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Efecto de la extrusión sobre la biodisponibilidad de proteína y almidón en mezclas de harinas de maíz y frijol lima
Pérez-Navarrete,Cecilia; Betancur-Ancona,David; Casotto,Meris; Carmona,Andrés; Tovar,Juscelino;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2007,
Abstract: effect of extrusion on protein and starch bioavailability in corn and lima bean flour blends. extrusion is used to produce crunchy expanded foods, such as snacks. the nutritional impact of this process has not been studied sufficiently. in this study, in vitro and in vivo protein and starch bioavailability was evaluated in both raw and extruded corn (zea mays)(c) and lima bean (phaseolus lunatus)(b) flour blends, prepared in 75c/25b and 50c/ 50b (p/p) proportions. these were processed with a brabender extruder at 160°c, 100 rpm and 15.5% moisture content. proximate composition showed that in the extruded products protein and ash contents increased whereas the fat level decreased. in vitro protein digestibility was higher in the extrudates (82%) than in the raw flours (77%). potentially available starch and resistant starch contents decreased with extrusion. the in vitro assays indicated that extrusion improved protein and starch availability in the studied blends. in vivo bioavailability was evaluated using the rice weevil (sithophilus oryzae) as a biological model. the most descriptive biomarkers of the changes suggested by the in vivo tests were body protein content (increased by extrusion) and intestinal α-amylase activity (decreased by processing). overall, results suggest that extrusion notably increases the nutritional quality of corn and lima bean flour blends
Administration of Levothyroxine 45 - 60 Minutes before Breakfast Improves Biochemical Availability as Evidenced by Reduced Thyrotropin Levels  [PDF]
Shivshankar Seechurn, Sanjeev Sharma, Samson Oyibo
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2012.23005
Abstract: Introduction: Serum Thyrotropin (TSH) level is used to assess adequacy of levothyroxine dosing for patients with hypothyroidism. Some patients have raised TSH levels despite being on an adequate dose of levothyroxine (100 mcg/day - 200 mcg/day). Aim: To evaluated the effect of advising patients to take their levothyroxine 45 - 60 minutes before breakfast on raised serum TSH levels. Patients and Methods: Rather than increase the dose, patients with raised TSH levels were asked to take their levothyroxine at least 45 - 60 minutes before breakfast and other oral medications. Thyroid Function Tests were assessed at base line and repeated after two months. Results: Data from ten patients who presented between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed (9 females, 1 male): With median (IQR) age: 39 (33 - 49) years and duration of hypothyroidism: 6 (3 - 7.8) years. Median (IQR) levothyroxine dose was 175 (144 - 250) mcg, serum free-Thyroxine (free-T4): 13 (10.5 - 17.1) pmol/L and serum TSH: 12.63 (6.2 - 48.3) mIU/L. After two months all patients demonstrated biochemical improvement; a decrease in serum TSH to 3.15 (0.4 - 6.1) mIU/L accompanied by an increase in serum free-T4 to 17.7 (14.8 - 21.3) pmol/L. Both changes were statistically significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The median (IQR) percentage TSH reduction was 83.5 (40.3 - 95.8) mIU/L and this bore no significant correlation with the initial TSH level (rs = 0.2, p = 0.58). Conclusion: Changing levothyroxine administration to 45 - 60 minutes before breakfast and other oral medications reduced TSH levels by 40% - 96% in all patients. We recommend this advice for all patients with hypothyroidism on adequate doses of levothyroxine but still appear biochemically under-replaced.
Pharmacokinetic Study of Nanoparticulate Curcumin: Oral Formulation for Enhanced Bioavailability  [PDF]
R. Ravichandran
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43037

Curcumin, a bioactive component of turmeric, which is a commonly used spice and nutritional supplement, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). In recent years, the potential pharmacological actions of Curcumin in inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and neurological disorders have been shown. However, the clinical application of Curcumin is severely limited by its main drawbacks such as instability, low solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Multifarious nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for Curcumin including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, nanoemulsions, complexes and dendrimer/dimer, have been attempted to enhance the oral bioavailability, biological activity or tissue-targeting ability of Curcumin. We attempted the nanosuspensions based delivery of curcumin. Nanonisation renders curcumin completely dispersible in aqueous media. To enhance the curcumin absorption by oral administration, nanoparticulate solid oral formulation of curcumin was prepared by us and the resulting capsule was then examined for its efficiency on bioavailability in Male Wistar rats at a dose of 100 mg curcumin/kg body weight and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those of normal curcumin powder and a commercial curcumin capsule CUR-500. The bio-distribution of curcumin in organs of rat was also studied. Nanoparticulation significantly raised the curcumin concentration in selective organs in the body. The results obtained provide promising results for nanoparticulate Curcumin to improve its biological activities. Enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the form of nanoparticle is likely to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapeutic agents for treatment of human disease. The available information also strongly suggests that nano-formulation of ingredients such as curcumin may be used as a novel nutrient delivery system too.

