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Suppressive effects of saliva against enamel demineralization caused by acid beverages  [PDF]
Shoji Takahashi, Shigeru Watanabe, Takashi Ogihara, Koji Watanabe, Kun Xuan, Xiaojing Wang
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.312123
Abstract: This study aimed to clarify the ability of the buffer systems of saliva to inhibit enamel demineralization after intake of an acid beverage. In the first experiment, titrable acidity tests were carried out. Ten milliliters of saliva stimulated by chewing gum base was obtained from 10 healthy adult subjects and the pH of each saliva sample was measured. The beverages used for the experiment were a carbonated soft drink (pH 2.2), a sports drink (pH 3.5), and 100% orange juice (pH 3.8). Distilled water adjusted to the pH of each saliva sample was used as a control. In the second experiment, the suppressive ability of saliva against enamel demineralization was quantitatively analyzed using quantitative light- induced fluorescence (QLF). Aliquots of stimulated saliva obtained from a subject were mixed with 15 ml of 100% orange juice in saliva:orange juice ratios of 1/30, 1/15, 1/10 and 1/5, and bovine teeth were soaked for 24 hours in the solutions. The △Q of the QLF analyses of the enamel was then measured. The lowest titrant volume which reduced the pH of the initial saliva (7.7 on average) to pH 5.4 was that of the orange juice. No relationship was found between the buffer capacity and the pH of the acid beverages. From the QLF measurement, the saliva-orange juice group showed a significantly decreased amount of enamel demineralization (p < 0.01 at 20% level) compared with the distilled water-orange juice group. In conclusion, saliva acts as a buffer to suppress enamel demineralization caused by low-pH beverages.
Development of a Soy-Based Synbiotic Beverage  [PDF]
Suzana Reis Evangelista, Gislaine Ghiselli, Francisco Maugeri Filho
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.38148
Abstract: Nowadays consumers seek foods that not only provide basic nutrition but also contain compounds that contribute to health. Thus, different products have been designed to meet this demand, especially those with probiotic and prebiotic characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate different formulations of a soy-based synbiotic beverage. The composition and process conditions were defined using a Placket & Burman factorial design in which the independent variables were process temperature, concentrations of the soy hydrosoluble extract and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and the initial concentration of the probiotics Bifidobaterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. Paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Changes to the product by addition of sucrose, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus were also studied. Response parameters were: pH, cell concentration (plate counting), and quantification of fructooligosaccharides, acetic acid and lactic acid. The specific growth rate (μx) and change in cell count (Δx) were determined in each formulation. The soybean hydrosoluble extract was considered a good substrate for beverage production; FOS had a greater effect at lower concentrations. At the end of all fermentation tests the total probiotic count was greater than 7 log CFU/mL, meeting the legal requirements of a functional food. Lower temperatures were better for the growth of probiotics. The addition of sucrose resulted in a lower consumption of FOS by the fermenting microorganisms, while the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus represented little change concerning the evaluated characteristics. Therefore, according to the results of this study, the production of a soy-based symbiotic fermented beverage can be performed using soybean hydrosoluble extract at 10% (w/v), fructooligosaccharides at about 3% (w/v), sucrose at 12% (w/v), and the process temperature should be maintained at 35℃. Initial probiotic concentrations need not exceed 5 × 106 CFU/ml.
Comparison and Quantification of the Development of Phenolic Compounds during the Aging of Cachaça in Oak (Quercus sp) and Amburana (Amburana cearensis) Barrels  [PDF]
Wilder D. Santiago, Maria das G. Cardoso, Juliana de A. Santiago, Marcos S. Gomes, Leonardo M. A. Rodrigues, Rafaela M. Brand?o, Rodolfo R. Cardoso, Gabriel B. d’Avila, Bruno L. da Silva, Alex R. S. Caetano
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521330
Abstract: Aging is a stage of the cachaça production process in which several chemical reactions occur between compounds extracted from the wood and other compounds present on the beverage. In an attempt to establish a profile regarding the chemical characterization of aged cachaças, phenolic compounds have been studied because of the specific characteristics of each wood species and their known antioxidant properties. This work sought to assess and compare the development of 12 phenolic compounds in cachaças aged in oak (Quercus sp) and amburana (Amburana cearenses) barrels during a period of 12 months. There was a progressive increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds in the beverage for both of the types of wood. The principal compounds encountered in the cachaça aged in oak barrels were gallic acid, syringaldehyde and syringic acid, while vanillic acid, syringaldehyde, sinapic acid and gallic acid were isolated from that aged in amburana barrels.
