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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13066 matches for " carbon steel "
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Influence of the Distribution of Excess Carbide on the Properties of Genuine Damascus Steel  [PDF]
Dmitry Sukhanov, Nataliya Plotnikova
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2019.102010
Abstract: The methods of spectral, x-ray phase and microprobe analysis show that genuine Damascus steel is a high-purity unalloyed high-carbon steel with a high phosphorus content. It is shown that phosphorus in an amount of from 0.1% to 0.2%, having a high liquation coefficient, contributes to the process of segregation of carbon in interdendritic zone in the process of crystallization. Interdendritic zone formed carbon clusters, in the process of forging transform into oblong carbides cementite. The main physical and chemical factors affecting the formation of oblong carbides are revealed. The hardness of carbide layers was determined, which was about 920 HV. The hardness of the troostite matrix was amounted about 475 HV. It is established that the cutting edge of the blade knife of Damascus steel is nothing more than a “micro-saw” consisting of parallel carbide and troostite layers. Tests are conducted on the preservation of the cutting edge sharpness of the blades knife of homogeneous structure of steel У15А (Russian) and the layered structure of genuine Damascus steel Ds15P (Indo-Persian). Found that with little effort cut (to 4 kg) ancient Damascus steel (Ds15P) shows a greater number of cuts than the modern instrument steel У15А. With an increase, force on the cutting edge from 6 kg to 12 kg carbon Tool steel is showed a more number of cutting on the 25% than in genuine Damascus steel. The fatigue crack propagation in the true Layered structure of Damascus steel Ds15P occurs for a greater number of cycles than in a homogeneous structure of the steel У15А. The blade knife of genuine Damascus steel, in terms of fatigue reliability (survivability), has almost 2 times longer service life than the blade knife of the modern carbon tool steel type У15А. It is proved that loss in cutting ability of a genuine Damascus steel compensates increased the reliability (“survivability”) of the blade knife with fatigue loads.
Electrochemical Investigation of Corrosion on AISI 316 Stainless Steel and AISI 1010 Carbon Steel: Study of the Behaviour of Imidazole and Benzimidazole as Corrosion Inhibitors  [PDF]
Roberta R. Moreira, Thiago F. Soares, Josimar Ribeiro
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.44052
Abstract: An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel and AISI 1010 carbon steel in sodium chloride solution (3.0 wt.%) was performed in the absence and presence of imidazole and benzimidazole corrosion inhibitors. The results showed that at any inhibitor concentration (25 ppm to 1000 ppm), there was an increase in the polarisation resistance of both steels. The highest efficiency of corrosion inhibition was obtained using imidazole at a concentration of 50 ppm for both steels, with values of 96% for the AISI 316 stainless steel and 73% for the AISI 1010 carbon steel.
Effect of High Temperature Treatment on Aqueous Corrosion of Low-Carbon Steel by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Samuel J. Gana, Nosa O. Egiebor, Ramble Ankumah
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.22011
Abstract: The corrosion behavior of 1020C carbon steel samples that had been subjected to oxidizing heat treatment at 550°C and 675°C were studied in sodium chloride electrolytes using a 3-electrode electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental data were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the samples while optical microscopy was employed to investigate the surface characteristics of the samples before and after aqueous corrosion. The results showed that while the sample treated at 550°C revealed an increasing corrosion rate with time, the sample treated at 675°C indicated a higher initial corrosion rate, but the rate declined gradually over the 4-day experimental period. Optical microscopy revealed significant formation of surface corrosion products on both heat treated samples, but the complex plane diagrams indicated significant capacitive behavior for the heat treated samples relative to the untreated samples.
