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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13289 matches for " blood pressure "
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A method for retrieving the waveform of the pressure pulsations from the output of an electronic oscillometer  [PDF]
K. Razi Naqvi, Tamas Jávorfi, Camer W. Vellani
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2008.12012
Abstract: In the most common version of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor, the output from the pressure transducer, Y(t), is split into two parts, and used for separate determinations of the pressure inside the pneumatic cuff and its fluc-tuating part; the latter is derived by sending Y(t) to a high-pass filter (HPF) and amplifying the fil-tered part to obtain the oscillometric signal O(t). Using a typical HPF-amplifier combination, we show that if p(t), the pulsatile part of the cuff pressure, is defined to be a train of positive-going pulses, O(t) turns out to be rather close but not identical to dp/dt, and to demonstrate that one can easily retrieve p(t) from a record of O(t). This means that, with a small modification, the instrument can provide both p(t) and dp/dt; the practical advantages of this demonstration are pointed out.
Blood Pressure and Depressive Symptoms  [PDF]
Yongpin Mu, Yongqing Gao, Wenjie Sun
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2013.24009
Abstract: The topic of blood pressure and depression is an old question. Depression is common in the elderly population (Sun, School- ing, Chan, Ho, & Lam, 2011). Although several epidemiologic studies have assessed the relationship between low blood pres- sure and depressive symptoms in geriatric populations, the results have been inconsistent. Depressive symptoms used to be been considered a risk factor associated with development of hypertension (Hildrum, Romild, & Holmen, 2011).
Bone blood flow is influenced by muscle contractions  [PDF]
Jan Erik N?slund, Sofie N?slund, Erik Lundeberg, Lars-G?ran Lindberg, Iréne Lund
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2011.47062
Abstract: Forces acting on the skeleton could be divided into those originating from gravitational loading and those originating from muscle loading. Flat bones in a non-weight-baring segment of the skeleton probably experience forces mostly generated by muscle contractions. One purpose of muscle contractions is to generate blood flow within skeletal tissues. The present study aimed to investigate the pulsatile patellar bone blood flow after low and high intensity leg extension exercises. Forty-two healthy individuals volunteered for the study. Dynamic isotonic one leg extension/flexion exercises were performed in a leg extension machine. Randomly, the exercises were performed with the left or right leg with either 10 repetition maximum (10 RM) continuously without any resting periods (high intensity muscle work), or 20 RM with a 2 second rest between contractions (low intensity muscle work). The work load, expressed in kilograms totally lifted, was identical in both legs. The pulsatile patellar blood flow was recorded continuously using a photoplethysmographic technique. Blood pressure was measured continuously during muscle work by a non-invasive method (Finapress). The patellar pulsatile bone blood flow increased significantly more after high intensity muscle work (61%) compared to the same work load performed using a lower intensity (22%), p = 0.000073. Systolic blood pressure changed equally during and after both interventions. Post-exercise bone hyperaemia appears to be correlated to the intensity of muscle contractions in the muscle compartment attached to the bone.
Increased free androgen index is associated with hypertension in premenopausal women  [PDF]
Liselott Andersson, Mats Eliasson, Inger Sundstr?m Poromaa
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.14045
Abstract: Objective: Increased testosterone and decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are associated with a number of adverse cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. The aim of this population-based study of women aged 25 to 50 was to assess the relationship between free androgen index (FAI) and cardiovascular risk factors in premenopausal women. Methods: A population-based survey of 396 premenopausal women with no hormonal treatment was undertaken as part of the Northern MONICA study. The study involved questionnaires, anthropometry and assays of testosterone and SHBG. Results: Increased FAI was associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors in premenopausal women but this relationship was strongly affected by body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, FAI was significantly associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism is associated with increased blood pressure and these findings emphasize the need to assess cardiovascular risk factors in women with hyperandrogenism of all ages.
