than 2 years.

Level of Adherence to Cytotoxic Drugs by Breast Cancer Patients’ in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital  [PDF]
Popoola Abiodun, Samira Makanjuola, Sowunmi Anthonia, Igwilo Adaeze, Mobolaji Oludara, Ibrahim Nasir, Omodele Foluso
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.64041

Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in women and adjuvant combination chemotherapy has been shown to reduce mortality from this disease. Adherence to medical treatment is a multifaceted issue that can substantially alter the outcomes of therapy. Patient non-adherence to chemotherapy is the ultimate barrier to the treatment effectiveness. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the relationship between cancer chemotherapy adherence and breast cancer staging, patient’s perception of cancer care and patient’s socio-demographic characteristics. Material and method: This was a cross sectional study selection of respondents and was based on simple random sampling technique, 184 patients were interviewed and data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic data, adherence data, and facility-related information. Results: There was a significant association between marital status and non-adherence (P= 0.013). Both separated and single subjects had higher proportion of non-adherence compared with married subjects. Analysis of perception of chemotherapy care revealed a significant association between the satisfaction score and non-adherence, with non-adherent patients showing higher scores or being less satisfied. The quality of service (P= 0.0052); rating of needs been met (P= 0.0079); rating on whether the services helped the subject (P= 0.0405); rating on the general satisfaction of the services provided (P= 0.0115); and rating on whether subject would seek help again (P= 0.0320) all had a significant association with non-adherence. Conclusion: The awareness of oncologist and patient of the problem of non-adherence and communication regarding the importance of adherence to therapy may improve health outcomes.

Reversible Paclitaxel-Induced Bilateral Vocal Fold Paresis  [PDF]
Jeffrey Hsu, Melin Tan-Geller
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2015.43043
Abstract: Introduction: Chemotherapy is a rare cause of iatrogenic vocal fold dysfunction. It has been reported in three main classes of chemotherapy agents and often occurs during the treatment interval. We present a case of bilateral vocal cord paresis with delayed presentation after completion of chemotherapy. Methods: One case, managed with observation and serial exams, is presented. A review of previous case reports of chemotherapy-induced vocal cord paresis and possible mechanisms of injury was performed. Results: Patient improved both symptomatically and through objective findings over the one-year course of observation. Conclusion: Diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced vocal cord paresis is dependent on a thorough history and physical exam. Management is predicated in that the dysfunction is often dose dependent and reversible, necessitating both cessation of the offending agent and the knowledge that any treatment is likely needed for only a temporary time. Chemotherapy-induced vocal fold paresis should be in the differential for patients presenting with hoarseness, dysphonia, stridor and a positive chemotherapy history
A Retrospective Study of the Treatment Results & Patterns of Failure of Type II Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated at Radiotherapy Department, NCI, Cairo University during the Period from January 2000 till December 2012  [PDF]
Mohamed Serag, Mohamed Mahmoud, Ahmed Seleem, Mervat Elnagar
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.78063
Abstract: Aim of the study: To identify all clinico-pathological data, different treatment modalities and the different prognostic factors which affected the locoregional control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) of Type II endometrial cancer patients. Patients and methods: Data of Type II endometrial carcinoma patients who presented to the Radiation Oncology department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University during the period from (2000-2012) were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Multivariate analysis identified stage as an independent prognostic factor for OS & DFS, and age was an independent prognostic factor for DFS and LC. Low pretreatment hemoglobin levels significantly affected OS. Conclusion: Large and multicentric clinical trials are required to further study this group of patients and define optimum treatment modalities.
Chemotherapy Induced Amenorrhea in Women Treated with Chemotherapy for Breast Carcinoma in Yalgado Ouédraogo Teaching Hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Augustin Tozoula Bambara, Hyacinthe Zamané, Yobi Alexis Sawadogo, Hierrhum Aboubacar Bambara, Awa Mien, Nayi Zongo, Abdoul Azize Diallo, Ali Ouédraogo, Si Simon Traoré
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.71014
Abstract: Background: We conducted this study to identify factors associated with the onset and reversibility of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in Yalgado Ouédraogo Teaching Hospital of Ouagadougou. Methods: A historical cohort study was performed and covered the period from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2015. No menopausal patients managed for a histologically confirmed breast carcinoma and having benefited from chemotherapy were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea as well as its reversibility. Results: Seventy patients were included. The mean age was 38.5 years. Thirteen patients were obese and 19 (40.4%) had their menarche after age of 15 years. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 31 patients while 12 had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Sequential chemotherapy with an anthracycline and a taxanetherapeutic protocol was the most used. Forty-seven patients had a chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. The risk of having a chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea increases by 25% for each additional year of age at diagnosis of cancer (p = 0.0001). Obesity and menarche after age 15 were found to be protective factors. After adjusting these variables together, age, obesity, and age at menarche were factors independently associated with the occurrence of the chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. The reversibility was effective in 11 cases (37.9%) and especially concerned patients younger than 40 years (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Age is the primary risk factor. Reliable markers of ovarian function need to be developed to better select fertility conservation protocols.
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