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The Philosophy of Psychiatry and Biologism
Marco Stier,Bettina Schoene-Seifert,Markus Rüther
Frontiers in Psychology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01032
Abstract: In the philosophy of psychiatry, there has been an ongoing dispute about the capabilities and limits of the bio-natural sciences as a source of methods and knowledge for quite some time now. Still, many problems remain unsolved. This is at least in part due to the regrettable fact that the opposing parties are far too rarely prepared to swap ideas and to try to increase their mutual understanding. On the one hand there are those—psychiatrists as well as philosophers—who maintain a more mentalistic and/or phenomenalistic view of the psyche and its disturbances. On the other hand there are researchers who follow biologically inspired strategies: Since the human mind is something through and through biological, mental diseases, too, can and should be explained and treated biologically. Even though there are examples of fruitful collaboration, in general the split prevails. One often gets the impression that both sides remain in their "trenches", busy with confirming each other's opinions and developing their positions in isolation. Even though there are also examples of fruitful collaboration, the split leads to several shortcomings: (1) Good arguments and insights from both sides of the debate get less attention than they deserve. (2) The further improvement of each position becomes harder without criticism, genuinely motivated by the opposing standpoint. (3) The debate is not going to stop, at least not in the way it would finish after a suggested solution finds broad support. (4) Related to this, insisting on the ultimate aptness of one side is just plainly wrong in almost every case, since undeniably, most philosophical positions usually have a grain of truth hidden in them. In sum, many controversies persist with regard to the appropriate methodological, epistemological, and even ontological level for psychiatric explanation and therapies. In a conference which took place in December 2011 in Muenster, Germany, we tried to contribute to a better understanding about what really is at issue in the philosophy of psychiatry. We asked for a possible common basis for several positions, for points of divergence, and for the practical impact of different solutions on everyday work in psychiatry. The present Frontiers research topic is a fruit of that conference. Since psychiatry is a subject too wide to be covered in toto, this research topic collects six target articles, each focusing a particular aspect. They are accompanied by a number of commentaries providing both critical and supportive arguments. First, Henrik Walter sets the stage by presenting what he
'Onbeschaamde geleerden hebben zijn naaktheid betast.' Het vertoog over genealiteit, waanzin en degeneratie in Belgi omstreeks 1900
R. de Bont
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2002,
Abstract: 'Impudent scholars have fondled his naked body.' The discourse on genius, madness and degeneracy in Belgium around 1900 In the late nineteenth century two publications on the subject of 'genius' provoked a storm of controversy. The first, by Cesare Lombroso entitled 'L'uomo di genio' (1888), emphasized the various links between genius and madness. The second, by Max Nordau entitled 'Entartung' (1892), set out to prove that a large number of well-known artists of the time were in fact pseudo-geniuses and degenerates. In response to these publications a debate got under way among Belgian artists and scientists concerning the relationship between genius, madness and degeneracy. Most of those taking part in the debate opted to separate the notion of genius from the other two concepts. This way, 'the man of genius' could preserve his übermensch' status throughout the debates. This does not mean that one uniform concept of genius prevailed. In fact, the way it was defined in practice left ample room to project the prevailing values of various subgroups in society.
No change of attitude toward forensic psychiatry: 5 years after the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act in Japan  [PDF]
Akihiro Shiina, Kyoji Okita, Mihisa Fujisaki, Yoshito Igarashi, Masaomi Iyo
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32017

Objective: The forensic mental health system in Japan changed dramatically with the enforcement of the “Act on Medical Care and Treatment for the Persons Who Had Caused Serious Cases under the Condition of Insanity” or MTS Act, in 2005. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in attitude and behavior of general psychiatrists, towards forensic psychiatry. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey in 2010 on forensic psychiatry for Japanese psychiatrists, mirroring a previous study from 2007. Results: Comparing the results from both questionnaires, it is not evident that awareness of forensic mental health has improved among psychiatrists in the intervening three years. Conclusion: Further education about forensic mental health needs to be considered inJapan.