Pitting Corrosion Investigation of Cantilever Beams Using F. E. Method  [PDF]
Jacob Nagler
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2013.32007

Carbon steel cantilever beams are widely used in many applications in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. Pitting corrosion is a phenomenon which places severe limitations on the design of such applications. As such, understanding this phenomenon and the methods to deal with it, are of a great importance. This paper presents numerical investigation by using F. E. (Finite Element) simulation on the load carrying capacity of corroded cantilever beams with pitting corrosion damage. The pitting corrosion hole shape has been modeled using ASTM G46 Standard Guide. Several different cases of pitting corrosion, represented by hemispherical holes, were modeled and examined by using ANSYS computer program. Clamped edge constraint was used on one end, while the other end was free. In these F. E. models, element of Solid95 was used and comparison to Bernoulli-Euler theory was made. The effect of the radius of the pitting corrosion holes on the stresses in the beam was examined in comparison to yield stress. It has been found that the M. S. (Margin of Safety) has been reduced gradually with increasing radii. Agreement with Bernoulli-Euler theory has been achieved only for small radii. Moreover, three methods of pitting corrosion repairs were examined, together with Bernoulli-Euler theory comparison: 1) Regular surface repair; 2) Extension surface repair; and 3) Handy Removal. It was found that extension surface repair has the highest M. S. value.

Corrosion Behaviour of Heat Treated Rolled Medium Carbon Steel in Marine Environment  [PDF]
O.O. Daramola, B.O. Adewuyi, I.O. Oladele
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1010069
Abstract: Investigation were carried out to study the corrosion behaviour of heat treated rolled medium carbon steel and as-rolled medium carbon steel in sodium chloride medium. The as-rolled medium carbon steel was heated to a temperature of 830℃ to completely austenize it and water quenched; it was reheated to the ferrite-austenite dual phase region at a temperature of 745℃ below the effective Ac3 point. The steel was then rapidly quenched in water and tempered at a temperature of 480℃. The corrosion behaviour of the steel in marine medium (NaCl) was studied by weight loss measurement. The weight loss is between 0.02g-0.11g for the as-rolled steel and 0.01g – 0.013g for the heat treated steel. The results obtained showed that the as-rolled medium carbon steel is more susceptible to corrosion than the heat treated rolled medium carbon steel.
Studies of Oxide Layers Grown at 260°C on A106 B Carbon Steel in Aqueous Medium with Ethanolamine or Morpholine  [PDF]
Ana Maria Olmedo, Roberto Bordoni
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.69080
Abstract: The water chemistry of the secondary coolant in the majority of Nuclear Power Plants is controlled by AVT (All Volatile Treatment), wherein volatile amines are used to maintain the alkaline pH required for minimizing the corrosion of structural materials which one of them is Carbon Steel. In this treatment, ammonia, morpholine and ethanolamine are commonly used as conditioning reagents. In this context, experiments were carried out by exposing carbon steel A106 B samples in a simulated secondary coolant in order to study the nature of the oxide films. The tests were performed in a static autoclave at 260°C using two media: I) hydrazine + morpholine and II) hydrazine + ethanolamine during different exposure periods up to 1020 h. The oxide film characterization was mainly studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A chemical descaling procedure was used to obtain the material weight loss (W) of samples, the adherent and released oxide. The XRD analyses, for all exposures studied, showed that magnetite was the corrosion product formed in the films grown in both media. The material weight loss, after descaling, could be fitted by a law of the type W = ktn, up to 1020 h of exposure tested, resulting in n = 0.42, k = 6.24 for films grown in medium I) and n = 0.39, k = 6.08 for films grown in medium II) respectively (W is in mg/dm2 and t in h). The higher corrosion product release measured in the medium with morpholine could be important in power plant operation.
Buoy Dynamics in Subsurface Zones
Randy Guillen
Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling : One + Two , 2009, DOI: 10.5038/2326-3652.1.2.5
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to find the tension acting on a line that anchors a buoy submerged just beneath the surface of the ocean. Since the problem statement only gives the geometric shapes and dimensions of the buoy, we must use calculus to find its volume and surface area through integration of the volumes and surfaces of revolution formed by the specific parts of the buoy along an axis. The volume and surface area determine the buoyancy force and force of gravity, the two forces acting on the buoy that affect the tension in the line. After calculating this data, we were able to conclude that the tension affecting the line would be approximately 78 kN if the buoy was made of 1% carbon steel with a thickness of 6.35 mm. This problem is useful in several engineering disciplines.
