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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6248 matches for " carcinoma "
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Multimodal Treatment Approach to Advanced Female Urethral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  [PDF]
Lindsay L. Hertzig, Richard C. Choo, Deborah J. Lightner, R. Jeffrey Karnes
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.23025
Abstract: Introduction and Objectives: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the female urethra is rare. Given the small number of cases seen, no uniform regimen for optimal treatment has been identified. We set out to review the outcomes of women with advanced urethral squamous cell carcinoma treated with a multimodality approach in order to gain insight into the optimal treatment of this rare malignancy. Methods: We identified five women with advanced urethral squamous cell carcinoma treated by a single surgeon (RJK). After obtaining IRB approval, a retrospective chart review was performed and treatment strategies and outcomes were analyzed. Results: We report on 5 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the female urethra treated utilizing a multimodal approach. Surgical therapy included anterior exenteration in two patients, partial urethrectomy in two patients and transurethral resection in one. Patients were treated with radiation in a neoadjuvant (2 cases), adjuvant (2 cases), or definitive (1 case) fashion. Four of five patients received chemotherapy. With a mean follow-up of 39 months (range 3 to 50), 4 patients remain without evidence of disease while one patient developed lung metastases 33 months after treatment. None had a locoregional tumor recurrence. Conclusion: Multi-modality approach combining surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy can be effective therapeutic intervention for locally advanced, squamous cell carcinoma of the female urethra. For patients who have a significant surgical risk or desire to pursue an organ-preservation strategy, a trimodality approach of limited surgical excision combined with radiotherapy plus chemotherapy may be a reasonable alternative to anterior pelvic exenteration.
A Rapidly Progressive Proptosis, a Case Report  [PDF]
Afshin Tajdini, Mazen Sinjab, Somer Hassan
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2012.22009
Abstract: In contrast to intraocular metastases, orbital metastases are a rare manifestation of systemic malignancies; such orbital metastases account for only 1% - 13% of all orbital tumors. Such tumors grow rapidly; they may undergo necrosis, as the rate of tumor angiogenesis cannot keep pace with the rapidly expanding mass. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital metastasis from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Case Report: Primary Urothelial Carcinoma of Ureteral Stump Following Radical Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma  [PDF]
Donghai Teng, Guimin Huang, Kaixiang Wang, Jianping Du
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.45046

PUC is common in the urinary tract. It may occur in the urinary bladder and the collecting system of the upper urinary tract, such as the renal pelvis and ureter. However, PUC of ureteral stump after a nephrectomy is rare, and it’s even rarer in patients undergoing a radical nephrectomy for RCC. We describe a female patient with painless gross hematuria that was secondary to PUC of ureteral stump after a radical nephrectomy for RCC diagnosed 6 years ago. We discuss the etiology, diagnosis and treatment for PUC of ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for RCC.

Hyperthyroidism Due to Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Associated with Ductal Breast Carcinoma  [PDF]
Maria de Fátima Borges, Ilka Mara Borges Botelho Modolo, Rodrigo Gimenez Pissutti Modolo, Lilian Carla Silva, Rogério Costa Tiveron, Delcio Scandiuzzi, Marcus Aurelho Lima, Luciene Mayumi Sato
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.38105

Thyroid tumors are usually associated with euthyroidism, and hyper functioning tumors are rare. There are few reports of carcinomas associated with hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study is to describe a case of hyper functioning papillary carcinoma associated with breast carcinoma. We present a 46-year-old woman that was referred for investigation of thyroid and breast nodules detected by routine ultrasound. She presented with hyperthyroidism and enlarged left thyroid lobe with fibroelastic consistency. Investigation demonstrated papillary carcinoma with follicular hyperactivity and invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The patient developed metastases 6 months later and died. This study demonstrates that hot thyroid nodules may harbor malignant tumors and should be punctured. The association with breast adenocarcinoma and the unfavorable outcome suggest higher aggressiveness of this tumor in the presence of hyperthyroidism.