Difficult-to-Treat-Depression and GPs’ Role: Perceptions of Psychiatry Registrars  [PDF]
Kay M. Jones, Leon Piterman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44037
Abstract: Introduction: For patients, GPs are the most accessible medical resource in the community and are the gatekeepers to other community resources including psychiatrists. Qualifying as a psychiatrist in Australia involves completing a five-year training program that includes rotations in hospitals and community settings. The aims of this research were to 1) explore psychiatry registrars’ perceptions of difficult-to-treat-depression (DTTD) and 2) what they thought about the GPs’ role in this regard. Methods: A semi-structured interview schedule comprising six questions was used; 10 psychiatry registrars (6 females, 4 males) participated in a one-and-half-hour focus group. All were in their final year of training and undertaking a training post in a public hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Findings: Similar to GPs and GP trainees, psychiatry registrars’ perceptions and understanding of DTTD varied. While acknowledging limited experience in diagnosis and management, issues important to them included the utility of labels such as DTTD; patients distressed because of another diagnosis, substance abuse and/or life problems, the importance of accurate histories and notes, cost and limited availability of services particularly in the private sector, prescribing regimens, referring to allied health professionals, and suggesting/prescribing non pharmacological and/or complementary treatment. Also what was of concern was communication, both between health professionals and between health professionals and patients. Consensus was that treating depression in general practice is one of the hardest things for GPs to manage but there was value in using mental health plans. Discussion and Conclusion: While this cohort was small in number with limited experience, this study is the first to contribute to the literature that provides some insight into psychiatry registrars’ experiences and perceptions of DTTD. Outcomes may have implications for thepsychiatry training program and GPs who diagnose and manage patients with mental health problems.
Interprofessional Communication and Relationships in the Management of “Difficult to Treat” Depression: Perceptions of the Role of General Practitioners  [PDF]
Kay M. Jones, Leon Piterman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.53029
Abstract: Background: Team based care is an essential ingredient of chronic disease management including chronic mental illness. Effective health care teams include members who have defined, yet intersecting roles, where mutual respect characterises professional interaction and the patient’s well-being is central. The aim was to explore the perception of psychologists, psychiatry registrars and psychiatrists with respect to GPs’ role in managing difficult-to-treat-depression (DTTD). Methods: A previously developed semi-structured interview schedule comprising six questions was used. Thirty-two health professionals participated. Data were analysed using the Framework method. Findings: Four main themes emerged: 1) The team approach was important, particularly to ensure information accuracy and/or when responding to patient needs and pressures; 2) Referrals, usually generated by GPs can be a vehicle for other health professionals to provide advice to the GP; 3) Availability and accessibility often depended on health professionals work location and knowing how to navigate the system; 4) Limited availability of government funding impacts on patients’ accessibility to health professionals. Discussion: Interprofessional relationships were described as paramount. Appropriate and timely referrals are integral to patient management, regardless of challenges. Ongoing challenges include program funding, workforce numbers and costs to patients. Improvement to mental health care access was noted, even for patients among relatively disadvantaged groups and those receiving Medicare Benefits Schedule-subsidised services. Conclusion: Despite adequate GP/specialist communication, the delivery of optimal team based care to patients with difficult-to-treat depression is compromised by lack of access to specialised services and inadequate funding.
óscar Folino,Jorge;
Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría , 2005,
Abstract: this articlesdescribes forensic psychiatry in humorous terms. forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of general psychiatrysthat comprises,samong others, the following topics: violence, fitness to stand trial, insanity defense, psychological harm, psychiatric malpractice, child custody, sexual abuse and confidentiality.
Mesa Azuero,José Gregorio;
Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría , 2005,
Abstract: this paper describes the role of psychiatrists in the new adversary judicial system, the need for change in their process and the features of the expert witness, the expert adviser and finally, those of the clinical psychiatrist who is called upon to take the stand and testify about a part of his knowledge or about a patient.
Assessment of Drawing Age of Children in Early Childhood and Its Correlates  [PDF]
Saziye Senem Basgul, Ozden Sukran Uneri, Gulcan Basar Akkaya, Nilay Etiler, Aysen Coskun
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.24059
Abstract: The drawing ability of children develops parallel to their mental and physical development. The present study aims to investigate the compatibility of children’s drawings with their mental and physical development and variables affecting this compatibility in early childhood. Methods: Children between the ages 3 and 5 were asked to draw a human/child figure on a given sheet of paper and their drawings were analyzed. Results: 175 children were evaluated. The mean age was found to be 3.94 ± 0.81 and the mean drawing age was 3.42 ± 1.75. The drawing age was found to be statistically lower than the calendar age. It was found that children who had low birth weights, who did not go to kindergarten and who masturbated had lower drawing age. Low drawing age was not found to be related with psychological disorders. Discussion: Drawing can be utilized by mental health professionals as an important assessment tool for young children. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to generalize.
Cultural Influences on the Presentation of Depression  [PDF]
Ahmed Mohamed Abdel Shafi, Reem Mohamed Abdel Shafi
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44045

Depression is predicted to become the second highest disease burden by 2020 as well as being a common mental health condition across the globe. Nevertheless, the presentation of depression varies depending on several factors with the patient’s cultural background playing a significant role. Although depression is such a universal condition, the manner of how a patient presents not only affects the clinician’s ability to make a diagnosis, but ultimately affects the wellbeing of the patient. It is therefore paramount that as clinicians we appreciate how culture not only affects the presentation of depression but also how cultural beliefs affect the patient’s acceptance of such a diagnosis.

The Philosophical Foundations of Psychiatry in the Ancient Greece  [PDF]
José E. Mu?oz-Negro, Juan F. Mula-Ponce, Josefa M. López-Pérez, José Pablo Martínez-Barbero, Jorge A. Cervilla
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.83020
Abstract: The object of study of Psychiatry is hybrid, that is, it is both natural and social. It combines the methods of natural Sciences and those of social Sciences. Currently, Psychiatry is the branch of Medicine where epistemological and hermeneutical conflicts are more than evident; it is the medical discipline where this debate is most intense and problematic. However, the conceptual foundations of all these debates and conflicts are already preconfigured within the framework of the Greek philosophy of the Classical period. Without knowing these conceptual foundations it is impossible to adequately clarify all these conflicting aspects. During the period of Classical Greece it was the time when the conceptual foundations and rationale of the tekné iatriké (of which Psychiatry was and is a part) were established as well as the theoretical principles of epistemological issues such as the validity of categories, the controversy between diagnostic categories and psychopathological dimensions, the approach towards both subjectivity and phenomenology, the inquiry for Psychopathology, the concept of mental health, the possibilities and limits of the scientific method in Psychiatry, the role of Psychotherapy and, naturally, some key ethical issues in mental health, such as the existence of the stigma on psychiatric disorders and all of the problems raised by the coercitive practices. To answer all of these questions, a review of the literature on this topic has been made in this paper, as well as a discussion and analysis of the key points of the epistemological and ethical debate.
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