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Objective: To examine the association between education and blood pressure in hypertensive Chinese. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the health care center of a university affiliated hospital in 2008 to enroll 502 mild to moderate essential hypertensive patients. All participants completed a questionnaire addressing their sociodemographic information before they were given a routine physical check-up. Results: The baseline blood pressure was 151.87/95.76 mmHg for 277 females and 149.80/97.74 mmHg for 225 males. Only few women reported smoke (4%, n = 11) or drink alcohol (6.9%, n = 19). Over half of men smoke and drink (63.2% and 52.9% respectively). Alcohol consumption was found different among educational attainment groups in males. Correlation analyses demonstrated that education was inversely related to systolic blood pressure in female hypertensives. Conclusion: Education is associated with blood pressure in females.
Because of the paucity of serial blood pressure data on the same individuals, little is known about the accuracy of elevated blood pressure (BP) in childhood for predicting hypertension (HBP) later in life. The availability of long-term serial BP data from the Fels Longitudinal Study (FLS) presents the opportunity to link HBP in adulthood directly to BP measured decades earlier in the same individuals as children. We analyzed serial data from 965 men and 1114 women in the FLS. We used an autoregressive-moving average (1, 1) [ARMA (1, 1)] longitudinal model to predict adult HBP from childhood values. For 15-year-old boys with SBP 15 mmHg and 30 mmHg above the average SBP of 90 mmHg, the probabilities of having HBP at age 35 are 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The corresponding probabilities for 15-year-old girls are only 0.04 and 0.08. This striking sex difference in risk of HBP at age 35 between 15-year-old boys and girls indicates that the risk of developing HBP in women is low regardless of their childhood blood pressure at any age from 2 to 17 years. Men are about 4.25 times more likely to have HBP at age 35 than women over a range of SBP of 90 - 140 mmHg at age 15. The ARMA (1, 1) model allows the identification of boys at risk for HBP as adult men.