Book review on Edible insects: Future prospects for food and feed security  [PDF]
Jurate De Prins
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2014.21008
Abstract: Book review on Edible insects: Future prospects for food and feed security
Bioavailability of Chlorpyrifos in Wheat Plants (Triticum aestivun)  [PDF]
Sylvia V. Copaja, Rosa Vergara, Héctor R. Bravo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.58069

Adsorption processes of chlorpyrifos in two Chilean agro soils (Calera: C; San Esteban: SE) in relation with the bioaccumulation in wheat plants (Triticum aestivun) were studied. RP-HPLC method was developed to determine the chlorpyrifos content in soils, roots and seedling tissues. The two soils showed high adsorption capacity (C = 78%, SE = 92%). The values are not in relation with the contents of organic matter (C = 3.9% and SE = 2.0%) and clay (C = 12.7% and SE = 10.1%) determined in the soils. Persistence and mobility of chlorpyrifos in the soils were estimated from halflife values (Csoil = 23 d, SEsoil = 14 d) and the Guss index (Csoil = 0.89, SEsoil = 0.25) respectively. These values are in the range of non-leaching compounds, and suggest that there should be no pollutant in the ground water. Wheat plants grown in both soils incubated with chlorpyrifos bioaccumulate residues in roots and seedling tissues. Root tissues showed the greatest contents (C = 22.3 mg/k. f. wt; SE = 51.8 mg/kg. f. wt.). Germination and growth of wheat young plants were not inhibited for the contents in the tissues. A relation between the levels of chlorpyrifos residues in the soils and the bioaccumulation in wheat tissues was estimated from the BAI parameter. Values showed that the bioaccumulation is dependent on the residues contents in soils. These results suggest that bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants may be a harmful pollutant for mammals if it remains stable at all growth stage of the plant. Further research should be considered to see if bioavailability in forage and/or grain can occur.

Polyethism in Termites  [PDF]
Ehsan Soleymaninejadian, Zhongji Bao, Shuwen Liu, Shilin Ji, Jiajia Liu
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2014.23020
Abstract: Polyethism or division of works among workers of social insects is always a hot issue among entomologists. Honey bees, ants, and wasps are the main target for scientists to study the division of works. Studying polyethism in termites has been increased recently due to the damages to the forests, buildings, boats and even water preserving monuments. Every year a huge amount of money is spent to control these isopteran social insects in the south east of Asia, the US, Australia and other tropical and subtropical regions. As understanding the polyethism in these social insects can be a hand in controlling them, in this review we have tried to explain different kinds of polyethism and their importance in these social insects.
Contenido y absorción del calcio proveniente de la dieta del noroeste de México: Una retrospectiva bibliográfica
Méndez E.,Rosa Olivia; Wyatt,C. Jane;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2000,
Abstract: content and absorption of calcium in diets of northwestern mexico: a look at the literature. calcium is an essential mineral in humans for growth and development of bones and teeth. in adults, bone activity is limited to maintaining bone mass and in order to do this, an adequate intake of calcium is necessary. the objective of this study was to conduct a review of the information available in the literature on the content and availability of calcium in the diet in northwestern mexico. the diet studies show that the amount of calcium (1164 mg/d) in the diets in northwestern mexico meets the rda for adults 25 or older and that the principal sources of calcium are corn tortillas, wheat flour tortillas and beans. bioavailability of calcium in diets containing these foods increases when small amounts of dairy products are added to the diet. this same difference in the availability of calcium was observed in an in vivo study conducted in young women. we can conclude, based on the studies mentioned, that it is necessary to evaluate the effect of calcium in the diets of northwestern mexico directly in the general population taking into consideration factors that may play a role in maintaining bone structure such as exercise, age, sex.