A Rare Case of Thymic Carcinoma  [PDF]
Farshad Anvari, Arnold M. Schwartz, Gregory Trachiotis
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.23030
Abstract: Thymic carcinomas are unusual tumors of the thymus gland. Basaloid carcinoma, an unusal epithelioid varient of a thymic carcinoma, is a rare histopathological subtype, and is not well charecterized in the literature. We present the anatomical and histogical features of a basoloid thymic carcinoma, and discuss current diagnosis and imaging strategies, as well as the operative and oncologic care of this type of thymmic carcinoma. Basaloid carcinomas of the thymus after complete surgical resection and adjuvant therapy genarally have a favorable long-term prognosis.
Canine Prostate Carcinoma: Four Clinical Cases in Sexually Intact and Neutered Dogs  [PDF]
Enrico Bigliardi, Carla Bresciani, Anna Maria Cantoni, Francesco Di Ianni, Giorgio Morini, Simone Voccia, Attilio Corradi, Enrico Parmigiani
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2012.24042
Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most important malignancies in men. In old men the frequency of prostate cancer at necroscopy has been reported to exceed 40%. Dogs are the only large mammals other than humans with a significant incidence of spontaneous prostate cancer. Adenocarcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma are the most common histological type but the precise cell of origin in dog is not known. The incidence of prostatic carcinoma in dogs is low (0.2% - 0.6%). Prostatic carcinomas occur in sexually intact and neutered dogs and the risk increase in castrated dogs associated to pulmonary and bone metastases. The castration does not initiate the development of prostatic carcinoma in dog but does favour tumour progression. In men the early stage detection of prostate cancer can offer various therapies as radical prostatectomy, radial therapy, thermal ablation, anti-androgen therapy, chemotherapy. In dogs the diagnosis is often in advanced stage of the cancer and the survival time for dogs with prostate cancer is poor. The median time reported is 30 days after diagnosis. In this study we reported three cases of prostatic carcinoma in intact sexually dogs and one in a neutered dog. The sexually intact subjects were older (mean age = 10.5 years) and they had prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCA). The interval between castration and onset of prostatic problems was 3 years. All the dogs showed dysuria, macroscopic hematuria, dyschezia and ataxia. All dogs have been euthanized in order to relieve pain and suffering.
Microarray analysis of gene expression in the liver of transgenic mouse model of HCV infection  [PDF]
Masoud Ghorbani, Turaya Naas, Catalina Soare, Rashmi Kothary, Francisco Diaz-Mitoma
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.38141
Abstract: Background: The molecular interactions of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with hepatic tissue have yet to be completely elucidated and understood. The purpose of this study was to compare differential gene expression patterns in the livers of non-transgenic and transgenic mouse model expressing HCV structural proteins Core, Envelope 1 (E1) and Envelope 2 (E2) using complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays. Results: Total RNA extracted from the livers of HCV transgenic and non-transgenic mice was analyzed with cDNA microarray and differentially expressed genes confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Relative expression ratios of individual genes were determined by comparing hybridization of Cy5-labelled cDNA from transgenic mouse livers and Cy3-labelled cDNA from non-transgenic mouse livers. The spot array images were quantified using QuantArray software and the outlier spots was normalized and filtered using five different criteria. 15,297 genes were analyzed using three different analytical methods. Depending on these methods, twenty-one genes were found to be differentially expressed at a statistically significant level. From these, 6 genes had a consistent differential expression. Several genes were directly involved in lipid metabolism and lipid β-oxidation. 5-azacytidine induced gene 2 (AZ2), which is involved in the methylation of genes was down regulated in HCV transgenic mice. Altered transcript levels of these 6 genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Conclusion: Interactions between HCV and hepatocytes not only involve lipid metabolism and redox balance, but this interaction may also influence DNA methylation, indicating a potential association with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis  [PDF]
Isao Kuroda, Takuya Ishida, Teiichiro Aoyagi
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.31003

We encountered a 63-year-old male with a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis accompanied by metastasis to the bilateral inguinal lymph nodes and lungs. He noticed a penile mass, but neglected it. The mass rapidly increased in size, forming an ulcer, and began to disintegrate. He visited our hospital 4 months after noticing the mass. After cystostomy and blood transfusion, surgical resection was performed. A diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma with a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis was made. After the operation, best supportive care (BSC) was selected. We made efforts to maintain his quality of life (QOL), and he died 3 months after the operation.

Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder  [PDF]
Kenji Shimodaira, Isao Kuroda, Naohiro Kamoda, Takuya Ishida, Teiichiro Aoyagi, Masaaki Tachibana
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.34044

The patient was a 62-year-old female with bladder carcinoma. TUR-BT was performed in March 2010, and the pathological finding was UC, G2 > G1, pTa. However, the cancer recurred in the urinary bladder 3 months after TUR-BT. Radical cystectomy was performed, and the disease was considered to have been cured, but metastasis developed in the skin, lung, liver, and bone several months after surgery. Chemotherapy was ineffective, and the patient died. On pathological examination at the time of radical cystectomy, the lesion was sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Although the prognosis associated with this carcinoma is known to be poor, the possibility of underestimation on preoperative staging cannot be ruled out from the cause, in addition to the insufficiency of the current therapeutic strategy.

Determinants of Malignant Transformation in Fibrocystic Disease of Breast  [PDF]
Ketan Vagholkar
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2014.32008

Background: Fibrocystic disease of the breast in one of the commonest diseases in women above 30 years of age. The assumption of it being innocuous and benign is questionable with increased incidence of malignancies developing in these women. Introduction: Understanding the pathophysiology of fibrocystic disease is essential for identifying determinants of malignant change. Case Report: A case of carcinoma of breast developing in a longstanding and recurrent fibrocystic disease is reported. Discussion: The pathological changes including the influence of hormones on the natural history of the disease arediscussed to identify the determinants of malignant transformation. Conclusion: Breast cyst fluid, patterns of cellular lining of the cysts, multiplicity, recurrence and patterns of cellular morphology are important determinants of malignant change.

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