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Trehalose and Sucrose Osmolytes Accumulated by Algae as Potential Raw Material for Bioethanol  [PDF]
Ma. del Pilar Bremauntz, Luis G. Torres-Bustillos, Rosa-Olivia Ca?izares-Villanueva, Enrique Duran-Paramo, Luis Fernández-Linares
Natural Resources (NR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2011.23023
Abstract: Currently, obtaining sustainable fuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol, from cheap and renewable materials is a challenge. In recent years, a new approach being developed consists of producing, sugars from algae by photosynthesis. Sugar accumulation can be increased under osmotic stress (osmoregulation). The aim of this study is to show the pro-duction of sugars from algae, isolated from natural sources, and the effect of osmotic stress on fermentable sugars ac-cumulation. Strain isolation, production of sugars from each alga and the effect of osmotic stress on growth and sugar production are described. Twelve algal strains were isolated, showing growths between 0.6 and 1.8 g of biomass dry weight /L, all with production of intracellular and extracellular sugars. The strain identified as Chlorella sp. showed an increase in sugar production from 23.64 to 421 mg of sugars/g of biomass dry weight after 24 h of osmotic stress with 0.4 M NaCl. Sucrose and trehalose, both fermentable sugars, were the compatible osmolytes accumulated in response to the osmotic stress. The isolated strains are potential producers of fermentable sugars, using the photosynthetic pathway and osmotic stress.
Physiological Traits and Metabolites of Cacao Seedlings Influenced by Potassium in Growth Medium  [PDF]
Yan-Mei Li, Marshall Elson, Dapeng Zhang, Richard C. Sicher, Hang Liang, Lyndel W. Meinhardt, Virupax Baligar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45133

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is of significant economic importance in several tropical countries but its yield potentials are low mainly because of poor soil fertility especially low levels of potassium (K). Cacao has a high demand for K to maintain healthy growth and production. Knowledge of K use in cacao will help the development of suitable crop management practices and will aid breeding varieties adapted to environments with a limited soil K supply. Using a plant growth chamber, we investigated the growth and physiological traits among three cacao varieties at three levels of growth medium K (52, 156, and 469 mg·plant-1). Significant K effects were observed on growth traits including stem diameter, root length, chlorophyll b, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b. Significant K effect was also found on carbohydrate metabolites, such as fructose, glucose, myo-inositol, raffinose and starch. However, no K effect was observed in other growth and physiological indicators, including biomass of seedling and net photosynthetic rate. There were significant genotype differences on seedling growth indicators, including stem diameter, stem height, total biomass, leaf biomass, leaf area, root length, chlorophyll a + b and carotenoids. Genotype difference was also found on all measured carbohydrate and starch metabolites, except maltose and raffinose. Results of this study indicate that although K plays a critical role in cacao tree growth and productivity, cacao may be less sensitive to K deficiency during the seedling stage. The present results improved our understanding about K and plants interaction in cacao seedlings, which is useful for crop management and germplasm utilization.

Citrus Pulp in Concentrates for Horses  [PDF]
Roberta A. Brandi, Adriana M. O. Tribucci, Julio C. C. Balieiro, Rhonda M. Hoffman, Ives C. S. Bueno
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513138

The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of increasing levels of citrus pulp in horse diets by investigating nutrient digestibility and the diet carbohydrate fractions, as well as to evaluate the correlation observed between the studied digestibility coefficients. Five adult horses were used. The horses were housed in individual stalls and had approximate ages of 3.5 years and live weights of 492.5 ± 44.5 kg. The experimental diets were formulated to meet the animals’ requirements for maintenance, establishing a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 with the coast-cross hay as the roughage. The formulated concentrates contained increasing inclusion levels of citrus pulp (0%, 7%, 14%, 21%, and 28%). No effect of the diets was observed (p> 0.05) on the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen-free extract, and non-fibrous carbohydrates; however, there was an effect (p< 0.05) on the soluble carbohydrates,y= 66.298 + 0.3724x. Citrus pulp may be used in horse diets at up to 28% concentrate. Citrus pulp is a safe energy source and benefits the digestibility of the nutrients and the carbohydrate fraction (both the fibrous and non-fibrous fractions) of the diet.