Associations of Education with Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients: A Chinese Community Survey  [PDF]
Xiaojun Chen, Xuerui Tan
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2013.43014
Abstract:

Objective: To examine the association between education and blood pressure in hypertensive Chinese. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the health care center of a university affiliated hospital in 2008 to enroll 502 mild to moderate essential hypertensive patients. All participants completed a questionnaire addressing their sociodemographic information before they were given a routine physical check-up. Results: The baseline blood pressure was 151.87/95.76 mmHg for 277 females and 149.80/97.74 mmHg for 225 males. Only few women reported smoke (4%, n = 11) or drink alcohol (6.9%, n = 19). Over half of men smoke and drink (63.2% and 52.9% respectively). Alcohol consumption was found different among educational attainment groups in males. Correlation analyses demonstrated that education was inversely related to systolic blood pressure in female hypertensives. Conclusion: Education is associated with blood pressure in females.

Fasting in Ramadan Affects Cognitive and Physiological Function in Normal Subjects (Pilot Study)  [PDF]
Abdulrahman M. Alsharidah, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhannad M. Alsharidah, Shahid Bashir
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2016.72007
Abstract: Purpose: Our study aimed to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive and physiological function in a group of healthy Muslim subjects. Methods: We measured demographic, physiological (blood pressure), and cognitive function including attention switching task (AST) and delayed matching to sample (DMS) using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the second week in Ramadan) in 15 subjects. Results: During fasting, performance on the AST test improved significantly for switching cost (p = 0.030) and for congruent condition of AST task (p = 0.043), for diastolic pressure decreased (p = 0.069) in healthy subjects. There was no significant effect for incongruent condition and number of errors and percent to complete task for DMS test and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions: The results suggest that Ramadan fasting is associated with significant changes in cognition, and causes a drop in diastolic blood pressure in healthy subject.
Traditional Medicine Followed at the Heart Institute of Abidjan  [PDF]
Fatoumata Traoré, Kamagaté Djenamba Bamba, Yves N’da Kouakou Ngoran, Florent Koffi, Marie Paule Mottoh, Soya Esaie, I. Coulibaly
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2017.79027
Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence of the use of traditional medicine in?hypertensive patients and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of these patients. Materials and Methods: This is a single cross-sectionalstudy with descriptive purpose that was carried out over a 4 month-period, from 1 January 2017 to 30 April 2017, in the outpatient department of the Heart Institute of Abidjan. It involved patients who consulted during this period for high blood pressure. An informed questionnaire was submitted to patients. A pre-test was performed on 20 patients prior to the start of the survey. Results: The prevalence was 34%, with a slight male predominance (52.4%). The average age of our patients was 51.7 years ± 20 years. Males (52.4%) and females (47.6%) were roughly in the same proportions in our study with a slight male predominance. Patients with a higher level of education used traditional medicine in 30.6% that is about one third of the cases. Nearly one third of the patients had a monthly income above 300,000 FCFA (28.5%). Almost half of the patients (45%) had social insurance coverage. Conclusion: The use of traditional medicine by hypertensive patients is a practice that exists and is growing rapidly. The profile of hypertensive patients using traditional medicine can be summarized as a young subject, a male with a higher education level, a high monthly income and social coverage. It is the place to insist on the therapeutic education of our hypertensive patients only way for a good control of the blood pressure figures.
A Study of the Relationship between the Taste Sensitivity of Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and Blood Pressure (Random Sample from the Students of Qurna College/Basrah-Iraq)  [PDF]
Hasna Amir Mohaus, Asaad Y. Ayied
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.611001
Abstract: The present study aimed to detect the relationship between taste sensitivity of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and pressure (systolic and diastolic) among a group of 138 individuals of both sexes (64 males and 74 females), representing a random sample of students and some professors of, aged (20 - 50) years. The study also included the relationship between eating salted foods and their effect on pressure among males and females of tasters and non-tasters of (PTC) substance. The results showed an increase in the proportion of the phenotypic style of tasters compared to non-tasters among males (75%, 25%) and females (77.03%, 22.97%) respectively. The average of systolic pressure was (117.91 mm/Hg, 107.06 mm/Hg) and diastolic (78.22 mm/Hg, 68.71 mm/Hg) among tasters and on-tasters for both sexes respectively. The results showed significant differences in systolic pressure among non-tasters female compared to their counterpart tasters [X2 (DF = 1) 5.783, P ≤ 0.05]. Such an effect doesn’t appear among males. The results showed an increase of non-tasters (66.58%) among those with abnormal blood pressure and (68.42%) of those who consumed salted foods.
