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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2507 matches for " characterization "
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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Kaolinite from Assam and Meghalaya, Northeastern India  [PDF]
Bhaskar J. Saikia, Gopalakrishnarao Parthasarathy
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.14031
Abstract: This study demonstrates the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic characterization of natural kaolinite from north-eastern India. The compositional and structural studies were carried out at room temperature by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), electron microprobe (EPMA) analyses and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. The main peaks in the infrared spectra reflected Al-OH, Al-O and Si-O functional groups in the high frequency stretching and low frequency bending modes. Few peaks of infrared spectra inferred to the interference peaks for quartz as associated minerals. The present study demonstrates usefulness of the spectroscopic techniques in determining quality and crystalline nature of kaolinite from the Assam and Meghalaya, northeastern India.
Chromatographic Separation and Characterization of Capsaicinoids and Their Analogues  [PDF]
Jun-lian Wang, Li Zhou, Lei Wang, Zheng hong Peng, Sheng ze Zhou, Xiang feng Zhou, Xiao bin Zhang, Bixian Peng
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.23018
Abstract: An attempt was made to establish a chromatographic separation and analysis method for capsaicinoids and their analogues. A series of factors,such as choice of column and eluents, eluent composition,flow rate of eluent and operational temperature were correlated, countereacted and optimized to attain appropriate separation efficiency and finalize the experimentally oprational procedures as a whole, permiting a mixture comprising 8 capsaicinoids including analogues to be separated and Characterized with an allowed deviations and within a period of 36 minutes via 1 test as well.
A Model for the Characterization and Selection of Beeswaxes for Use as Base Substitute Tissue in Photon Teletherapy  [PDF]
Rogério Matias Vidal, Divanízia do Nascimento Souza
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.34032
Abstract: This paper presents a model for the characterization and selection of beeswaxes for use as base substitute tissue for the manufacture of objects suitable for external radiotherapy using megavoltage photon beams. The model of characterization was divided into three distinct stages: 1) verification of aspects related to the origin of the beeswax, the bee species, the flora in the vicinity of the beehives and procedures to detect adulterations; 2) evaluation of physical and chemical properties; and 3) evaluation of beam attenuation capacity. The chemical composition of the beeswax evaluated in this study was similar to other simulators commonly used in radiotherapy. The behavior of the mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapy energy range was comparable to other simulators. The proposed model is efficient and enables convenient assessment of the use of any particular beeswax as a base substitute tissue for radiotherapy.
A Fast Algorithm for Automated Quality Control in Surface Engineering  [PDF]
Ehsan Sheybani, Singli Garcia-Otero, Fedra Adnani, Giti Javidi
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2012.22019
Abstract: In this article an approach to surface image quality assessment for surface pattern and object recognition, classification, and identification has been described. The surface quality assessment finds many industrial applications such as auto-mated, advanced, and autonomous manufacturing processes. Given that in most industrial applications the target surface is an unknown variable, having a tool to measure the quality of the surface in real time has a significant value. To add to the complication, in most industrial applications, the surface (and therefore its image) suffers from several physical phenomena such as noise (of several different kinds), time, phase, and frequency shifts, and other clutter caused by interference and speckles. The proposed tool should also be able to measure the level of deterioration of the surface due to these environmental effects. Therefore, evaluation of quality of a surface is not an easy task. It requires a good understanding of the processing methods used and the types of environmental processes affecting the surface. On the other hand, for a meaningful comparative analysis, some effective parameters have to be chosen and qualitatively and quantitatively measured across different settings and processes affecting the surface. Finally, any algorithm capable of handling these tasks has to be efficient, fast, and simple to qualify for the “real-time” applications.
The Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Ciprofloxacin Complexes and Its Coordination with Copper, Manganese and Zirconium Ions  [PDF]
Zhengde Tan, Fengjiao Tan, Li Zhao, Junyong Li
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.22008
Abstract: In our work, ciprofloxacin was extracted from the raw material ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and coordinated with the metal ions of copper, manganese and zirconium. The procedures include the comparison of the autoclave method with the solvothermal method, synthesizing the corresponding complexes and conducting antibacterial test on nearly 20 kinds of bacteria. It is shown that under the condition of PH1 and 110℃ - 116℃, the autoclave method and solvothermal method can be utilized to obtain the ciprofloxacin complexes with Cu2+, Mn2+ and Zr2+ as the metal ligands after reacting for 8 hours. The raw material, ligands and monocrystals were characterized by IR, DSC, UV and fluorescence spectrum. Meanwhile a great number of antibacterial tests were carried out, revealing favorable bacteriocidal properties of the resulting complexes.
The Structure of Modified Fe-Ni Bioxide Composite Nanoparticles Using Fe(NO3)3  [PDF]
Yueqiang Lin, Jian Li, Lihua Lin, Xiaodong Liu, Longlong Chen, Decai Li
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.24040