Rapid Quantification of Functional Carbohydrates in Food Products  [PDF]
Annabelle Le Parc, Hyeyoung Lee, Kevin Chen, Daniela Barile
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.51010

Current research on milk bioactive components, including complex oligosaccharides, stimulated development of novel milk-based ingredients; this in turn sparked the development of methods that are simultaneously simple and sensitive. Oligosaccharides and glycoproteins present interesting health benefits, including antibacterial and antiviral effects, stimulation of the immune system, and participation in the establishment of a balanced gut microbiome in infants. This work describes the application of a simple and rapid method—Total Carbohydrate Assay—to the determination of functional carbohydrate content in various dairy-based functional products. The miniaturization and optimization of the carbohydrate quantification on microplates afforded good repeatability and sensitivity. The optimized method consumed only minimal amounts of reagents and samples, and carbohydrates were detected in the range from 0 - 20 μg. This assay was successfully applied to determine the content of complicated oligosaccharide mixtures and N-glycans in dairy-derived products. Several complementary analytical techniques were applied to confirm the results. This method is faster and far less expensive than mass spectrometry and it gives a general picture of complex carbohydrate concentrations for instances in which detailed data are not required as needed for research in discrete differences among various biological samples. The ability to quantify glycans in novel food products will provide a unique understanding of the potential of these novel ingredients for use by the food industry.

