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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4696 matches for " brain "
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The Play Was Always the Thing: Drama’s Effect on Brain Function  [PDF]
Brian H. Hough, Sigmund Hough
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.36064
Abstract: The brain is a mysterious canvas of actualized and unrealized possibilities. As Diane Ackerman notes, “…each person carries around atop the body a complete universe in which trillions of sensations, thoughts, and desires stream.” Brain science remains uncharted territory despite the significant efforts that have been and are being realized to better understand brain and behavior. More than mere coincidence or happenstance, plays like Shakespeare’s famous “Romeo and Juliet” with great storylines, brilliant costumes, and emotional stimulation continue to survive for ages based upon pure artistic excellence that engages the audience in a unique manner. There is a need to more fully understand how our brains process drama and the manner in which like versus dislike are decided. Most important is the factor of longevity and what makes the appealing quality of drama survive over years across cultural and generational shifts. To speak to this question, drama has been shown to have impressive effects on brain activation but remains conservative in highlighting potentially profound implications. Drama has advantageous benefits to health as well as to essential activities such as learning and personal growth. Drama should not remain underrated in terms of its influence on brain function and the relationship between environment and brain.
Atypical Calcified Ganglioglioma: A Rare Case Report  [PDF]
Seizo Yamashita, Luiz Antonio Resende, Fernanda M. P. Souza, Marco Zanini, Carlos Clayton, André P. Trindade
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/act.2014.31002

Considered rare tumors, gangliogliomas account for 0.4% - 0.9% of intracranial neoplasms. The peak of its incidence occurs between 10 and 20 years of age. These tumors are composed of glial and ganglion cells and they are relatively low-grade neoplasms associated with good prognoses. We report a case of an atypical calcified ganglioglioma in an 18-year-old woman with history of four months of stabbing right-sided parietal headache, paroxysmal. On image studies were noted the presence of thick wall calcification in gangliogliomas. Although rare, this atypical ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions occurring in this area of the brain.

The Sensitivity of Computerized Tomography in Diagnosis of Brain Astrocytomas  [PDF]
E. Abd Elrahim, A. Elzaki, Ali Hassan, A. M. Abd Elgyoum, H. Osman
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.44040
Abstract: Astrocytomas are tumors that arise from astrocytes—star-shaped cells that make up the “glue-like” or supportive tissue of the brain. Astrocytomas can appear in various parts of the brain and nervous system, including the cerebellum, the cerebrum, the central areas of the brain, the brainstem and the spinal cord. The main objective of this study was to detect the sensitivity of the CT scan in diagnosis of the brain astrocytoma, in patients who were confirmed as brain gliomas using computerized tomography of the brain versus brain tissue biopsy after surgery. One hundred and one patients were included in this study. Bio-data collected for these patients (age, gender), radiographic appearance, contrast enhancement and the site of the tumor, were statistically analyzed. Out of the 101 patients with brain gliomas, 52 (51.5%) were male whose ages ranged between 1 and 80 years, and 64 (63.4%) cases were diagnosed as astrocytoma by CT. This study concluded that the CT brain was sensitive in the diagnosis of brain astrocytomas.
The Contribution of EEG to the Diagnosis of Dementia  [PDF]
Davide Vito Moretti
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.78056
Abstract: Changes induced by cerebrovascular damage (CVD) and amigdalo-hippocampal atrophy (AHC) on brain rhythmicity as?revealed?by scalp electroencephalography (EEG) were evaluated in a cohort of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in order to detect different EEG patterns due to the vascular or degenerative impairment. All subjects underwent EEG recording and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). EEGs were recorded at rest. Relative power was separately computed for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and alpha 3 frequency bands. Increased delta power and decreased alpha2 power were associated with the load of cerebrovascular damage (CVD). Moreover, the theta/alpha 1 ratio could be a reliable index for the estimation of the individual extent of CV damage. No association of vascular damage was observed with alpha3 power. On the other side, moderate hippocampal atrophy was related to an increase of alpha2 and alpha3 frequency power ratio. Our results show that different EEG markers are associated to vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). EEG markers could be expression of different global network pathological changes, helping in differentiation of prodromal AD from vascular demented patients. MCI stated that EEG markers could have a prospective value in differential diagnosis between vascular and degenerative MCI.
Cambios Funcionales del Cerebro y Psicología
Cristian Prado Matte
Cuadernos de Neuropsicologia , 2007,
Abstract: Transcription of the Class made by the Dr Cristián Prado Matte, guest professor to the 1° Cycle of Neuroscience and Behavior organized by Neuropsicologia.cl, that was carried out, in its first version, at the Psychology Faculty, University of the Américas Santiago, Chile
Detecting the Stable, Observable and Controllable States of the Human Brain Dynamics  [PDF]
Ehsan Kamrani, Armin N. Foroushani, Mohsen Vaziripour, Mohamad Sawan
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2012.24024
Abstract: A new technique is proposed in this paper for real-time monitoring of brain neural activity based on the balloon model. A continuous-discrete extended Kalman filter is used to estimate the nonlinear model states. The stability, controlla- bility and observability of the proposed model are described based on the simulation and measured clinical data analysis. By introducing the controllable and observable states of the hemodynamic signal we have developed a numerical tech- nique to validate and compare the impact of brain signal parameters affecting on BOLD signal variation. This model increases significantly the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and the speed of brain signal processing. A linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) also has been introduced for optimal control of the model.
Is There Any Indication for Prophylactic Brain Irradiation in the Management of Small Cell Prostate Cancer?  [PDF]
Joseph Kattan, Hampig Kourie, Pierre Sarkis, Joseph Gharios, Joelle Antoun
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.44A001

Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) is an extremely rare pathology with an aggressive behavior, characterized by early brain metastases. We describe three cases of SCPC where brain metastases occurred despite response to chemotherapy. The benefit of prophylactic brain irradiation (PBI), as part of the management of SCPC, is discussed and compared to its indications in small cell lung cancer.

Advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in brain tumours surgical planning  [PDF]
Giada Zoccatelli, Franco Alessandrini, Alberto Beltramello, Andrea Talacchi
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.63A051
Morphological assessment using Computed Tomo-graphy (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is still the workhorse of tumor detection and diagnosis. In particular, MRI provides detailed information about cerebral tumor anatomy, cellular metabolism and hemodynamic features, making it a fundamental tool for a correct diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of the disease. Various new functional imaging modalities assessing tissue microstructure and physiology have increased the scope of neuro imaging and raised expectations among clinicians. This article provides an overview of the most advanced MR imaging techniques (functional MRI, perfusion-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy) now available for neurosurgical planning and their role in brain tumors assessment. Their pros and cons are analyzed in order to find out which one may be chosen as best diagnostic pre-surgical protocol. At the moment none of the single techniques can be considered the golden standard; only the integration of advanced and conventional MR imaging proves to be a reliable tool in the hands of the neuro-radiologist and neurosurgeon, thus maximazing tumor resection and function preservation.
The effects of ultrasound on blood-brain barrier  [PDF]
Feng-Yi Yang, Wei-Ting Lin
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2013.12003

The brain is protected from the entry of foreign substances by blood-brain barrier (BBB), but becomes a barrier while chemotherapy is needed for the brain diseases. Ultrasound with microbubbles (MBs) has been shown to noninvasively increase the permeability of the BBB in the normal tissue and brain tumor. The real mechanism for disruption is still unknown. Hemorrhage was usually found in the sonicated region of the brain. Thus, treatment safety is the primary concern when considering clinical application of BBB disruption induced by ultrasound in the presence of MBs. Here we investigate the effects of ultrasound on the permeability of BBB whether the MBs were administered. The data reveals that Evans blue (EB) accumulation was highest in the brain after sonication with MBs. However, the permeability of BBB also can be significantly increased by ultrasound alone. These results demonstrated that noninvasive disruption of BBB by ultrasound alone with no damage is possible.

Brain Findings Associated with Iodine Deficiency Identified by Magnetic Resonance Methods: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Maria del C. Valdés Hernández, Kirsty L. Wilson, Emilie Combet, Joanna M. Wardlaw
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2013.34030

Objectives: Iodine deficiency (ID) is a common cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation worldwide, according to the World Health Organisation. It may adversely affect brain maturation processes that potentially result in structural and metabolic brain abnormalities, visible on Magnetic Resonance (MR) techniques. Currently, however, there has been no review of the appearance of these brain changes on MR methods. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using 3 online search databases (Medline, Embase and Web of Knowledge) using multiple combinations of the following search terms: iodine, iodine deficiency, magnetic resonance, MRI, MRS, brain, imaging and iodine deficiency disorders (i.e. hypothyroxinaemia, congenital hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism and cretinism). Results: Up to May 2013, 1673 related papers were found. Of these, 29 studies confirmed their findings directly using MR Imaging and/or MR Spectroscopy. Of them, 28 were in humans and involved 157 subjects, 46 of whom had primary hypothyroidism, 97 had congenital hypothyroidism, 3 had endemic cretinism and 11 had subclinical hypothyroidism. The studies were small, with a mean relevant sample size of 6, median 2, range 1 - 35, while 14 studies were individual case reports. T1-weighted was the most commonly used MRI sequence (20/29 studies) and 1.5 Tesla was the most commonly used magnet strength (6/10 studies that provided this information). Pituitary abnormalities (18/29 studies) and cerebellar atrophy (3/29 studies) were the most prevalent brain abnormalities found. Only fMRI studies (3/29) reported cognition-related abnormalities but the brain changes found were limited to a visual description in all studies. Conclusions: More studies that use MR methods to identify changes on brain volume or other global structural abnormalities and explain the mechanism of ID causing thyroid dysfunction and hence cognitive damage are required. Given the role of MR techniques in cognitive studies, this review provides a starting point for researching the macroscopic structural brain changes caused by ID.

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