Bioavailability and Solubility of Different Calcium-Salts as a Basis for Calcium Enrichment of Beverages  [PDF]
Gaby Kressel
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2010.12009
Abstract: Background: When usual calcium consumption patterns were analysed most people in the U.S. and Europe consume less than the recommended daily allowance. Supplements and fortified foods offer alternative and additional sources of calcium to traditional food. Calcium carbonate is the most common supplement but it is less soluble in water and, therefore, not suitable for enrichment of beverages. New organic calcium salts have a better solubility but less is known about their bioavailability. In the present study, we assessed the solubility and bioavailability of the new organic calcium salts, calcium lactate citrate and calcium lactate malate, in comparison to the traditional supplements, calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate. Design: Randomized, single-blind, four way cross-over study comparing single doses of 500 mg calcium in the form of four different calcium-salts. Subjects were advised to consume 25 µg vitamin D3 daily two weeks prior to the start of the study and during the whole study period. Subjects: 20 healthy young men, Methods: Blood samples were drawn immediately before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after ingestion of the calcium preparation. Concentration of total calcium and intact parathyroid hormone were measured in the serum. Urine was collected at baseline and during the intervals 0-3, 3-6, 9-15 and 15-24 h and excretion of calcium, sodium and creatinine was examined. Results: The tested new salts were easily water soluble, significantly better than calcium gluconate. Calcium carbonate is almost insoluble. The bioavailability of the four different calcium salts was found to be almost identical. The maximum total serum calcium increased by 7.6 % two hours after ingestion calcium lactate citrate, by 7.4 % after calcium lactate malate, by 5.5 % after calcium carbonate, and by 5.8 % after calcium gluconate. Intact parathyroid hormone concentration showed the expected depression for calcium lactate citrate, calcium lactate malate and calcium carbonate, whereas the serum level was significantly higher after ingestion of calcium gluconate. Conclusion: Given an almost equivalent bioavailability of the four tested calcium salts, we conclude that the new salts calcium lactate citrate and calcium lactate malate are well suited for fortification of beverages and thus to increase the average daily calcium intake.
The Bioavailability of Vitamin E in Fortified Processed Foods  [PDF]
Inga Schneider, Ute Bindrich, Andreas Hahn
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.33048
Abstract: Objectives: Vitamin E is an important human lipophilic antioxidant and is required for many metabolic functions. A high vitamin E intake appears to favorably impact a variety of disease processes. The vitamin E intake, excluding sup-plemental intake, of the vast majority of adults is below the current recommended level. By consuming vitamin E-enriched food, it is possible to take in adequate amounts of vitamin E. Vitamin E intake from enriched foods might prevent certain diseases without the need to ingest specific vitamin E supplements. The vitamin E that is present in enriched foods has to exhibit maximal bioavailability to ensure a sufficient intake of vitamin E from one portion of fortified food. The aim of the present study was to develop an enriched food that has highly bioavailable vitamin E. Furthermore, we wanted to examine whether vitamin E bioavailability can be affected by the technological properties of fortified food. Methods: Volunteers were given test foods (cream cheese and mayonnaise) that had been fortified with 60 mg of RRR-α-tocopherol. The test foods were technologically modified and the bioavailability of RRR-α-tocopherol was determined via a short-term kinetic measurement, which was 24 h long, and a long-term kinetic measurement, which was 28 d long. The test foods were characterized with respect to matrix properties. Results: In comparison to the mayonnaise group the serum α-tocopherol area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher in the cream cheese group, as shown in the short-term kinetic (p = 0.010) and long-term kinetic (p = 0.017) studies. Conclusions: In conclusion, RRR-α-tocopherol was more bioavailable in cream cheese than in mayonnaise in both short-term and long-term periods. Hence, food matrices affect bioavailability of RRR-α-tocopherol. Fortified foods with proven high α-tocopherol bioavailabilities could be merchandised as functional foods with diseases prevention properties.
Vitamin E Bioavailability: Past and Present Insights  [PDF]
Simona Vagni, Francesca Saccone, Luciano Pinotti, Antonella Baldi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210146
Abstract: Over the past decades several studies have investigated the importance of an adequate vitamin E status to sustain both animal health and production in dairy cows. Cow milk is considered as a remarkable source of bioactive components promoting human health, which has renewed interest in the effects of vitamin E supplementation on its nutritional value, sensory quality and shelf life. Thus, defining relative bioavailability, utilisation and transfer into milk of different vitamin E formulations is particularly important to assess the adequate levels of supplementation for animal health and milk quality. In nature vitamin E is present under one isomeric form, RRR α-tocopherol; when α-tocopherol is synthesized chemically, a racemic mixture of 8 possible isomers of α-tocopherol in equimolar concentrations is produced (all-rac α-tocopherol). The different stereoisomers have different biopotencies in humans and livestock; the conversion factor between RRR and all-rac vitamin E was estimated by early studies on the basis of the rat foetal resorption bioassay, and then extended to other species. Recent advances on the distribution of vitamin E stereoisomers in plasma and tissues have highlighted the need to formulate new conversion factors in dairy cows as well as in humans. On account of this, the present article aims to consider past and recent data related to vitamin E in dairy cow nutrition.
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