The predictive value of childhood blood pressure values for adult elevated blood pressure  [PDF]
Robert J. Carrico, Shumei S. Sun, Adam P. Sima, Bernard Rosner
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.32022
Abstract:

Because of the paucity of serial blood pressure data on the same individuals, little is known about the accuracy of elevated blood pressure (BP) in childhood for predicting hypertension (HBP) later in life. The availability of long-term serial BP data from the Fels Longitudinal Study (FLS) presents the opportunity to link HBP in adulthood directly to BP measured decades earlier in the same individuals as children. We analyzed serial data from 965 men and 1114 women in the FLS. We used an autoregressive-moving average (1, 1) [ARMA (1, 1)] longitudinal model to predict adult HBP from childhood values. For 15-year-old boys with SBP 15 mmHg and 30 mmHg above the average SBP of 90 mmHg, the probabilities of having HBP at age 35 are 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The corresponding probabilities for 15-year-old girls are only 0.04 and 0.08. This striking sex difference in risk of HBP at age 35 between 15-year-old boys and girls indicates that the risk of developing HBP in women is low regardless of their childhood blood pressure at any age from 2 to 17 years. Men are about 4.25 times more likely to have HBP at age 35 than women over a range of SBP of 90 - 140 mmHg at age 15. The ARMA (1, 1) model allows the identification of boys at risk for HBP as adult men.

Changes in Brachial and Central Blood Pressure after Short Term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment of Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Impaired Renal Function  [PDF]
Bodil G. Hornstrup, Pia H. Gj?rup, Jost Wessels, Thomas G. Lauridsen, Erling B. Pedersen, Jesper N. Bech
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2019.91001
Abstract: Background: Previous studies of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) have shown conflicting results on the effect on blood pressure (BP), and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been included in these studies. As OSA is a frequent comorbidity in patients with CKD, it is of relevance to evaluate the effect of CPAP treatment on BP in this population. Aim: In this prospective follow-up study, we measured the effect of short term CPAP treatment of moderate-to-severe OSA on brachial and central BP, plasma level of syndecan-1 and vasoactive hormones, renal handling of sodium, subjective sleepiness, and quality of life in patients with impaired renal function. Methods: From December 2015 until March 2017, 25 patients were invited to participate in the study at the University Clinic in Nephrology and Hypertension, Aarhus University and Holstebro Hospital. At baseline and at follow-up after three to four months of CPAP treatment, we performed 24 h brachial and central ambulatory BP measurement, blood sampling measurements of plasma concentrations of syndecan-1, renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, vasopressin, creatinine, haemoglobin A1c, and cholesterol, cardio respiratory monitoring, 24 h urine collection for measurement of urinary excretion of albumin, aquaporin-2, and epithelial sodium channel, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and SF-36 (quality of life). Results: At follow-up, the 17 included patients with mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate 66 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a significant decrease in systolic office-, 24 h- and daytime-BP (13, 7, and 8 mmHg, respectively, p < 0.05), a non-significant reduction of nocturnal BP (6 mmHg). No changes was measured in frequency of non-dipping or in central 24 h-, day- and nighttime-BP. Renal function remained unchanged, but urinary albumin excretion fell. ESS was unchanged. Quality of life improved. Conclusion: Short-term CPAP treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe OSA and reduced renal function decreased 24 h- and daytime-BP significantly and reduced urinary albumin excretion. Our results underline the importance of treatment of OSA in hypertensive patients with impaired renal function.
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