Composite nanoparticles containing a γ-Fe2O3 core, Ni2O3 external shell and FeCl3·6H2O outermost layer can be synthesized by chemically induced transition in FeCl2 solution. These may be modified by treatment with Fe(NO3)3 to obtain particles for the preparation of ionic ferrofluids. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that after Fe(NO3)3 treatment, the specific magnetization becomes weaker and the size becomes larger for treated particles compared with the untreated particles. Using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the structure of the particles before and after the treatment is revealed. The experimental results show that the γ-Fe2O3

Characterization of Negative Exponential Distribution through Expectation  [PDF]
Milind Bhatt B.
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.35042

For characterization of negative exponential distribution one needs any arbitrary non-constant function only in place of approaches such as identical distributions, absolute continuity, constant regression of order statistics, continuity and linear regression of order statistics, non-degeneracy etc. available in the literature. Path breaking different approach for characterization of negative exponential distribution through expectation of non-constant function of random variable is obtained. An example is given for illustrative purpose.

Characterization of Power-Function Distribution through Expectation  [PDF]
Milind Bhanuprasad Bhatt
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.36052

For the characterization of the power function distribution, one needs any arbitrary non constant function only in place of independence of suitable function of order statistics, linear relation of conditional expectation, recurrence relations between expectations of function of order statistics, distributional properties of exponential distribution, record valves, lower record statistics, product of order statistics and Lorenz curve, etc. available in the literature. The goal of this research is not to give a different path-breaking approach for the characterization of power function distribution through the expectation of non constant function of random variable and provide a method to characterize the power function distribution as remark. Examples are given for the illustrative purpose.

Investigating the Industrial Potentials of Some Selected Nigerian Clay Deposits  [PDF]
Lydia Solomon Jongs, Alexander Asanja Jock, Okon Eno Ekanem, Aliyu Jauro
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2018.66041
Abstract: One of the most important useful and widely abundant industrial minerals in the world is the clay minerals. Their applications in various industries are dependent on their properties. In this study, the mineralogical and physico-chemical properties of RahinSho (RC), Major Porter (MP), Wereng camp (WC), Kwi (KC) and Naraguta (NC) clay deposits in Plateau State, Nigeria were investigated to evaluate their potentials for some industrial uses. The x-ray diffraction studies revealed the kaolins as the dominant clay minerals in all the samples. The non-clay minerals found were quartz and muscovite. The chemical analyses by x-ray fluorescence also indicated that the silica (SiO2) values of the samples ranged from (41.20 - 62.26)% while the alumina (Al2O3) range was (17.25 - 37.15)%. Some considerable amounts of impurities found were Fe2O3 (0.43 - 27.52)%, TiO2 (0.05 - 3.28)%, K2O (0.13 - 3.01)%. The oxides of Na, Ca and Mg were within acceptable limits in the clays for most purposes. The loss on ignition ranged from 4.30% - 12.43%. The physical properties investigated were particle size distribution that contained heavy clay-size materials ranging from 67.88% - 91.88%, plasticity index had range of values from 15.90% - 33.68%, and drying and firing shrinkages were 1.10% - 2.22% and 1.65% - 4.49% respectively. All the samples attained a temperature of 1500°C without fusion except Naraguta clay that fused at 1300°C. At the temperature of 1200°C, RC, MP and WC clays retained their natural colours of white and near-white respectively, while KC and NC clays changed colours from orange pink and light brown to moderate pink and moderate reddish brown respectively. These results compare very well with several clays elsewhere. Based on these characteristics, the clays were observed to be potentially suitable for the production of paints, tiles, ceramics, refractories, sanitary wares and clay bricks. Minimal processing will increase the potential of RC and MP to meet up with specification for paper, fertilizer and/or pharmaceutical uses.
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP & Ag+: PVP Polymer Films  [PDF]
Kothapalle Sivaiah, Koramala Naveen Kumar, V. Naresh, Srinivasa Buddhudu
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.211225
Abstract: PVP polymers containing Li+ or Ag+ Ions have been synthesized in good stability and transparency by using the solution casting method. Their structural, optical, thermal and electrical properties have been investigated from the measurement of XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDAX, optical absorption spectra, TG-DTA profiles and impedance spectral features in order to evaluate their potentialities for their use in electrochemical display device applications.
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