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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3073 matches for " brazilian independence "
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As Independências do Brasil: pondera??es teóricas em perspectiva historiográfica
Malerba, Jurandir;
História (S?o Paulo) , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-90742005000100005
Abstract: "brazilian independence" as a subject matter of historical studies dates from the epoch of this historical fact itself. in this essay, one aims to underline this fundamental character of historiography that is its own historicity by means of a comparative analysis of ruling theoretical framework both three decades ago and nowadays.
Alferes Gamboa e a Sociedade Comemorativa da Independência do Império, 1869-1889
Kraay, Hendrik;
Revista Brasileira de História , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-01882011000100002
Abstract: the celebrations of brazilian independence promoted by the society for the commemoration of the empire's independence in rio de janeiro reveal a significant popular engagement with the imperial state. the control of these celebrations by members of the brazilian capital's povo (common people) gradually came to preoccupy both members of the elite, disconcerted at the control of national symbols like the equestrian statue of emperor pedro i by popular patriots, and republicans who rejected the monarchy, since the popular patriots demonstrated a disturbing monarchism. after the death of the society's founder and driving force in 1886, a group of men closely associated with the conservative government took over the society and sought to impose their vision of appropriate, disciplined celebrations.
Brasil e brasileiros: notas sobre modelagem de significados políticos na crise do Antigo Regime português na América
Jancsó, István;
Estudos Avan?ados , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40142008000100017
Abstract: starting from the analysis of the political meaning of brazil and brazilian in documents written by colonists in the mid 18th century, the article shows the analytical importance of the deviant character of the american variants of the ancien régime type portuguese social matrix. working with the concepts of memory and experience, it points out the idea that, once the portuguese national structures of both hemispheres became asymmetric (during the revolutionary conjuncture of the 1820s), they were also unable to fit into the same constitutional framework.
Cidadania e participa??o política na época da Independência do Brasil
Neves, Lúcia Maria Bastos P.;
Cadernos CEDES , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-32622002000300004
Abstract: relying on periodicals and political tracts as its main sources, this paper intends to analyze the period of brazilian independence as an endeavor to establish new ideas and political practices regarding the relationship between individuals and both society and the state. however, this drive toward an authentically public political sphere was cut short by circumstances, which hindered the constitution of a true notion of citizenship. if citizenship and political participation do take a long time to mature in a really public political sphere, this time is even longer in such countries as brazil, ridden almost from the start by the exclusion brought about by large landholdings and slavery.
Monitoring recovery by physical therapists using the FIM scale during rehabilitation programs: An inter-rater and intra-rater reproducibility study  [PDF]
Tommasina Russo, Giorgio Felzani, Mario Giunta, Cristina Di Mascio, Carmine Marini
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2015

Our aim was to evaluate the reproducibility of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale when assessed by physical therapists in the routine setting of a Rehabilitation Hospital. We included a consecutive series of patients with spinal cord or cerebral lesions. Each of the 50 selected patients was evaluated by two of the 5 experienced physical therapists participating in the study. The degree of inter-rater and intrarater agreement was measured by a weighted k statistic, k for perfect agreement, and k for the agreement with tolerance. The weighted k index for inter-rater agreement on the FIM score was in the almost perfect range (k 0.87; 95% CI = 0.79 - 0.95), but a 20-point tolerance was necessary to reach a k value of 0.81 (95% CI = 0.66 - 0.95). Agreement was substantial or almost perfect for most subscales, but the k index with 1-point tolerance reached the almost perfect rating for comprehension only. For intra-rater agreement, weighted k index was in the almost perfect range for the FIM score and for all subscales; kappa index reached the almost perfect range with a 4-point tolerance for FIM score and with 1-point of tolerance for all subscales except interpersonal relations. FIM is useful to monitor patient improvement during rehabilitation treatment, mostly when assessed by the same physical therapist.

Independence Numbers in Trees  [PDF]
Min-Jen Jou, Jenq-Jong Lin
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2015.53003
Abstract: The independence number \"\" of a graph G is the maximum cardinality among all independent sets of G. For any tree T of order n ≥ 2, it is easy to see that \"\". In addition, if there are duplicated leaves in a tree, then these duplicated leaves are all lying in every maximum independent set. In this paper, we will show that if T is a tree of order n ≥ 4 without duplicated leaves, then \"\". Moreover, we constructively characterize the extremal trees T of order n ≥ 4, which are without duplicated leaves, achieving these upper bounds.
Is Independent Choice Possible?  [PDF]
Hitoshi Inamori
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2016.61005
Abstract: This paper questions the generally accepted assumption that one can make a random choice that is independent of the rest of the universe. We give a general description of any setup that could be conceived to generate random numbers. Based on the fact that the initial state of such setup together with its environment cannot be known, we show that the independence of its generated output cannot be guaranteed. Some consequences of this theoretical limitation are discussed.
Zimbabwe, ten years of independent development: a general overview
M. Vandermeulen
Afrika Focus , 1990,
Abstract: not available.
Central Bank’s Independence and Stock Prices  [PDF]
Yutaka Kurihara, Koichiro Morikawa, Sadayoshi Takaya
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.36101
Abstract: Since the end of 1990s, the independence of central bank independence has been discussed. In the past, central banks tried to improve their independence to combat inflation. This independence has been evaluated relative to adequate economic policy and stable economic growth. This article examines the effect of central bank independence on stock market prices and finds evidence for a positive return in developed countries; moreover, for stock prices, economic independence of the central bank seems to be more important than political independence.
Action-Independent Subjective Expected Utility without States of the World  [PDF]
Andreas Duus Pape
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35A2004
Abstract: This paper develops an axiomatic theory of decision-making under uncertainty that has no state-space. The choice setting follows Karni [1,2]: a set of effects (outcomes), a set of actions which induce these effects, and a set of real-valued bets over effects. In Karni’s representation, a preference over action/bet pairs yields utility, which is action-dependent. In our representation, utility is action-independent. This is achieved by augmenting Karni’s choice set with lotteries over actions. Identification is achieved similarly to Anscombe-Aumann [3], in which there are objective “roulette” lotteries over subjective “horse race” lotteries.
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