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Floristic, Structural, and Conservation Analysis of the Habitats Occupied by Dupont’s Lark, Chersophilus duponti, in the Northwest Edge of Its Distributional Range  [PDF]
Juan Luis Aguirre, Carlos Talabante, Alejandro Aparicio, Manuel Peinado
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.69049
Abstract: This paper describes and analyzes floristic, structural and conservation features of the shrubland occupied by Chersophilus duponti in the northwest corner of its world distribution range. This study relates the coverage, floristic composition with estimated lark density in the area. We identified four types of shrublands, three of them varied significantly in floristic composition for the habitats of this species in contrast with those of their world distribution: Cistus ladanifer scrubs; heaths dominated by Ericaceae, and scrubs dominated by the genera Lavandula, Thymus and Cytisus. The fourth type, dominated by aromatic chamaephytes and grass, fits descriptions of the bird’s typical habitat. The areas sampled are subject to different categories of threats, the most significant being the natural succession process due to the cessation of grazing, reforestation measures and the use of flat areas for farmlands or other uses. The density of larks in this area was directly related to coverage-composition of plant community.
The Influence of Avian Biodiversity and a Weedy Understorey on Canopy Arthropod Assembly  [PDF]
Kathryn Teare Ada Lambert, Nigel R. Andrew, Paul G. McDonald
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.416083

Identifying the factor causing species decline from a multitude of potential disturbances is essential for successful management. Invasive species are often drivers of decline, either through direct effects such as recruitment limitation, or through indirect effects such as habitat modification that facilitate biota changes in other taxa. In this study, we tested the importance of bird predation on arthropods in eucalypt canopies in wet sclerophyll forest that had been invaded by the understorey weed Lantana camara. A strong top-down effect is in agreement with studies that show elevated numbers of insectivorous birds, such as the despotic bell miner, Manorina melanophrys, reduce damaging herbivorous insect numbers and their effect on tree health. Abundance, order and family composition were compared among sites, feeding guilds, among the presence and absence of a despotic bird, and among presence and absence within sites, using a three-way nested Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), and tested our representation of insect feeding guilds with rarefaction curves. In total, we found arthropods from 20 families on eucalypt trees, 16 where bell miners were present and 18 where they were absent (a sampling efficiency of 78% and 92% of families based on the Chao-I index). Overall, there was a difference in the abundance of insects in areas where bell miners were present (n = 181), and where they were absent (n = 67). There was also a difference in the families present in areas with bell miners and without them. Under some conditions, despotic birds may not change the insect canopy community. Further studies should examine the effects of a despotic bird on the insect canopy community in a variety of conditions and throughout their range.

Aves del Parque General San Martín (Mendoza): Distribución y características
Gómez,Viviana E.;
Multequina , 2006,
Abstract: birds of general san martín park (mendoza-argentina) were surveyed. their zones of action were defined, seasonal changes in composition and structure were analyzed, and observations on ecology and behaviour of birds were made. the work was carried out between january 2000 and january 2004. for the surveys, the 420 ha of the park were divided into 11 areas, called ornithological areas, according to the principal avenues and floristic differences. four areas were studied on a daily basis, staying for 30 minutes in each one during three days a week. behaviours, action areas, and daily and seasonal abundance were recorded. sixty-three bird species were recorded belonging to 25 families and 14 orders. passeriforms was the most representative order and tyrannidae the most diverse family. the highest daily abundance coincided with sunny days after a rain. the period of highest abundance coincided with the arrival of migratory species. the most diverse area was characterized by its variation in exotic and native plant species.
Rarity of birds in the Jaú National Park, Brazilian Amazon
S. H. Borges
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2006,
Abstract: The rarity patterns of 368 bird species recorded in the Jaú National Park (JNP), Brazilian Amazon, were analysed using the method of seven forms of rarity based on the interaction of geographical distribution, habitat specificity, and local population size. Rare species were identified in a wide taxonomic, ecologic and body size spectrum, indicating the complexity of distinguishing rare and common species. Birds with large populations tended to occupy several habitats in a highly significant relationship. General rarity was not correlated with body size. Birds foraging in ground, understory and antbirds (Thamnophilidae and Formicariidae), were identified as especially rare in JNP. The method of seven forms of rarity is useful as a first step in identifying rare species for conservation purposes since it considers several biological features at once.