A Comparison of Selected Phytochemical and Antioxidant Potential of Two Tea Beverages  [PDF]
Shantrell Willis, Martha Verghese, Meijah McCollum, Kabreshia Cheatom, Zaquavis Willis, Kevon Seay, Rajitha Sunkara, Lloyd Walker
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.811076
Herbal teas have been used as medicinal aids for centuries to treat a myriad of illnesses and have also been suggested to function in chemoprevention. Having numerous phytochemicals, the purported health benefits of herbal teas may be due to their antioxidant potential. Herbal tea blends infused with spices are increasing in popularity in U.S., and preliminary studies suggest the synergistic effects of combining herbal teas and spices. Some teas that are increasing in popularity include raspberry leaf, strawberry leaf, and hibiscus. The objectives of this study were to determine the antioxidant capacity of tea beverages (herbal (HT) (functional yogurt-based beverage-new product) and Chai (CT) (store bought) and to determine consumer preferences of tea beverages (HT and CT). Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were evaluated in methanolic and aqueous beverage extracts. A functional yogurt-based beverage (HT) was developed and sensory analysis was also conducted using a 5-point hedonic scale comparing consumer preference of HT or CT beverages. The highest phenolic content was observed in CT aqueous extracts (AQ) (500 mg GAE/g), all other extracts had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower phenolic content. CTAQ had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher flavonoid content compared to all other extracts (1.7 mg CAE/g). The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in HT methanolic extracts (ME) (44.48% inhibition). The lowest DPPH radical scavenging was observed in HTAQ (21.88% inhibition). Approximately 61% of sensory panelists gave the yogurt-based developed product a rank of 4 or greater (on a 5-point hedonic scale) with 41% of panelists preferring the HT beverage over CT beverage. The results of this study suggest that a combination of herbal teas and spices may benefit consumers by improving their antioxidant status and may have potential as a functional-beverage.
Caracteriza??o e quantifica??o de contaminantes em aguardentes de cana
Zacaroni, Lidiany Mendon?a;Cardoso, Maria das Gra?as;Saczk, Adelir Aparecida;Santiago, Wilder D.;Anjos, Jeancarlo Pereira dos;Masson, José;Duarte, Felipe C.;Nelson, David Lee;
Química Nova , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422011000200026
Abstract: the objective of the present study was the evaluation of the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants in samples of aged cacha?a from the south of the state of minas gerais. furfural, methanol and copper were determined by colorimetric reactions, while the analyses of ethyl carbamate and acrolein were performed by gc/ms and hplc, respectively. high levels of furfural and copper were obtained. all samples showed concentrations below the established by legislation for the ethyl carbamate, and for acrolein, only one sample showed higher levels. methanol was not detected in the samples.
Tu??e Orkun,Gülgün Ersoy
Beden Egitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 2010,
Abstract: Milk; is seen as the promising beverage which is on the way of becoming the great alternative recovery beverage after the endurance exercise. Limited number of research results indicates that milk is an effective beverage for re-synthesis of glycogen and effective as commercial sports drinks on increasing the performance and simplifying the recovery. In addition to this,milk is an effective beverage that recovers the dehydration which occurs during the exercise in hot environment. More researches about this topic, helps to better understanding that how milk increase recovery after the exercise and how it affects the physiological mechanisms.
Optimization of Extrusion Process for Producing High Antioxidant Instant Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Flour Using Response Surface Methodology  [PDF]
Jorge Milán-Carrillo, Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez, Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado, Xiomara Perales-Sánchez, Cuauhtémoc Reyes-Moreno
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330211
Abstract: The objective of this research was to determine the best combination of extrusion process variables for the production of a high antioxidant extruded amaranth flour (EAF) suitable to elaborate a nutraceutical beverage. Extrusion operation conditions were obtained from a factorial combination of process variables: Extrusion temperature (ET, 70℃ - 130?℃) and screw speed (SS, 100 - 220 rpm). Response surface methodology was employed as optimization technique; both the numeric and graphical methods were applied to obtain maximum values for response variables [Antioxidant capacity (AoxC) and water solubility index (WSI)]. The best combination of extrusion process variables was: Extrusion tem- perature (ET) = 130℃/Screw speed (SS) = 124 rpm. The raw amaranth flour (RAF) and optimized extruded amaranth flour (EAF) had an antioxidant activity of 3475 and 3903 μmol Trolox equivalents/100 g sample (dw), respectively. A 200 mL portion of the beverage prepared with 22 g of optimized EAF contained 3.16 g proteins, 1.09 g lipids, 17.39 g carbohydrates and 92 kcal. This portion covers 25.3% and 16.9% of the daily protein requirements for children 1-3 and 4 - 8 years old, respectively. A 200 mL portion of the beverage from optimized EAF contributes with 15.5% - 25.5% of the recommended daily intake for antioxidants, respectively. The nutraceutical beverage was evaluated with an average acceptability of 8.4 (level of satisfaction between “I like it” and “I like it extremely”) and could be used for health promotion and disease prevention as an alternative to beverages with low nutritional/nutraceutical value.