Surface Analysis of Carbon Steel Protected from Corrosion by a New Ternary Inhibitor Formulation Containing Phosphonated Glycine, Zn2+ and Citrate  [PDF]
Boyapati Venkata Appa Rao, Madala Venkateswara Rao, Sirugudu Srinivasa Rao, Bojja Sreedhar
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2013.31005
Abstract: Studies on surface analysis of carbon steel protected from corrosion in low chloride and nearly neutral aqueous environment by a synergistic mixture containing N,N-bis(phosphonomethyl) glycine (BPMG), zinc ions and citrate ions are presented. The effect of addition of citrate to the binary system, BPMG-Zn2+, is quite significant and is well explored through various studies. The surface protective nature is maintained in the pH range 5 - 9. Potentiodynamic polarization studies inferred that the ternary inhibitor is a mixed inhibitor. Impedance studies of the metal/solution interface indicated that the surface film is highly protective against the corrosion of carbon steel in the chosen environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of the surface film showed the presence of the elements namely iron, phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and zinc. Deconvolution spectra of these elements in the surface film inferred the presence of oxides/hydroxides of iron(III), Zn(OH)2 and [Fe(III), Zn(II)-BPMG-citrate] heteropolynuclear multiligand complex. This inference is further supported by the reflection absorption Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the surface film. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented for both the corroded and protected metal surfaces. Based on all these results, a plausible mechanism of corrosion inhibition is proposed.
Synergistic Effect of Allium cepa-Zn2+ System on the Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Ground Water  [PDF]
A. John Amalraj, J. Wilson Sahayaraj, A. Peter Pascal Regis, Arockia Sahayaraj, P. Pandian, P. Johnraj, A. Kasthuri, C. Kumar
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.52025

The corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract Allium cepa (onion) in controlling the corrosion of carbon steel ground water in absence and presence of with Zn2+ has been studied by weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 3 mL Allium cepa extract, 50 ppm of Zn2+ and 50 ppm of sodium pattassium tartarate which offers 97% inhibition efficiency. The synergistic effect exists between onion-Zn2+-tartarate system. The addition of N-cetyl-N,N,N- trimethylammonium bromide on onion-Zn2+-tartarate system does not change the excellent inhibition efficiency. Polarization study shows that the onion-Zn2+-tartarate system functions as a cathodic inhibitor. AC impedance spectra reveals that a protective film is formed on the metal surface. The UV fluorescent spectra indicate the possibility of formation of Fe2+-onion complex and also Zn2+-onion complex in solution. Thus the protective film is found to be UV fluorescent.

Effect of Heat Treatments on Corrosion of Welded Low-Carbon Steel in Acid and Salt Environments  [PDF]
Saliu Ojo Seidu, Bolarinwa Johnson Kutelu
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.13018
Abstract: Effect of heat treatment on the corrosion of welded low-carbon steel in 0.3 M and 0.5 M of hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride environments at ambient temperature (25oC) has been investigated. Arc welded low-carbon steel sample of known composition were subjected to the corrosion reagents for 21 days (504 hours). pH and weight loss values were taken at interval of 3 days. Thereafter, weight loss method was used to measure therate of corrosion attack on the heat treated samples at ambient temperature. Results obtained showed that at low concentration, the annealed sample exhibits better corrosion characteristic as compared to the normalized and quenched samples. However, at higher concentration the normalized sample exercised better service performance over the annealed and quenched samples. Thequenched sample was found to have relatively low corrosion performance over the annealed and normalized samples at both low and high concentrations of the media.
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