Histoplasmose disseminada aguda em indivíduo imunocompetente
Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco;Lopes, Silvia Karine de Albuquerque;Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus;Nogueira, Teresa Neuma Albuquerque Gomes;Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132004000300014
Abstract: histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by inhalation of histoplasma capsulatum fungus. the disease does not normally affect immunocompetent individuals after a single, transient inhalation exposure. however, longer exposure may cause chronic or disseminated acute pulmonary infection. in immunocompromised patients, the infection is disseminated and severe. we report the case of a 13-year-old immunocompetent patient, presenting with fever, cough and dyspnea for one month. the chest x-ray and computed tomography scan revealed interstitial infiltrate and diffuse micronodules. the patient reported having had close and prolonged contact with birds. he was submitted to an open lung biopsy and the tissue culture was positive for histoplasma capsulatum sp. he was treated with amphotericin b for 28 days, followed by treatment with itraconazole for 6 months, and there was complete resolution of the disease.
Hinojosa-Sáez,Ana; González-Acu?a,Daniel;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382005000200004
Abstract: in chile 33 publications of wild bird helminths were reviewed. 22 families and 34 genues of helminths were identified. among the host birds, the orders charadriiformes and pelecaniformes were the most frequently reported. this study complements the partial list elaborated by cattan (1995)
Blood parasites in some birds from eastern plains of Colombia
Rodríguez, Oscar A;Matta, Nubia E;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000800026
Abstract: a total of 315 birds representing 75 species (23 families) from villavicencio and san miguel (meta, colombia) were examined for haematozoa. fifty birds (15.9%) harbored blood parasites. microfilariae were the most common haematozoans encountered, followed by species of the genera haemoproteus, plasmodium and trypanosoma. this survey included 15 new host-parasite records and 8 species of birds that were examined for haematozoa for the first time. the prevalence registered in this research was similar to others recorded in the neotropical region, but in sharp contrast with the prevalence of blood parasites in other major land masses.
First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae) in birds
Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A;Castro, Ana Teresa;Herrera, Silvia;Ponce, Francisco;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000700013
Abstract: in studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (struthio camelus) in spain, trophozoites of retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. the species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. however, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus retortamonas in birds.
Nematode parasites of Brazilian psittacid birds, with emphasis on the genus Pelecitus railliet & Henry, 1910
Pinto, Roberto Magalh?es Pinto;Vicente, J. Julio;Noronha, Dely;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761993000200016
Abstract: in the present paper, some species of nematodes from brazilian parrots are studied: aproctapyrrhurae. ascaridia hermaphrodita, a. sergiomeirai, pelecitus circularis and p. helicinus. single female specimens of pelecitus sp. and thelazia sp. are presented. the male of p. circularis is fully illustrated, for the first time, since 1884. ascaridia sergiomeirai is also restudied 59 years after proposition. new host records are estabilished. remarks on other species of nematodes occuring in psittacid birds are included.
Osteossíntese de úmero em pombos domésticos (Columba livia) associando-se pinos metálicos e polimetilmetacrilato intramedulares após osteotomia diafisária
Alievi, M.M.;Oliveira, A.N.C.;Ferreira, P.A.;Traesel, C.;Guimar?es, L.D.;Flores, F.;Silva, S.F.;Schossler, J.E.W.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352008000400011
Abstract: twenty-eight adult domestic pigeons (columba livia) were randomly divided into four groups of seven birds each. anesthesia was performed with isoflurane and oxygen, and an osteotomy of the right humerus midshaft was performed with an electric cutter. on the sequence, one of the following treatments was chosen: group i, two kirschner pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary; group ii, two schanz pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary; group iii, two kirschner pins only; and group iv, two schanz pins only. the mean time ± standard deviation for fracture healing was 29±4.04 days in group i; 24±5.29 days in group ii; 33±3.74 days in group iii; 32.9±5.21 days in group iv. pin migration was observed in 42.9% of the group i animals, 0% of group ii, 85.7% of group iii, and 28.6% of group iv. two pigeons of groups i, iii, and iv presented flight incapability. the results suggest that two schanz pins and polymethylmethacrylate intramedullary are an effective method of humeral ostheosynthesis in domestic pigeons (columba livia), resulting in faster fracture healing with minimal complications.
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