Correlation between Non-Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Alcohol Drinking Behavior among Japanese Youths  [PDF]
Motoyoshi Kubo, Yuji Nozu, Chie Kataoka, Masako Kudo, Shiori Taniguchi, Yuki Sato, Naoko Nakayama, Motoi Watanabe
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.52004
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the consumption of non-alcoholic beverages (such as non-alcoholic beer, non-alcoholic cocktails, and non-alcoholic wine) and alcohol drinking behavior among Japanese youths. Data from the Japan Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011 were analyzed. The study subjects were 9775 high school students (5026 males and 4749 females) randomly selected from the 10th to the 12th grade in 102 high schools throughout Japan. The results indicated that the percentage of youths who had consumed non-alcoholic beverages was 25.8% among males (11.5%: “one time”; 14.3%: “two or more times”) and 26.1% among females (12.2%: “one time”; 13.9%: “two or more times”), which suggested that at least one in four Japanese high school students had consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Those students that had consumed non-alcoholic beverages were at a significantly higher risk for alcohol-related behaviors, including “ever drank alcohol”, “current alcohol use”, “current frequent alcohol use”, and “chugging”, when compared with students who had never consumed non-alcoholic beverages. The risk for alcohol-related behaviors was higher for students who had consumed non-alcoholic beverages two or more times than for those who had consumed them one time. Specifically, the odds ratio for “ever drank alcohol” in the “one time” group was 5.16 (95% CI: 4.22 - 6.30) for males and 4.27 (95% CI: 3.53 - 5.16) for females, while it was markedly high for those in the “two or more times” group, with males at 9.78 (95% CI: 7.88 - 12.14) and females at 7.59 (95% CI: 6.20 - 9.29). The results of this study suggest that it is necessary to continuously ascertain the prevalence of non-alcoholic beverage consumption among Japanese youths. In addition, alcohol drinking prevention in youths requires attention be paid not only to their consumption of alcoholic beverages, but also to their consumption of non-alcoholic beverages.
Development of Rhizoma Gastrodiae Milk Beverage

武玉祥, 龙汉武, 王芳, 文平, 刘贵周, 贾强
Hans Journal of Food and Nutrition Science (HJFNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.12677/HJFNS.2015.44017
The test used rhizoma gastrodiae and milk as main raw material, and the main influencing factors to the quality of rhizoma gastrodiae milk beverage were optimized by L9(34) orthogonal experiment design. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows: The product consisting of 6% rhizoma gastrodiae juice, 35% milk and 6% sugar had the best quality and flavor with a sensory score of 90.
Analysis of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Effluents from Beverage Industry in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Birhanu Hayelom Abrha, Yingjun Chen
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.56016
Abstract: Beverage industries are one of the most polluting industries producing huge amount of wastewater effluents. These industries have been recognized to cause pollution by discharging effluent into receiving environment especially to the nearby rivers. The aim of this study is to determine the status of waste water effluent discharge of beverage industry in Ethiopia. Samples were collected from 8 beverage industries’ wastewater effluent discharge end pipe and examined for different physico-Chemical parameters such as: COD, BOD5, TSS, ammonia, total nitrogen, PH and phosphate. The observed values were ranged between 9 - 397.5 mg/L for TSS, 0.185 - 69.7 mg/l for phosphate, 0.265 - 71 mg/l for ammonia, 226 - 1975 mg/l for COD, 15 - 576 mg/L for BOD, 4 - 86.6 mg/l for total nitrogen and 5.21 - 12.37 for PH. The finding of the study revealed that most of the beverage industries were extremely high amount of total suspended solids (TSS), BOD and COD effluent discharge were found above the Ethiopian beverage industry effluent discharge limit value. Half of the sampled beverage industries’ effluent discharge of PH, total nitrogen, ammonia and phosphate were found within the limit value while the rest of the industries are still discharging their effluent above the national standard limit value. The continuous discharge of effluents into rivers without any additional treatment raises the level of pollution and toxicity, which have significantly adverse impact on the aquatic environment.
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