Variation for Health-Enhancing Compounds and Traits in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Germplasm  [PDF]
E. Marina Insani, Pablo F. Cavagnaro, Virginia M. Salomón, Leandro Langman, María Sance, Adriana A. Pazos, Fernando O. Carrari, Olga Filippini, Laura Vignera, Claudio R. Galmarini
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.77059
Abstract: Consumption of onion has been associated with reduced incidence of chronic diseases. Phenolic, organosulfur and carbohydrate compounds present are largely responsible for these effects. This study examined compositional variation for health-enhancing compounds in a genetically diverse collection of onion cultivars. Total antioxidant activity and aroma profiles were characterized. Significant variation in bulb concentration for total and individual phenolic compounds, thiosulfinates, carbohydrates, and total and soluble solids was found. The range of variation was particularly large (>50-fold difference between the cultivars with the highest and lowest content) for fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and the polyphenols quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. Amino acid profiles varied significantly as well with substantial variation (~10 fold) observed in both total and essential amino acids. Total antioxidant activity was positively correlated with polyphenols content, and quercetin in particular (r = 0.83), suggesting a major contribution from phenolic compounds to onion antioxidant properties. Significant positive correlation was also found between solids and thiosulfinates content (r = 0.74) and between solids and FOS (r = 0.81), suggesting a dilution/concentration effect for organosulfur compounds and FOS in onion bulbs. The present study revealed broad variation for health-enhancing compounds content in onion germplasm, which can be exploited in breeding programs aiming at increasing onion nutraceutical value.
The Effect of High Carbohydrate Consumption on Glucose Levels and Antibody Production in Nonobese Diabetic Mice  [PDF]
Tonicley Alexandre da Silva, Caio José de Carvalho-Filho, Elizabeth de Sousa Barcelos Barroqueiro, Deysianne Costa das Chagas, Flá via Raquel Fernandes Nascimento, Rosane Nassar Meireles Guerra
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.710086
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with diets rich in carbohydrates on the IgM and IgG antibody production and the seric glucose concentration in diabetes. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice received, ad libitum, by oral route, the diet consisting of an aqueous extract (20 mg/mL) of the following flours: babassu mesocarp, manioc, corn or rice, during 120 days. The diet intake was monitored throughout this period. At the end, the weight variation, blood glucose, serum IgG and IgM antibody and IgM anti-insulin titers, were determined. The babassu and manioc flour extracts altered Purina chow intake and these animals also presented a significant increase in body weight. In contrast, treatment with rice flour resulted in a significant weight loss. Moderate to severe hyperglycemia was observed in the groups receiving rice and manioc, whereas treatment with babassu mesocarp flour and cornmeal resulted in hypoglycemia. The extracts did not alter the IgG concentration. On the other hand, the cornmeal extract caused a marked reduction in both total IgM and anti-insulin IgM antibody production. Although babassu mesocarp flour, cornmeal and manioc flour caused important variations in the parameters studied, only treatment with the rice flour extract anticipated the onset of diabetes in male mice genetically predisposed to the disease.
Maize Development: Cell Wall Changes in Leaves and Sheaths  [PDF]
Ronald D. Hatfield, Jane M. Marita
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.86083
Abstract: Developmental changes occur in maize (Zea mays L.) as it transitions from juvenile stages to the mature plant. Changes also occur as newly formed cells mature into adult cells. Maize leaf blades including the midribs and sheaths undergo cell wall changes as cells transition to fully mature cell types. As is common in grasses during cell wall maturation, the lignin in the plant tissue is acylated with p-coumarates (pCA). This work characterizes cell walls in maize that make up leaf blade, leaf midrib, and sheath tissues corresponding to tissue development. Maize plants grown in the greenhouse were harvested; leaf, leaf midrib, and sheath tissues from nodes 9 through 14 tissues were analyzed for cell wall composition. Cell wall carbohydrates varied with the type of maize tissue, but there was little change within a tissue type among the different nodes. Lignin concentrations were lowest in the leaf blade (70 - 88 g·kg-1 CW) followed by the sheath (123 - 140 g·kg-1 CW) and highest in the midrib (140 -
Identification and Quantification of Monosaccharides in Aloe vera Gel by Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Wet Heat Treatment  [PDF]
Dianeli Madera Pi?a, Carlos Hernán Herrera Méndez, Lourdes Vargas y Vargas, Herbert Loria Sunza, Jorge Tamayo Cortez
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.88060
Abstract: Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) possesses curative and therapeutic properties attributed to the polysaccharides found in its tissue. This work aimed to study hydrolyzed (chemical and enzymatical) Aloe vera gel extracts using ultrafiltration membranes with a pore size of 0.22 micron (μm). Nine chemical treatments were achieved with H2SO4 and three wet heat treatments were carried out at a pressure of 1.2 lbf/in2 for 15 minutes; in both cases, three different concentrations of Aloe vera gel juice (AGJ) were used: 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% w/w. The concentrations of H2SO4 were 0.10%, 0.25% and 0.40% w/w. Chemical experiments are performed over a factorial 32 design and results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 17, SPSS Inc.), finding the one labeled T7 (15 ml of AGJ 3.5% with 15 ml of H2SO4 0.10% added) the best of them, as it leaded to 0.0446 mg/ml of liberated glucose. Among the three wet heat treatments, the one labeled TC3 (15 ml of AGJ 3.5% with 15 ml of H2O added) was the best-performing one, as it leaded to 0.292 mg/ml of liberated glucose. Furthermore, an enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using Novozymes’ Pectinex? AR and Viscozyme?. Hydrolisis with both enzymes yield to better results than acid hydrolysis: in the treatment with Pectinex? AR, 3.282 mg/ml of liberated glucose were obtained and 3.302 mg/ml in the treatment with Viscozyme?. The hydrolyzed substances obtained by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as by wet heat treatment, were subsequently analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), using glucose, galactose and arabinose 1000 ppm solutions as reference patterns. Among the treatments by H2SO4, the one labeled T4 obtained an Rf value of 50, the same as on the galactose reference pattern.
The Molecular Structure of 1,2:5,6-Di-O-isopropylidene-3-O-toluenesulfonyl-α-D-glucofuranose
Constantin Mamat,Tim Peppel,Martin K?ckerling
Crystals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/cryst2010105
Abstract: The crystal and molecular structure of 1,2:5,6-di- O-isopropylidene-3- O-toluenesulfonyl-α-D-glucofuranose is reported. This compound crystallizes from a petroleum ether/ethyl acetate mixture with the chiral orthorhombic space group P2 12 12 1 with four molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are: a = 9.7945(7) ?, b = 10.1945(7) ?, c = 21.306(1) ?, and V = 2127.4(2) ? 3. No classical hydrogen bonds were found. Bond lengths and angles of this tosylated glucofuranose derivative are typical.
Synthesis of Novel Asymmetric Zinc (II) Phthalocyanines Bearing Octadecyloxyl and Glucosyl Groups
Pei Zhang,Shufen Zhang,Gang Han
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14093688
Abstract: A novel asymmetric zinc (II) phthalocyanine substituted by one lipophilic octadecyloxyl group and three hydrophilic glucosyl groups was synthesized. Using Q-TOF MS, the major byproducts formed during the deprotection processes were identified. An improved procedure was worked out to convert these byproducts to the desired product in quantitative yield.
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